Nicholas A Kartsonis

University of Nottingham, Nottigham, England, United Kingdom

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Publications (56)344.99 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Background: Antifungal prophylaxis with a new oral tablet formulation of posaconazole may be beneficial to patients at high risk for invasive fungal disease. A two-part (Phase 1B/3) study evaluated posaconazole tablet pharmacokinetics (PK) and safety. Methods: Patients with neutropenia following chemotherapy for haematological malignancy or recipients of allogeneic HSCT receiving prophylaxis or treatment for graft-versus-host disease received 300 mg posaconazole (as tablets) once daily (twice daily on day 1) for up to 28 days without regard to food intake. Weekly trough PK sampling was performed during therapy, and a subset of patients had sampling on days 1 and 8. Cmin-evaluable subjects received ≥6 days of dosing, and were compliant with specified sampling timepoints. Steady-state PK parameters, safety, clinical failure and survival to day 65 were assessed., NCT01777763; EU Clinical Trials Register, EUDRA-CT 2008-006684-36. Results: Two hundred and ten patients received 300 mg posaconazole (as tablets) once daily. Among Cmin-evaluable subjects (n = 186), steady-state mean Cmin was 1720 ng/mL (range = 210-9140). Steady-state Cmin was ≥700 ng/mL in 90% of subjects with 5% (10 of 186) <500 ng/mL and 5% (10 of 186) 500-700 ng/mL. Six (3%) patients had steady-state Cmin ≥3750 ng/mL. One patient (<1%) had an invasive fungal infection. The most common treatment-related adverse events were nausea (11%) and diarrhoea (8%). There was no increase in adverse event frequency with higher posaconazole exposure. Conclusions: In patients at high risk for invasive fungal disease, 300 mg posaconazole (as tablets) once daily was well tolerated and demonstrated a safety profile similar to that reported for posaconazole oral suspension: most patients (99%) achieved steady-state pCavg exposures >500 ng/mL and only one patient (<1%) had a pCavg <500 ng/mL.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
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    ABSTRACT: The antifungal agents approved in Japan for pediatric use are limited and many unapproved drugs are actually used without clear instruction for dosage. We investigated the pharmacokinetics of caspofungin for the treatment of invasive candidiasis and invasive aspergillosis in 20 Japanese pediatric patients using a pediatric-specific dosage based on body surface area. Caspofungin was administered intravenously over 60 min as 70 mg/m(2) on Day 1, followed by 50 mg/m(2) per day. Five or 4 point blood sampling were done in 15 patients on Day 4-5 to calculate AUC0-24 h. The geometric means (95% confidence interval) of C24 h and AUC0-24 h in the pediatric patients were 3.3(2.5, 4.4) μg/mL and 175.1 (139.3, 220.1) μg hr/mL, respectively, which were comparable to those in Japanese adult patients [3.2 (2.8, 3.5) μg/mL and 144.9 (131.7, 159.3) μg hr/mL, respectively]. Among the 20 patients, 10 (50%) had at least 1 drug-related adverse event which was considered related to caspofungin therapy. No drug-related serious adverse event and no death occurred. The most common drug-related adverse events were events relating to hepatic function (mainly increases in ALT and AST). The overall success in efficacy was observed in 13 of 20 patients. In conclusion, once daily administration of caspofungin (70 mg/m(2) on Day 1, followed by 50 mg/m(2) [maximum daily dose not to exceed 70 mg]), which is the same dosage being used in overseas, achieved sufficient drug exposure and a favorable efficacy and acceptable safety profile in Japanese pediatric patients with invasive fungal infections. Copyright © 2015 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2015 · Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy
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    ABSTRACT: Posaconazole tablets, a new oral formulation of posaconazole, can be effective when given as antifungal prophylaxis to neutropenic patients at high risk for invasive fungal infection (e.g., those with acute myelogenous leukemia or myelodysplastic syndrome). Such effectiveness might be specifically important to patients with poor oral intake because of nausea, vomiting, or chemotherapy-associated mucositis. This was a prospective, global study in high-risk patients to characterize the pharmacokinetics and safety profile of posaconazole tablets and to identify the dose of posaconazole tablets that would provide exposure within a predefined range of exposures (steady-state average concentration [area under the concentration-time curve/24 h] of ≥500 ng/ml and ≤2,500 ng/ml in >90% of patients). The study evaluated two sequential dosing cohorts: 200 mg posaconazole once daily (n = 20) and 300 mg posaconazole once daily (n = 34) (both cohorts had a twice-daily loading dose on day 1) taken without regard to food intake during the neutropenic period for ≤28 days. The exposure target was reached (day 8) in 15 of 19 (79%) pharmacokinetic-evaluable patients taking 200 mg posaconazole once daily and in 31 of 32 (97%) patients taking 300 mg posaconazole once daily; 300 mg posaconazole once daily achieved the desired exposure target. Posaconazole tablets were generally well tolerated in high-risk neutropenic patients. (This study has been registered at under registration no. NCT01777763.)
