[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Anticardiolipin antibodies (aCL) in the sera of patients with antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) recognize an altered structure of β2-glycoprotein I (β2-GPI) interacting with solid-phase negatively charged phospholipids. β2-GPI bound to Cu2+-oxidized plasma lipoproteins, i.e. oxidized very low-density lipoprotein (oxVLDL), oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL), or oxidized high-density lipoprotein (oxHDL). β2-GPI inhibited in vitro uptake, i.e. cell surface binding, cellular association, and proteolytic degradation of oxLDL by murine macrophage J774A.1 cells. The binding of oxLDL to the macrophages was inhibited by the addition of polyinosinic acid (poly (I)), a competitor of the scavenger receptor, but not by another polyanionic acid, polycytidylic acid (poly (C)). Conversely, the binding of oxLDL was significantly increased by the simultaneous addition of human β2-GPI and monoclonal aCL derived from NZW × BXSB F1 (WB F1) mice, an animal model of APS, or anti-β-GPI antibodies from BALB/c mice immunized with human β2-GPI. These findings indicate that β2-GPI may be an anti-atherogenic protein and that the autoimmune response against β2-GPI may have a role in the development of atherosclerosis in APS.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and diabetes mellitus (DM). N epsilon-carboxymethyllysine (CML) is an advanced glycation end product (AGE) recently found to be associated with oxidative stress mechanisms. Using immunocytochemical methods we examined the distribution of CML in brain tissue from AD and DM subjects and aging controls. CML reactivity was present in the cytoplasm of neurons, but there were marked differences in the intensity of expression, number of cells, and topographical distribution. CML expression was higher in hippocampus than in frontal and temporal cortex. In the hippocampus, neuronal and, to an extent, glial expression was more marked in CA3 and CA4 than in CA1 and CA2. In AD, CML was found to be coexpressed with tau protein, showing the similar neurofibrillary tangle shape, as well as in neuritic plaques but not in the core of amyloid plaques. We noted an increasing degree of CML expression such that the highest reactivity was evident in those with both AD and DM, followed by AD, DM, and aging controls. There was an inverse relationship between Braak staging and topography of CML expression. Although DM cases did not show Abeta deposition or neurofibrillary tangles, these findings suggest increased CML expression is not limited to AD. Nonetheless, high CML expression in AD with coexistent DM suggests there are additive effects compared with AD alone. It is plausible that the microangiopathy also associated with DM could worsen AD pathogenesis.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2004 · Free Radical Biology and Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Advanced glycation end product (AGE) engagement of a cell surface receptor for AGE (RAGE) has been implicated in the development of diabetic complications. In this study, we determined the RAGE mRNA levels in monocytes from type 1 diabetic patients and analyzed their relationship with diabetic vascular complications. Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis revealed that the monocyte expression of RAGE mRNA was significantly lower in patients with retinopathy than in those without retinopathy and was also significantly down-regulated in patients with nephropathy in comparison with those without nephropathy. Experiments with monocyte-enriched cultures revealed that RAGE mRNA and protein levels were down-regulated by the exposure to glyceraldehyde-derived AGE-the recently identified high-affinity RAGE ligand. Accordingly, we then assayed for the serum levels of glyceraldehyde-derived AGE as well as those of carboxymethyllysine (CML)-the known RAGE ligand and related them to the monocyte levels of RAGE mRNA. This screen revealed a negative correlation between the two parameters. The results thus suggest that the decrease in monocyte RAGE expression can be at least partly accounted for by the ligand engagement and may be a factor contributing to the development of diabetic vascular complications.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2004 · Journal of Diabetes and its Complications
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Glycation, one of the post-translational modifications of proteins, is a nonenzymatic reaction initiated by the primary addition of a sugar aldehyde or ketone to the amino groups of proteins. In the early stage of glycation, the synthesis of intermediates leading to the formation of Amadori compounds occurs. In the late stage, advanced glycation end products (AGE) are irreversibly formed after a complex cascade of reactions. Several AGEs have been characterized chemically, while other new compounds remain to be identified. To date, studies of the contribution of glycation to diseases have been primarily focused on its relationship to diabetes and diabetes-related complications. However, glucose-induced damage is not limited to diabetic patients. Although it does not cause rapid or remarkable cell damage, glycation advances slowly and accompanies every fundamental process of cellular metabolism. It has recently become clear that glycation also affects physiological aging and neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Glycation alters the biological activity of proteins and their degradation processes. Protein cross-linking by AGE results in the formation of detergent-insoluble and protease-resistant aggregates. Such aggregates may interfere with both axonal transport and intracellular protein traffic in neurons. In addition, glycation reactions lead to the production of reactive oxygen species. Conversely, glycation is promoted by oxidative stress. We speculate on the presence of synergism between glycation and oxidative stress. In this review, we provide an outline of glycation and propose some possible mechanisms of its cytotoxicity and defense systems against it.
