C E Reusch

University of Padova, Padua, Veneto, Italy

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Publications (279)297.8 Total impact

  • Claudia E Reusch

    No preview · Article · Dec 2015
  • Claudia E Reusch

    No preview · Article · Dec 2015
  • Claudia E Reusch

    No preview · Article · Dec 2015
  • Claudia E Reusch

    No preview · Article · Dec 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Exenatide extended release (ER) is a glucagon-like peptide-1 analogue that increases insulin secretion, inhibits glucagon secretion and induces satiation in humans with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The use of exenatide ER is safe and stimulates insulin secretion in healthy cats. Objectives: The objective of this study is to assess the safety of exenatide ER and its effect on body weight, remission and metabolic control in newly diagnosed diabetic cats receiving insulin and a low-carbohydrate diet. Animals: Thirty client-owned cats. Methods: Prospective placebo-controlled clinical trial. Cats were treated with exenatide ER or 0.9% saline, administered SC, once weekly. Both groups received insulin glargine and a low-carbohydrate diet. Exenatide ER was administered for 16 weeks, or in cats that achieved remission it was given for 4 weeks after discontinuing insulin treatment. Nonparametric tests were used for statistical analysis. Results: Cats in the exenatide ER and placebo groups had transient adverse signs including decreased appetite (60% vs. 20%, respectively, P = .06) and vomiting (53% vs. 40%, respectively, P = .715). Body weight increased significantly in the placebo group (P = .002), but not in cats receiving exenatide ER. Cats on exenatide ER achieved remission or good metabolic control in 40% or 89%, respectively, whereas in control cats percentages were 20% or 58% (P = .427 and P = .178, respectively). Conclusion and clinical importance: Exenatide ER is safe in diabetic cats and does not result in weight gain. Our pilot study suggests that, should there be an additional clinically relevant beneficial effect of exenatide ER in insulin-treated cats on rate of remission and good metabolic control, it would likely approximate 20% and 30%, respectively.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: Background The ACTH stimulation test is used to evaluate the adrenocortical reserve. Recently, the availability of the synthetic ACTH formulation was limited, causing major problems in clinical practice. Objectives The objective of this study was to evaluate poststimulation peak cortisol concentrations and the duration of the stimulatory effect of a depot ACTH preparation in dogs. AnimalsTwenty-two healthy dogs, 10 dogs with suspected hypoadrenocorticism (HA) and 15 dogs with suspected hyperadrenocorticism (HC). Methods Prospective study. An ACTH stimulation test using a synthetic depot tetracosactide, administered intramuscularly (5g/kg or at least 0.1mL) was performed. Blood samples for determination of cortisol were taken immediately before and 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, and 24hours after stimulation. ResultsPeak cortisol concentrations were reached after 2-4hours in all dogs. Cortisol concentrations 1hour after stimulation were >9g/dL in all healthy dogs and >5g/dL in all dogs in which HA was excluded. None of the dogs with HA showed a cortisol-increase above the detection-limit of the assay. After 6hours, cortisol concentrations had decreased in the healthy and HC group and were back to baseline after 24hours. Conclusions and Clinical ImportanceThe depot formulation can be used in place of the short-acting ACTH to evaluate the adrenocortical reserve. Blood for peak cortisol concentrations should be drawn 3hours after stimulation in cases in which HC is suspected; in HA-suspected cases, blood sampling can take place after 1hour. As the stimulatory effect is gone after 24hours, interference with other hormonal tests is unlikely after that time.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: Gastrointestinal (GI) protein loss, due to lymphangiectasia or chronic inflammation, can be challenging to diagnose. This study evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of serum and fecal canine α1-proteinase inhibitor (cα1PI) concentrations to detect crypt abscesses and/or lacteal dilation in dogs. Serum and fecal cα1PI concentrations were measured in 120 dogs undergoing GI tissue biopsies, and were compared between dogs with and without crypt abscesses/lacteal dilation. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated for dichotomous outcomes. Serial serum cα1PI concentrations were also evaluated in 12 healthy corticosteroid-treated dogs. Serum cα1PI and albumin concentrations were significantly lower in dogs with crypt abscesses and/or lacteal dilation than in those without (both P <0.001), and more severe lesions were associated with lower serum cα1PI concentrations, higher 3 days-mean fecal cα1PI concentrations, and lower serum/fecal cα1PI ratios. Serum and fecal cα1PI, and their ratios, distinguished dogs with moderate or severe GI crypt abscesses/lacteal dilation from dogs with only mild or none such lesions with moderate sensitivity (56-92%) and specificity (67-81%). Serum cα1PI concentrations increased during corticosteroid administration. We conclude that serum and fecal α1PI concentrations reflect the severity of intestinal crypt abscesses/lacteal dilation in dogs. Due to its specificity for the GI tract, measurement of fecal cα1PI appears to be superior to serum cα1PI for diagnosing GI protein loss in dogs. In addition, the serum/fecal cα1PI ratio has an improved accuracy in hypoalbuminemic dogs, but serum cα1PI concentrations should be carefully interpreted in corticosteroid-treated dogs.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · The Veterinary Journal