    No preview · Article · Jul 2014 · Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
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    ABSTRACT: This was a phase 1B, dose-ranging, multicenter, pharmacokinetics, and safety study of cyclodextrin-based posaconazole intravenous (i.v.) solution administered through a central line to subjects at high risk for invasive fungal disease (part 1 of a 2-part study [phase 1B/3]). Initially, the safety and tolerability of single-dose posaconazole i.v. 200 mg (n = 10) were compared with those of a placebo (n = 11). Subsequently, 2 doses were evaluated, posaconazole i.v. 200 mg once daily (q.d.) (n = 21) and 300 mg q.d. (n = 24). The subjects received twice-daily (b.i.d.) posaconazole i.v. on day 1, followed by 13 days of posaconazole i.v. q.d., then 14 days of posaconazole oral suspension 400 mg b.i.d. The steady-state (day 14) exposure target (average concentration [areas under concentration-time curve {AUCs}/24 h, average concentrations at steady state {Cavgs}], of ≥500 to ≤2,500 ng/ml in ≥90% of the subjects) was achieved by 94% of the subjects for 200 mg posaconazole q.d. and by 95% of subjects for 300 mg posaconazole q.d. The desired exposure target (mean steady-state Cavg, ∼1,200 ng/ml) was 1,180 ng/ml in the 200-mg dosing cohort and was exceeded in the 300-mg dosing cohort (1,430 ng/ml). Posaconazole i.v. was well tolerated. Posaconazole i.v. 300 mg q.d. was selected for the phase 3 study segment. (This study has been registered at under registration no. NCT01075984.)
    Preview · Article · Apr 2014 · Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
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    ABSTRACT: Caspofungin is an echinocandin antifungal agent administered once daily as an intravenous infusion. Relationships between caspofungin exposure and clinical efficacy and safety were investigated. End-of-infusion (CEOI) and trough (C24 hours) concentrations were obtained in 218 patients with mucosal (i.e., esophageal and/or oropharyngeal) candidiasis (MC) receiving caspofungin 35, 50, or 70 mg/day and 278 patients with invasive candidiasis (IC) receiving 50, 100, or 150 mg/day. Area under the plasma concentration–time curve (AUC0–24 hours) was obtained in a subset of MC patients (n = 99). Odds ratios were estimated for the association between log-transformed PK and efficacy response and the occurrence of common adverse events. No pharmacokinetic or hybrid parameter (ratio of AUC:MIC, CEOI:MIC, C24 hours:MIC) was significantly correlated with overall treatment outcome in either MC or IC, although this patient population may exhibit confounding factors which masked a potential pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic relationship. An exploratory evaluation of MC identified significant pharmacokinetic correlations with endoscopic response, but not symptom response. Statistically significant associations were identified for IC patients with C. parapsilosis infections. Occurrence of clinical adverse events and/or laboratory abnormalities did not appear to be increased by higher caspofungin plasma concentrations. Caspofungin concentrations achieved with 50 mg/day are generally within the therapeutic window for the treatment of candidiasis.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2014 · Clinical Pharmacology in Drug Development