Preview · Article · Apr 2003 · Brain Research Reviews
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The binding of advanced glycation end-products (AGE) to the receptor for AGE (RAGE) is known to deteriorate various cell functions and is implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetic vascular complications. In the present study, we show that the cellular constituents of small vessels, endothelial cells (EC) and pericytes express novel splice variants of RAGE mRNA coding for the isoforms that lack the N-terminal V-type immunoglobulin-like domain (N-truncated) or the C-terminal transmembrane domain (C-truncated), as well as the known full-length mRNA. The ratio of the expression of the three variants was different between EC and pericytes; the content of the C-truncated form was highest in EC, whereas the full-length form was the most abundant in pericytes. Transfection experiments with COS-7 cells demonstrated that those variant mRNAs were translated into proteins as deduced; C-truncated RAGE was efficiently secreted into the culture media, and N-truncated RAGE was located mainly on the plasma membrane. The three isoforms were also detected in primary cultured human EC and pericytes. Further, full-length and C-truncated forms of RAGE bound to an AGE-conjugated column, whereas N-truncated RAGE did not. The AGE induction of extracellular-signal-related kinase phosphorylation and vascular endothelial growth factor in EC and of the growth and cord-like structure formation of EC was abolished completely by C-truncated RAGE, indicating that this endogenous secretory receptor (endogenous secretory RAGE) is cytoprotective against AGE. The results may contribute to our understanding of the molecular basis for the diversity of cellular responses to AGE and for individual variations in the susceptibility to diabetic vascular complications.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Proteasomal dysfunction has been implicated in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). We examined the effect of a selective proteasomal inhibitor, epoxomicin, on primary cultured mesencephalic neurons. Exposing rat cultured mesencephalic neurons to epoxomicin for 24 h resulted in neurotoxicity in a dose-dependent manner. Epoxomicin caused mitochondrial dysfunction, reduction in reduced glutathione (GSH), and increased generation of free radicals. Neuronal damage was significantly blocked by antioxidative/GSH-augmenting agents. Epoxomicin also increased the expression of Bax and decreased that of Bcl-2, which may cause mitochondrial dysfunction and release of free radicals. Dopaminergic neurons were preferentially resistant to the toxicity of epoxomicin. Inhibiting the synthesis of tetrahydrobiopterin (BH(4)), which has been reported to have antioxidative function, increased the susceptibility of dopaminergic neurons, whereas increasing BH(4) levels protected non-dopaminergic neurons. These findings suggest that BH(4) is at least in part a contributing factor to grand the resistance to dopaminergic neurons against epoxomicin neurotoxicity. Our results suggest that proteasome inhibition causes the neurotoxicity in mesencephalic neurons, but that is not sufficient to reproduce the selective damage to dopaminergic neurons, such as that seen in PD.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We investigated whether serum levels of N-(carboxymethyl)lysine (CML), non-CML advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs), or pentosidine are associated with severity of diabetic microvascular complications in patients with Type 1 diabetes. Serum levels of CML, non-CML AGE, and pentosidine were measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 38 males and 47 females aged 31+/-8 years (mean+/-S.D.) with Type 1 diabetes for 18.7+/-7.0 years. There was a significant correlation between serum levels of CML or non-CML AGE and current HbA(1c) level (P<.01 and P<.05, respectively). The serum levels of non-CML AGE, but not CML or pentosidine, were significantly increased as normal renal status advanced to microalbuminuria, clinical nephropathy, and hemodialysis (P<.0001) and were positively correlated with urinary albumin excretion (UAE) in patients with Type 1 diabetes (P<.0001). A significant elevation of serum non-CML AGE was found in association with the severity of diabetic retinopathy (P<.0001). We found in the present study that CML levels were also increased in the stage of simple retinopathy, the early stage of clinically evident retinopathy (P<.05). Serum levels of non-CML AGE were significantly associated with the severity of diabetic nephropathy and retinopathy, suggesting a role of non-CML AGE in the progression of microvascular complications in patients with Type 1 diabetes. Since serum levels of CML were significantly increased in patients with simple retinopathy, CML may participate in the initiation of diabetic retinopathy.
