[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To compare the diagnostic accuracy of the Matrix frequency-doubling technology (FDT) 24-2, first-generation FDT N-30 (FDT N-30), and standard automated perimetry (SAP) tests of visual function.
One eye of each of 85 glaucoma patients and 81 healthy controls from the Diagnostic Innovations in Glaucoma Study was included. Evidence of glaucomatous optic neuropathy on stereophotographs was used to classify the eyes. Matrix FDT 24-2, first-generation FDT N-30, and SAP-SITA 24-2 tests were performed on all participants within 3 months. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were generated and used to determine sensitivity levels at 80% and 90% specificity for mean deviation (MD), pattern standard deviation (PSD), number of total deviation (TD), and pattern deviation (PD) points triggered at less than 5% and 1%. The tests were compared using the best parameter for each test (that with the highest area under the ROC curve) and with the PSD.
The best parameters were MD for SAP (0.680), PSD for FDT N-30 (0.733), and number of TD less than 5% points for FDT 24-2 (0.774). Using the best parameter, the area under the ROC curve was significantly larger for FDT 24-2 than for SAP (P = 0.01). No statistically significant differences were observed between SAP and FDT N-30 (P = 0.21) and FDT N-30 and FDT 24-2 (P = 0.26). Similar results were obtained when the PSD was used to compare the tests, with the exception that the area under the ROC curve for the FDT N-30 test (0.733) was significantly larger than that of the SAP-SITA (0.641; P = 0.03).
The performance of the Matrix FDT 24-2 was similar to that of the first-generation FDT N-30. The Matrix FDT 24-2 test was consistently better than SAP at discriminating between healthy and glaucomatous eyes. Further studies are needed to evaluate the ability of the Matrix FDT 24-2 to monitor glaucoma progression.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To compare the relationships between optic nerve structural measures and visual function, as well as the diagnostic sensitivity for glaucoma detection between the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) and neuroretinal rim measurements.
A total of 101 normal and 156 glaucomatous eyes of 257 enrolled subjects were examined. RNFL thickness was measured by optical coherence tomography, and the neuroretinal rim (rim area, rim/disc area, and rim volume) was measured with a confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope. The relationship between the structural measures and visual field sensitivity was evaluated with linear and non-linear-regression (quadratic and logarithmic) models. The coefficient of determination (R2) was calculated, and the regression models were compared with Alkaike's information criteria and the F test. The diagnostic sensitivity for glaucoma detection in each structural measure was determined by the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC).
The relationship of the RNFL, rim area, rim/disc area, and rim volume with visual function was best described with nonlinear regression models (quadratic regression for the RNFL [R2 = 0.383]), rim area [R2 = 0.303]), and rim/disc area [R2 = 0.265]; and logarithmic regression for rim volume [R2 = 0.175]). The change of visual sensitivity at each level of structural damage was highest for the RNFL. The AUC for the RNFL also was higher than the neuroretinal rim measures. In this study population, at 90% specificity, the diagnostic sensitivities for detecting glaucomatous damage was 82.7%, 67.3%, 67.3%, and 52.6% for the RNFL, rim area, rim/disc area, and rim volume, respectively. (These values would apply only to a group with inclusion criteria and disease severity similar to those of the present cohort.)
The RNFL showed a stronger structure-function association and a higher diagnostic sensitivity for glaucoma detection than did the neuroretinal rim.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To assess the effects of study design and spectrum bias on the evaluation of diagnostic accuracy of confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (CSLO) in glaucoma.
Analysis 1 included 67 eyes with glaucomatous visual field loss and 56 eyes of normal volunteers. Estimates of diagnostic accuracy in this analysis were compared to those obtained from analysis 2, which included a cohort of patients with suspected glaucoma, but without visual field loss at the time of CSLO imaging. For analysis 2, 40 eyes with progressive glaucomatous optic disc change were included in the glaucoma group and 43 eyes without any evidence of progressive damage to the optic nerve that were observed untreated for an average time of 9.01 +/- 3.09 years were included in the normal group. Areas under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves (AUC) were used to evaluate diagnostic accuracy of CSLO parameters.
There was a statistically significant difference between the performance of the parameter with largest AUC, discriminant function Bathija, in analysis 1 (AUC = 0.91) compared with its performance in analysis 2 (AUC = 0.71; P = 0.002). For the contour-line-independent parameter glaucoma probability score, a statistically significant difference was also observed in the performance obtained in analysis 1 (AUC = 0.89) compared with analysis 2 (AUC = 0.65; P < 0.001).
Estimates of diagnostic accuracy of CSLO in glaucoma can be largely different depending on the population studied and the reference standard used to define disease. Diagnostic accuracy estimates obtained from case-control studies including well-defined groups of subjects with or without disease may not be applicable to the clinically relevant population.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To assess agreement between structural and functional testing in classifying eyes as normal or abnormal and their repeatability on two consecutive visits by means of standard automated perimetry (SAP) and confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy.
Analysis of selected data obtained from a prospective longitudinal observational cohort study, the Diagnostic Innovations in Glaucoma Study.
One hundred fifty-one participants with a SAP and a Heidelberg Retina Tomograph (HRT) test within a three-month window at two visits within 15 months were included. Eyes were classified by SAP and HRT at each visit. Agreement and repeatability were assessed by kappa statistics.
At visit 1, 33 (22%) of 151 eyes had only SAP defects, 11 (7%) eyes had only HRT defects, and 35 (23%) eyes had both SAP and HRT defects. Seventy-two eyes (48%) were classified as normal by both tests. Similar results were obtained for visit 2. The agreement between SAP and HRT in classifying eyes was 70% (kappa = 0.393) at visit one and 68% (kappa = 0.363) at visit 2. Repeatability of classification by SAP alone, HRT alone, and both SAP and HRT between visits 1 and 2 was 84% (kappa = 0.693), 89% (kappa = 0.752), and 90% (kappa = 0.723), respectively.
Agreement between SAP and HRT was only fair at both visits. Repeatability across visits was substantial for SAP alone, HRT alone, and for the combination of SAP and HRT. These results suggest that detection of particular features of glaucomatous damage depends on the technique used. Structural and functional tests appear complementary, and both should be used for early detection of glaucoma.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2006 · American Journal of Ophthalmology