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    ABSTRACT: Staphylococcus aureus is a well-recognized, clinically important cause of nosocomial infections, and as such, a vaccine to prevent S. aureus infections would be an important achievement. A Phase IIB/III study of V710, a vaccine containing iron-regulated surface determinant B (IsdB), demonstrated significant sero-conversion rates in cardiovascular surgery patients following a single pre-surgery immunization. However, the vaccine was not efficacious in preventing bacteremia or deep sternal wound infection post-surgery, thus raising the possibility that IsdB might not be available for immune recognition during infection. The purpose of the work described herein was to evaluate and quantify the naturally occurring anti-IsdB levels at baseline and over time during infection, to understand whether IsdB is expressed during a S. aureus infection in hospitalized non-vaccinated patients. We evaluated baseline and follow-up titers in 3 populations: 1) healthy subjects, 2) hospitalized patients with non-S. aureus infections, and 3) hospitalized patients with S. aureus infections. Baseline anti-IsdB levels generally overlapped between the 3 groups, but were highly variable within each group. In healthy subjects, baseline and follow-up levels were highly correlated (Spearman's rho = 0.93), and the geometric mean fold-difference in anti-IsdB levels between study entry and last value was 0.9 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.8 to 1.0 ; p-value:0.09), showing no trend over time. The convalescent fold-rise in anti-IsdB levels from baseline was 1.7-fold (95% CI: 1.3 to 2.2, p = 0.0008) during S. aureus infection, significantly different from a 1.0-fold (95% CI: 0.9-1.2, p = 0.60) in non-S. aureus infection, p = 0.005. Additionally, S. aureus isolates (51) obtained from the hospitalized patient group expressed the IsdB protein in vitro. Collectively, these data suggest that IsdB expression levels rise substantially following infection with S. aureus, but not with other pathogens, and IsdB is likely well-conserved across S. aureus strains.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2013 · Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
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    ABSTRACT: Infections due to Staphylococcus aureus are serious complications of cardiothoracic surgery. A novel vaccine candidate (V710) containing the highly conserved S. aureus iron surface determinant B is immunogenic and generally well tolerated in volunteers. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of preoperative vaccination in preventing serious postoperative S. aureus infection in patients undergoing cardiothoracic surgery. Double-blind, randomized, event-driven trial conducted between December 2007 and August 2011 among 8031 patients aged 18 years or older who were scheduled for full median sternotomy within 14 to 60 days of vaccination at 165 sites in 26 countries. Participants were randomly assigned to receive a single 0.5-mL intramuscular injection of either V710 vaccine, 60 μg (n = 4015), or placebo (n = 4016). The primary efficacy end point was prevention of S. aureus bacteremia and/or deep sternal wound infection (including mediastinitis) through postoperative day 90. Secondary end points included all S. aureus surgical site and invasive infections through postoperative day 90. Three interim analyses with futility assessments were planned. The independent data monitoring committee recommended termination of the study after the second interim analysis because of safety concerns and low efficacy. At the end of the study, the V710 vaccine was not significantly more efficacious than placebo in preventing either the primary end points (22/3528 V710 vaccine recipients [2.6 per 100 person-years] vs 27/3517 placebo recipients [3.2 per 100 person-years]; relative risk, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.44-1.48; P = .58) or secondary end points despite eliciting robust antibody responses. Compared with placebo, the V710 vaccine was associated with more adverse experiences during the first 14 days after vaccination (1219/3958 vaccine recipients [30.8%; 95% CI, 29.4%-32.3%] and 866/3967 placebo recipients [21.8%; 95% CI, 20.6%-23.1%], including 797 [20.1%; 95% CI, 18.9%-21.4%] and 378 [9.5%; 95% CI, 