No preview · Article · Feb 2003 · Journal of Diabetes and its Complications
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We previously have found that advanced glycation end products (AGE), senescent macroproteins formed at an accelerated rate in diabetes, arise in vivo not only from glucose but also from reducing sugars. Furthermore, we recently have shown that glyceraldehyde- and glycolaldehyde-derived AGE (glycer- and glycol-AGE) are mainly involved in loss of pericytes, the earliest histopathological hallmark of diabetic retinopathy. However, the effects of these AGE proteins on angiogenesis, another vascular derangement in diabetic retinopathy, remain to be elucidated. In this study, we investigated whether these AGE proteins elicit changes in cultured endothelial cells that are associated with angiogenesis. When human skin microvascular endothelial cells (EC) were cultured with glycer-AGE or glycol-AGE, growth and tube formation of EC, the key steps of angiogenesis, were significantly stimulated. The AGE-induced growth stimulation was significantly enhanced in AGE receptor (RAGE)-overexpressed EC. Furthermore, AGE increased transcriptional activity of nuclear factor-kB (NF-kB) and activator protein-1 (AP-1) and then up-regulated mRNA levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2) in EC. Cerivastatin, a hydroxymethylglutaryl CoA reductase inhibitor; pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate; or curcumin was found to completely prevent the AGE-induced increase in NF-kB and AP-1 activity, VEGF mRNA up-regulation, and the resultant increase in DNA synthesis in microvascular EC. These results suggest that the AGE-RAGE interaction elicited angiogenesis through the transcriptional activation of the VEGF gene via NF-kB and AP-1 factors. By blocking AGE-RAGE signaling pathways, cerivastatin might be a promising remedy for treating patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2003 · The FASEB Journal
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Apoptotic macrophages are frequently observed in human atherosclerotic lesions, and are considered to be involved in plaque instability in atherosclerosis. However, the molecular mechanism that promotes programmed cell death of macrophages in atherosclerosis remains to be elucidated. In this study, we investigated the effects of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), a cytokine secreted by activated T helper 1 (Th1) lymphocytes, on apoptotic cell death of THP-1 macrophages. Further we studied whether these apoptotic macrophages could be simultaneously activated in vitro and subsequently overgenerate monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1). When THP-1 macrophages were cultured with various concentrations of IFN-gamma, DNA synthesis was significantly decreased. IFN-gamma was found significantly to induce apoptotic cell death in THP-1 macrophages. RNase protection assay revealed that IFN-gamma up-regulated the mRNA levels of two pro-apoptotic molecules, tumor necrosis factor-alpha receptor 1 (TNFR1) and caspase-8, in THP-1 cells. Furthermore, TNF-alpha antibodies were found completely to neutralize the IFN-gamma-induced inhibition in DNA synthesis as well as apoptotic cell death in macrophages. IFN-gamma was found to activate these macrophages to stimulate MCP-1 production. The results suggest that IFN-gamma not only exerted apoptotic effects on macrophages, but also activated them and subsequently overgenerated MCP-1, and was thus involved in the development and progression of atherosclerosis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Diabetic nephropathy is a leading cause of end-stage renal disease in industrialized countries. Previous studies have documented that angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors consistently reduce albuminuria and retard the progression of diabetic nephropathy. However, the involvement of angiotensin II in diabetic nephropathy is not fully understood.