8.6%-10.5%] with injection site reactions and 66 [1.7%; 95% CI, 1.3%-2.1%] and 51 [1.3%; 95% CI, 1.0%-1.7%] with serious adverse events, respectively) and a significantly higher rate of multiorgan failure during the entire study (31 vs 17 events; 0.9 [95% CI, 0.6-1.2] vs 0.5 [95% CI, 0.3-0.8] events per 100 person-years; P = .04). Although the overall incidence of vaccine-related serious adverse events (1 in each group) and the all-cause mortality rate (201/3958 vs 177/3967; 5.7 [95% CI, 4.9-6.5] vs 5.0 [95% CI, 4.3-5.7] deaths per 100 person-years; P = .20) were not statistically different between groups, the mortality rate in patients with staphylococcal infections was significantly higher among V710 vaccine than placebo recipients (15/73 vs 4/96; 23.0 [95% CI, 12.9-37.9] vs 4.2 [95% CI, 1.2-10.8] per 100 person-years; difference, 18.8 [95% CI, 8.0-34.1] per 100 person-years). Among patients undergoing cardiothoracic surgery with median sternotomy, the use of a vaccine against S. aureus compared with placebo did not reduce the rate of serious postoperative S. aureus infections and was associated with increased mortality among patients who developed S. aureus infections. These findings do not support the use of the V710 vaccine for patients undergoing surgical interventions. Identifier: NCT00518687.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2013 · JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association
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    ABSTRACT: Background: S. aureus causes serious infections following cardiothoracic (CT) surgery. V710 is a novel vaccine containing the conserved S. aureus iron surface determinant B (IsdB) and was immunogenic & generally well-tolerated in volunteers. We studied preoperative vaccination to prevent serious S. aureus infections after CT surgery. Methods: In a blinded, randomized, event-driven Phase 2b/3 study, eligible adult patients scheduled for median sternotomy within 14-60 days of entry received a single 0.5-mL injection of V710 (60 μg) or placebo. The primary efficacy outcome was prevention of S. aureus bacteremia & deep sternal wound infection (including mediastinitis) through postoperative Day 90. Death, S. aureus-associated, & vaccine-related serious adverse events were monitored for the duration of the study. Results: An independent monitoring committee recommended study termination after the 2nd planned interim analysis due to safety concerns & low efficacy. Anti-IsdB IgG titers at the time of surgery in V710 recipients were consistently higher than prevaccination baseline levels & significantly higher than in placebo recipients. In V710 recipients, the geometric mean fold-rise [95% CI] in antibody titer with opsonophagocytic activity from baseline was 2.5 [2.2, 2.8] just prior to surgery & 1.9 [1.6, 2.2] on postoperative Day 90. However, V710 was not more efficacious than placebo in preventing primary endpoints (22 in 3528 V710 recipients vs 27 in 3517 placebo recipients; p = 0.584). Rates of vaccine-related serious adverse events (1 in each group) & all-cause mortality (5.7 vs 5.0 deaths per 100 person-yrs; p = 0.200) were not statistically different between groups, but V710 was associated with a higher rate of postoperative multi-organ failure than placebo (0.9 vs 0.5 events per 100 person-yrs; p=0.042). Mortality rates in patients who developed S. aureus infections were higher among V710 than placebo recipients (24.4 vs 4.2 per 100 person-yrs; D [95% CI] = 20.2 [9.2, 35.7]). Conclusion: Despite eliciting opsonophagocytic antibody, preoperative administration of V710 did not reduce serious S. aureus infections after CT surgery. Postoperative multi-organ failure occurred more often in V710 than placebo recipients. Higher mortality was observed among S. aureus-infected V710 recipients than S. aureus-infected placebo recipients.
    No preview · Conference Paper · Oct 2012
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    S Kohno · K Izumikawa · M Yoshida · Y Takesue · S Oka · K Kamei · Y Miyazaki · T Yoshinari · N A Kartsonis · Y Niki
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    ABSTRACT: The safety and efficacy profile of caspofungin and micafungin in Japanese patients with fungal infections were directly compared in this prospective, randomized, double-blind study. The proportion of patients who developed significant drug-related adverse event(s) (defined as a serious drug-related adverse event or a drug-related adverse event leading to study therapy discontinuation) was compared in 120 patients [caspofungin 50 mg, or 50 mg following a 70-mg loading dose on Day 1 (hereinafter, 70/50 mg) group: 60 patients; micafungin 150 mg: 60 patients]. The overall response rate was primarily evaluated in the per-protocol set (PPS) population. The proportion of patients who developed significant drug-related adverse events was 5.0 % (3/60) in the caspofungin group and 10.0 % (6/60) in the micafungin group [95 % confidence interval (CI) for the difference: -15.9 %, 5.2 %]. The favorable overall response in the PPS population for patients with esophageal candidiasis, invasive candidiasis, and chronic pulmonary aspergillosis including aspergilloma was 100.0 % (6/6), 100.0 % (3/3), and 46.7 % (14/30) in the caspofungin group, and 83.3 % (5/6), 100.0 % (1/1), and 42.4 % (14/33) in the micafungin group, respectively. In Japanese patients with Candida or Aspergillus infections, there was no statistical difference in the safety between caspofungin and micafungin. Consistent with other data on these two agents, the efficacy of caspofungin and micafungin was similar.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2012 · European Journal of Clinical Microbiology
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    ABSTRACT: Bacteremia is the second leading cause of death in patients with end-stage renal disease who are on hemodialysis. A vaccine eliciting long-term immune responses against Staphylococcus aureus in patients on chronic hemodialysis may reduce the incidence of bacteremia and its complications in these patients. V710 is a vaccine containing iron surface determinant B (IsdB), a highly conserved S. aureus surface protein, which has been shown to be immunogenic in healthy subjects. In this blinded phase II immunogenicity study, 206 chronic hemodialysis patients between the ages of 18 and 80 years old were randomized to receive 60 μg V710 (with or without adjuvant), 90 μg V710 (with adjuvant), or a placebo in various combinations on days 1, 28, and 180. All 201 vaccinated patients were to be followed through day 360. The primary hypothesis was that at least 1 of the 3 groups receiving 2 V710 doses on days 1 and 28 would have a ≥2.5 geometric mean fold rise (GMFR) in anti-IsdB IgG titers over the baseline 28 days after the second vaccination (day 56). At day 56, all three groups receiving 2 doses of V710 achieved a ≥2.5 GMFR in anti-IsdB antibodies compared to the baseline (P values of <0.001 for all 3 groups), satisfying the primary immunogenicity hypothesis. None of the 33 reported serious adverse experiences were considered vaccine related by the investigators. V710 induced sustained antibody responses for at least 1 year postvaccination in patients on chronic hemodialysis.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2012 · Clinical and vaccine Immunology: CVI
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    ABSTRACT: Merck V710 is a novel vaccine that contains the highly conserved Staphylococcus aureus iron surface determinant B (IsdB) protein. V710 has induced positive immune responses in healthy subjects. The purpose of the two studies described herein was to evaluate the immunogenicity and safety of two different formulations of V710. Both studies were randomized, controlled, double-blind, parallel-group trials. Study 1 compared liquid, aluminum-adjuvanted V710 (30 μg) with liquid, non-adjuvanted V710 (30 μg) in a 1:1 ratio in 64 healthy adults (18-70 years). Study 2 compared non-adjuvanted lyophilized V710 (60 μg) with saline placebo in a 4:1 ratio in 51 healthy adults (18-80 years). Blood was collected at screening and up to Day 360 postvaccination in Study 1, and at screening and up to Day 84 postvaccination in Study 2. Sera were analyzed for IsdB-specific antibodies using a total IgG assay. The primary endpoints in Study 1 were the proportion of patients with a positive immune response (≥2-fold rise in IsdB-specific IgG antibody level) the geometric mean concentration (GMC), and the geometric mean-fold rise (GMFR), all from