In this study we compared the effects of CS-866, a new angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonist, to that of an ACE inhibitor, temocapril hydrochloride, on the development and progression of diabetic nephropathy using Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima fatty rats, a type II diabetes mellitus model animal.
High doses of CS-866 or temocapril treatment were found to significantly improve urinary protein and beta(2)-microglobulin excretions in diabetic rats. In electron microscopic analysis, loss of glomerular anionic sites, one of the causes of glomerular hyperpermeability in diabetic nephropathy, was found to be significantly prevented by CS-866 treatment. Light microscopic examinations revealed that both treatments ameliorated glomerular sclerosis and tubulointerstitial injury in diabetic rats. Furthermore, high doses of CS-866 or temocapril treatment significantly reduced the positive stainings for transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta), vascular endothelial growth factor, and type IV collagen in glomeruli of diabetic rats.
These results indicate that intrarenal angiotensin II type 1 receptor activation plays a dominant role in the development and progression of diabetic nephropathy. Our study suggests that CS-866 represents a valuable new drug for the treatment of diabetic patients with nephropathy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have previously shown that engagement by advanced glycation end products (AGE) of the receptor for AGE (RAGE) leads to endothelial cell (EC) and pericyte deterioration characteristic of diabetic vasculopaphy. Recently, AGE have been shown to be generated not only from glucose but also from short chain aldehydes. We examined the ability of these new AGE fractions to bind RAGE and to affect human vascular cells. Purified human endogenous soluble RAGE was coupled to a sensor chip of a BIAcore surface plasmon resonance system, onto which each AGE fraction was applied. This assay demonstrated that out of six distinct AGE fractions, AGE 1, 2 and 3 derived from glucose, glyceraldehyde and glycolaldehyde, respectively, bound to RAGE, and that AGE 2 and 3 had higher binding activity than AGE 1. The binding of 125I-labeled AGE 2 and 3 on RAGE-overexpressing COS-7 cells was also detected with Kd values similar to those disclosed by the BIAcore assay. The AGE fractions increased VEGF mRNA levels in human endothelial cells as well as the viable cell number and DNA synthesis. AGE 2 and 3 significantly decreased pericyte synthesis of DNA at lower concentrations than AGE 1. These results indicated that AGE 2 and 3 are new RAGE ligands and, which may participate in vascular injury in diabetes.
No preview · Article · Nov 2002 · International Congress Series
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We examined the effect of a Schiff base adduct (PL–AG) between aminoguanidine (AG) and pyridoxal on the severity of nephropathy in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice using an anti-advanced glycation end product antibody. We also assessed the in vitro antioxidant activity of AG and PL–AG. Neither drug altered glycemic control. AG significantly lessened the increase in glomerular volume, fractional mesangial volume, and glomerular basement thickness, but did not alter the urinary albumin excretion (UAE). On the other hand, PL–AG significantly improved UAE. The antioxidant activity of PL–AG was superior to that of AG in all evaluation methods we employed. The findings suggest that PL–AG is superior to AG for the treatment of diabetic complications because it not only prevents vitamin B6 deficiency, but also is better at controlling diabetic nephropathy. The preventive effect of this adduct against diabetic nephropathy would be mediated via inhibition of both oxidative stress and glycation.