baseline at Day 14. The primary endpoint in Study 2 was the GMFR in IsdB-specific IgG antibody concentration from baseline at Day 14. In Study 1, 84.4% responded in the adjuvanted V710 group, and 71.9% in the non-adjuvanted V710 group. The GMC was 115.4 μg/mL in the adjuvanted group and 99.1 μg/mL in the nonadjuvanted group. The GMFR in antibody concentration in the group receiving aluminum-adjuvanted V710 was 4.5 and the GMFR in the group receiving non-adjuvanted V710 was 4.0. In Study 2, the GMFR in antibody concentration in the V710 group was 5.3, and 80.5% had a positive immune response. None responded in the placebo group. Positive immune response was seen in the active treatment groups over the full duration of each study. There were no serious adverse experiences (AE) in either study, and no patients discontinued due to an AE. There were no clinically meaningful differences in AEs between groups in either study. In conclusion, V710, both with and without aluminum adjuvant, and in both liquid and lyophilized formulations, was immunogenic within 14 days of vaccination. All treatments showed similar safety profiles.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2011 · Vaccine
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    ABSTRACT: Safety experience is available from 32 completed clinical studies (17 Phase I and 15 Phase II-III) of caspofungin (CAS) conducted between 1995 and 2010 in adult and paediatric patients. Clinical and laboratory adverse events (AEs) were collected from all enrolled subjects and patients. Investigators identified the seriousness, causality and result of all AEs noted during study therapy and for up to 28 days post therapy. Up to 31 December 2010, full safety data are available from 1951 individuals who have received at least one dose of CAS in Phase I-III clinical studies, including 171 paediatric patients, 394 volunteer adult subjects and 1386 adult patients (276 with oropharyngeal/oesophageal candidiasis, 366 with invasive candidiasis, 180 with invasive aspergillosis and 564 with persistent fever and neutropenia). CAS was administered for up to 196 days at daily doses ranging from 5mg to 210 mg. Overall, 41.8% of CAS recipients had an AE that was classified as drug-related. The most frequently reported drug-related AEs were fever (9.3%), chills (5.2%), increased alanine aminotransferase (6.5%), increased aspartate aminotransferase (6.0%) and increased alkaline phosphatase (5.2%). Serious AEs were reported in 27.3% of CAS recipients overall but were attributed to CAS in only 0.8%, and discontinuation of CAS due to a drug-related AE was infrequent (2.7%). Dose-related CAS toxicity was not observed. In conclusion, CAS has demonstrated a favourable safety profile in 1951 adult and paediatric patients enrolled in clinical trials.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2011 · International journal of antimicrobial agents
  • Desmond M Ryan · Robert J Lupinacci · Nicholas A Kartsonis
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    ABSTRACT: Safety and efficacy outcomes were retrospectively compared for obese versus non-obese patients who received standard caspofungin doses for different clinical conditions in nine clinical trials within the Merck caspofungin database. Favorable outcomes were as defined in specific protocols. Safety was assessed based on drug-related adverse experiences (AEs). The proportion of obese patients in the esophageal candidiasis and invasive aspergillosis studies was lower than seen in the invasive candidiasis and empirical therapy studies. The proportions of patients with a favorable response were generally similar in non-obese and obese patients with invasive candidiasis (73% versus 77%) or patients receiving empirical therapy (33% versus 40%). The efficacy analysis in patients with invasive aspergillosis or esophageal candidiasis was limited due to the small number of obese patients. The proportion of favorable responses in these two infections was similar among normal/underweight patients as compared to obese/overweight patients, i.e., esophageal candidiasis 81% versus 88% and invasive aspergillosis 48% versus 44%, respectively. AEs related to caspofungin occurred in similar proportions with non-obese and obese patients across all and within the four clinical conditions. The proportion of obese patients with serious drug-related AEs (1%) or caspofungin discontinuations due to toxicity (5%) was low. In the post-hoc analysis, caspofungin appeared to be as efficacious and well-tolerated in obese patients as in non-obese patients.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2011 · Medical mycology: official publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology

  • No preview · Article · Apr 2011 · American Journal of Kidney Diseases
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    ABSTRACT: We describe the pharmacokinetics (PKs) of caspofungin, an echinocandin antifungal, administered once daily as a 1-hour intravenous infusion in children and adolescents (ages, 3 months to 17 years), based on pooled data from four prospective pediatric studies. Caspofungin dosing was body-surface-area (BSA) based (50 mg/m2 daily after 70 mg/m2 on day 1). The area under the concentration-time curve from time zero to 24 h (AUC0–24), the concentration at the end of infusion (1 h after the start of infusion; C1), and the trough concentration (24 h after the start of infusion; C24) were obtained for 32 pediatric patients with invasive candidiasis, 10 with invasive aspergillosis, and 82 in the setting of empirical therapy with fever and neutropenia. Exposures were modestly higher (93 to 134% for C1, 45 to 78% for C24, ∼40% for AUC0–24) in pediatric patients than in adults receiving the standard 50-mg daily dose. The potential for covariates (age, gender, weight, race, renal status, serum albumin level, and disease state) to alter PKs was evaluated with a multiple-linear-regression model. Weight and disease state had statistically significant (P < 0.05) yet small effects on caspofungin PKs in pediatric patients. Concomitant use of dexamethasone (a cytochrome p450 inducer) was associated with a statistically significant reduction (44%) in C24 in a limited number of patients (n = 4). Odds ratios were estimated for the association between log-transformed PKs and treatment outcome or adverse events. No PK parameter or hybrid parameter (AUC/MIC, C1/MIC, and C24/MIC) was significantly correlated with treatment outcome or adverse events in the setting of similar response levels as adults, which suggests that the concentrations examined fall within the therapeutic window for caspofungin in pediatric patients. These results support a 50-mg/m2 daily dosing regimen (after a 70-mg/m2 loading dose) in children ages 3 months to 17 years.
    Preview · Article · Feb 2011 · Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

  • No preview · Article · Oct 2010 · The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
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    ABSTRACT: Merck V710 is a novel vaccine containing the conserved Staphylococcus aureus iron surface determinant B shown to be protective in animal models. A phase I, multicenter, double-blind study of the dose range was conducted to assess the immunogenicity and safety of an adjuvanted liquid formulation of V710. A total of 124 adults (18 to 55 years of age) were randomized 1:1:1:1 to receive one 0.5-ml intramuscular injection of V710 (5 μg, 30 μg, or 90 μg) or saline placebo. A positive immune response was defined as at least a 2-fold increase in IsdB-specific IgG levels from baseline levels. Local and systemic adverse events were assessed for 5 and 14 days, respectively, following vaccination. Positive immune responses were detected in 12 (67%) of the 18 subjects in the groups receiving 30 and 90 μg V710 tested at day 10. At day 14, a significantly greater proportion of subjects manifested a positive immune response with higher geometric mean concentrations in the V710 30-μg (86%; geometric mean concentration of 116 μg/ml) and 90-μg (87%; geometric mean concentration of 131 μg/ml) dose groups than in the V710 5-μg (29%; geometric mean concentration of 51 μg/ml) or placebo (4%; geometric mean concentration of 23 μg/ml) groups. Immune responses were durable through day 84. Subjects <40 and ≥40 years of age had comparable immune responses. The most common adverse events were injection-site pain, nausea, fatigue, and headache, usually of mild intensity. No immediate reactions or serious adverse events were reported. In this first study of V710 in humans, a single 30-μg or 90-μg dose was more immunogenic than the 5-μg dose or placebo. Immune responses were evident by 10 to 14 days after vaccination in most responders.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2010 · Clinical and vaccine Immunology: CVI