No preview · Article · Nov 2002 · International Congress Series
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tumor cells maintain an especially high glycolytic rate to supply the anabolic precursors essential for de novo nucleotide synthesis. We recently cloned an inducible isozyme of 6-phosphofructo-2 kinase (iPFK-2) that bears an oncogene-like regulatory element in its mRNA and functions to produce fructose-2,6-bisphosphate, which is a powerful allosteric activator of glycolysis. Rapidly proliferating cancer cells constitutively express iPFK-2 in vitro, and inhibition of iPFK-2 expression decreases tumor growth in experimental animal models. We report herein that the expression of iPFK-2 mRNA and protein, as assessed by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry, is increased in many human cancers when compared with corresponding normal tissues. In particular, iPFK-2 expression was found to be markedly elevated in multiple aggressive primary neoplasms, including colon, breast, ovarian, and thyroid carcinomas. iPFK-2 mRNA and protein expression were induced by hypoxia in cultured human colon adenocarcinoma cells, and an examination of normal lung fibroblasts showed that iPFK-2 and fructose-2,6-bisphosphate levels increased specifically during the S phase of the cell cycle. These data indicate that iPFK-2 is abundantly expressed in human tumors in situ and may serve as an essential regulator of glycolysis during cell cycle progression and growth in an hypoxic microenvironment.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Long-standing diabetes causes cardiovascular complications including direct cardiac muscle weakening known as diabetic cardiomyopathy. This is characterized by disturbances in both cardiac contraction and relaxation, which are maintained by calcium homeostasis in cardiac cells. Our recent in vitro and in vivo studies have shown that advanced glycation endproducts (AGE) account for diabetic vasculopathy through their engagement of the receptor for AGE (RAGE). Here we show that AGE and RAGE may directly affect the myocardial Ca(2+) homeostasis. We created transgenic mice that overexpressed human RAGE in the heart and analyzed the Ca(2+) transients in cultivated cardiac myocytes (CM) from the RAGE-transgenic and non-transgenic control fetuses. RAGE overexpression was found to reduce the systolic and diastolic intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)). Exposure to AGE caused a significant prolongation of the decay time of [Ca(2+)](i) in CM from control mice, and this response was augmented in CM from the RAGE transgenic mice. The results suggest that the AGE and RAGE could play an active role in the development of diabetes-induced cardiac dysfunction.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2002 · Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Beraprost sodium, a prostaglandin I2 analogue, has been recently reported to exhibit beneficial effects on atherosclerosis in patients with diabetes. However, effects of beraprost sodium on microvascular injury in diabetes remain to be elucidated. We have previously shown that advanced glycation end products (AGE), senescent macroproteins formed at an accelerated rate in diabetes, caused pericyte apoptosis, thus being involved in the pathogenesis of the early phase of diabetic retinopathy. In this study, we examined whether beraprost sodium can protect against AGE-induced cytotoxicity in cultured retinal pericytes.
Intracellular formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was detected using a fluorescent probe. DNA synthesis was determined by measuring [3H]thymidine incorporation into cells. Apoptosis was determined by DNA fragmentations, which were quantitatively measured in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.
Beraprost sodium or forskolin, a stimulator of adenylate cyclase, was found to significantly inhibit AGE-induced ROS generation and the subsequent decrease in DNA synthesis in pericytes. Both treatments significantly prevented AGE-induced apoptotic cell death in pericytes. Furthermore, beraprost sodium was found to down-regulate AGE receptor mRNA levels in pericytes.