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Persistently febrile neutropenic children at risk for invasive fungal infections receive empiric antifungal therapy as a standard of care. However, little is known about the role of echinocandins and liposomal amphotericin B (L-AmB) for empiric antifungal therapy in pediatric patients. Methods: Patients between the ages of 2 to 17 years with persistent fever and neutropenia were randomly assigned to receive caspofungin (70 mg/m2 loading dose on day 1, then 50 mg/m2 daily [maximum 70 mg/d]) or l-AmB (3 mg/kg daily) in a 2:1 ratio. Evaluation of safety was the primary objective of the study. Efficacy was also evaluated, with a successful outcome defined as fulfilling all components of a prespecified 5-part composite endpoint. Suspected invasive fungal infections were evaluated by an independent, treatment-blinded adjudication committee. Results: Eighty-two patients received study therapy (caspofungin 56, l-AmB 26), and 81 were evaluated for efficacy (caspofungin 56; l-AmB 25). Outcomes for safety and efficacy endpoints were similar for both study arms. Adverse drug-related event rates [95% confidence interval] were similar between the caspofungin and l-AmB groups (clinical 48.2% [34.7–62.0] versus 46.2% [26.6–66.6]; laboratory 10.7% [4.0–21.9] versus 19.2% [6.6–39.4]). Serious drug-related adverse events occurred in 1 (1.8%) of caspofungin-treated patients and 3 (11.5%) of l-AmB-treated patients. Overall success rates [95% CI] were 46.4% [33.4–59.5] for caspofungin and 32.0% [13.7–50.3] for l-AmB. Conclusions: Caspofungin and l-AmB were comparable in tolerability, safety, and efficacy as empiric antifungal therapy for persistently febrile neutropenic pediatric patients.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2010 · The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
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    ABSTRACT: Increasing rates of invasive candidiasis caused by non-albicans Candida species have been reported worldwide. Particular concerns have been raised for C. parapsilosis because of reduced in vitro susceptibility to echinocandins. We identified 212 patients with invasive candidiasis due to non-albicans Candida species (≥5 cases per species) in 5 clinical trials of caspofungin monotherapy from the pharmaceutical sponsor's (Merck and Co., Inc.) database: 71 cases were caused by C. parapsilosis, 65 by C. tropicalis, 54 by C. glabrata, 10 by C. krusei, 9 by C. guilliermondii, and 5 by C. lusitaniae. One hundred sixty-seven cases caused by C. albicans were also identified. Efficacy was assessed at the end of caspofungin therapy. Success (favorable overall response) required favorable clinical and microbiological responses. The mean APACHE II scores were 16.5 in the non-albicans group and 15.7 in the C. albicans group. Neutropenia at study entry was more common in the non-albicans group (12%) than in the C. albicans group (5%). The median duration of caspofungin therapy was 14 days in both groups. The success rates were 77% in both groups and at least 70% for each non-albicans species: 74% for C. parapsilosis, 71% for C. tropicalis, 85% for C. glabrata, 70% for C. krusei, 89% for C. guilliermondii, and 100% for C. lusitaniae. The times to negative blood culture were similar for the various species. The overall mortality rates were 26% in the non-albicans group and 29% in the C. albicans group. Drug-related serious adverse events and discontinuations due to caspofungin toxicity were uncommon. Although the sample sizes were limited, caspofungin demonstrated favorable efficacy and safety profiles in the treatment of invasive candidiasis caused by the following non-albicans Candida species: C. parapsilosis, C. tropicalis, C. glabrata, C. krusei, C. guilliermondii, and C. lusitaniae.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2010 · Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
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    ABSTRACT: We analyzed the caspofungin safety experience in 5 clinical registration studies in 171 pediatric patients, 1 week to 17 years of age. Caspofungin was administered for 1 to 87 (mean 12.1) days. The most common drug-related adverse events were fever, increased AST, increased ALT, and rash; few events were serious or required treatment discontinuation. Caspofungin was well tolerated in this pediatric population.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2009 · The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal

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  • 2013
    • University of Nottingham
      • School of Molecular Medical Sciences
      Nottigham, England, United Kingdom
  • 2011
    • University of Michigan-Flint
      Flint, Michigan, United States
  • 2004-2011
    • Merck
      • Clinical Research
      White House Station, New Jersey, United States
  • 2007
    • Wayne State University
      • School of Medicine
      Detroit, Michigan, United States
  • 2005
    • Johns Hopkins University
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
    • Universitair Ziekenhuis Leuven
      Louvain, Flanders, Belgium
  • 2003
    • Duke University
      Durham, North Carolina, United States