The results demonstrated that cyclic AMP-elevating agents such as beraprost sodium and forskolin protected retinal pericytes from AGE-induced cytotoxicity through its anti-oxidative properties. Our present study suggests that beraprost sodium may have therapeutic potentials in treatment of patients with early diabetic retinopathy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) has recently been shown to be the most potent inhibitor of angiogenesis in the mammalian eye, suggesting that loss of PEDF is involved in the pathogenesis of proliferative diabetic retinopathy. However, a protective role for PEDF in pericyte loss in early diabetic retinopathy remains to be elucidated. In this study, we investigated whether PEDF proteins could protect against advanced glycation end product (AGE)-induced injury in retinal pericytes. Ligand blot analysis revealed that pericytes possessed a membrane protein with binding affinity for PEDF. PEDF proteins were found to significantly inhibit AGE-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and the subsequent decrease in DNA synthesis and apoptotic cell death in pericytes. Further, PEDF proteins completely restored the down-regulation of bcl-2 gene expression in AGE-exposed pericytes. The results demonstrated that PEDF proteins protected cultured pericytes from AGE-induced cytotoxicity through its anti-oxidative properties. Our present study suggests that substitution of PEDF proteins may be a promising strategy in treatment of patients with early diabetic retinopathy.
Preview · Article · Sep 2002 · Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aminoguanidine inhibits the formation of advanced glycation end-products, and has been extensively examined in animals. However, administration of aminoguanidine decreases the hepatic content of pyridoxal phosphate. In order to avoid this problem, we developed an aminoguanidine pyridoxal Schiff base adduct and examined its efficacy in vitro as well as in a model of diabetic nephropathy. Mice with streptozotocin-induced diabetes were treated with aminoguanidine or aminoguanidine pyridoxal adduct for 9 weeks. An in vitro study was also performed to assess the antioxidant activity of aminoguanidine and its pyridoxal adduct. Neither drug altered glycemic control. Aminoguanidine pyridoxal adduct significantly improved urinary albumin excretion by 78.1 % compared with the diabetic control, and also had a better preventive effect on the progression of renal pathology than aminoguanidine did. Inhibition of glycation by both drugs was similar, but the antioxidant activity of the pyridoxal adduct was far superior. These findings suggest that aminoguanidine pyridoxal adduct may be superior to aminoguanidine, as it not only prevents vitamin B6 deficiency but is also better at controlling diabetic nephropathy, as this adduct inhibits oxidation as well as glycation.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2002 · Hormone and Metabolic Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: N(epsilon)-(carboxymethyl)lysine (CML) is an advanced glycation end product formed by non-enzymatic glycation and oxidation of proteins. The distribution pattern of CML-modified proteins in normal and osteoarthritic (OA) cartilage was investigated using specific antibodies. In healthy articular cartilage, immunoreactivity for CML was preferably found in the extracellular matrix (ECM) of the superficial layer. In OA samples, CML immunoreactivity was not restricted to the ECM of the superficial layer. Interestingly, OA chondrocytes showed a remarkable cytoplasmic immunoreactivity for CML. With the help of a western blot analysis CML-modified proteins between 68 and 39 kDa could be demonstrated in OA cartilage samples. These results suggest that the accumulation of CML adducts contributes to the matrix damage in osteoarthritis. Therefore, the inhibition of CML accumulation may represent an effective therapeutic strategy to prevent severe OA cartilage injury.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to assess the pathological role of advanced glycation end products (AGE) and the receptor for AGE (RAGE) in Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD). We immunohistochemically investigated the occipital lobe of three patients with CJD containing with prion protein (PrP) plaques using anti-AGE and RAGE antibodies. Many PrP-positive plaques were observed in these patients, and the PrP-positive prion plaques also showed immunoreactivity for the anti-AGE antibody. Furthermore, many astrocytes contained-PrP positive granules, and the same astrocytes also contained many AGE- and RAGE-immunopositive granules. The staining pattern of these granules showed good concordance with that of PrP. These findings suggest that there may be a RAGE-mediated PrP degradation pathway in CJD as is the case for beta-amyloid protein in Alzheimer's disease.
No preview · Article · Jul 2002 · Neuroscience Letters