  • Claudia E. Reusch
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    ABSTRACT: Primary hypoadrenocorticism is a relatively rare endocrine disorder in the dog and is due to a bilateral destruction of the adrenal cortex. Subsequently, glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid deficiencies develop, which may become life threatening. The disease is heritable in the Standard Poodle, Portuguese Water Dog, Nova Scotia Duck Tolling Retriever and Bearded Collie; a genetic predisposition is suspected in other breeds. Patients are presented either because of chronic, progressive clinical signs or because of a so-called Addisonian crisis. The clinical signs include lethargy, weakness, anorexia, vomiting, diarrhoea, weight loss, shivering, polyuria, polydipsia and painful abdomen. The signs of an Addison crisis are severe weakness, dehydration, collapse due to hypovolaemic shock and possible death. The classical clinicopathological abnormalities include hyponatraemia, hyperkalaemia, azotaemia, non-regenerative anaemia and lymphocytosis. However, approximately 10% of patients do not have the typical electrolyte abnormalities. Hypoalbuminaemia, hypocholesterolaemia, hypercalcaemia, hypoglycaemia and increased liver enzymes may also be present. Although the azotaemia is prerenal in origin, the urine specific gravity is often below 1.030, which may lead to confusion with primary renal failure. The ACTH stimulation test is the test of choice. Acute management consists of immediate fluid therapy. Glucocorticoids should be administered after finishing the ACTH stimulation test. The long-term management in dogs with typical electrolyte abnormalities consists of mineralocorticoids [fludrocortisone or desoxycorticosterone pivalate (DOCP)] and glucocorticoids (prednisolone). In dogs with normal blood electrolytes, just the application of glucocorticoids may be sufficient initially. However, frequent re-evaluations are mandatory as mineralocorticoids may become necessary during the course of the disease. The prognosis is good, provided that diagnosis is made early and treatment is adequate.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Kleintierpraxis
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    ABSTRACT: The adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) stimulation test is the gold standard for diagnosing hypoadrenocorticism (HA) in dogs. However, problems with the availability of synthetic ACTH (tetracosactrin/cosyntropin) and increased costs have prompted the need for alternative methods. To prospectively evaluate the cortisol-to-ACTH ratio (CAR) as a screening test for diagnosing canine HA. Twenty three dogs with newly diagnosed HA; 79 dogs with diseases mimicking HA; 30 healthy dogs. Plasma ACTH and baseline cortisol concentrations were measured before IV administration of 5 μg/kg ACTH in all dogs. CAR was calculated and the diagnostic performance of ACTH, baseline cortisol, CAR and sodium-to-potassium ratios (SPRs) was assessed based on receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curves calculating the area under the ROC curve. The CAR was significantly lower in dogs with HA compared to that in healthy dogs and in those with diseases mimicking HA (P < .0001). There was an overlap between HA dogs and those with HA mimicking diseases, but CAR still was the best parameter for diagnosing HA (ROC AUC 0.998), followed by the ACTH concentration (ROC AUC 0.97), baseline cortisol concentration (ROC AUC 0.96), and SPR (ROC AUC 0.86). With a CAR of >0.01 the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity were 100% and 99%, respectively. Calculation of the CAR is a useful screening test for diagnosing primary HA. As a consequence of the observed overlap between the groups, however, misdiagnosis cannot be completely excluded. Moreover, additional studies are needed to evaluate the diagnostic reliability of CAR in more dogs with secondary HA. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2015 · Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: Objective-To investigate the effects of insulin detemir in dogs with diabetes mellitus. Design-Prospective, uncontrolled clinical trial. Animals-10 client-owned dogs with naturally occurring diabetes mellitus. Procedures-Dogs were treated with insulin detemir SC every 12 hours for 6 months. Follow-up evaluations were done at 1, 2, 4, 12, and 24 weeks and included evaluation of clinical signs and measurement of blood glucose concentration curves and serum fructosamine concentrations. Results-Insulin detemir administration resulted in a significant decrease in blood glucose and serum fructosamine concentrations at 6 months, compared with pretreatment values. Median insulin dosage at the end of the study was 0.12 U/kg (0.055 U/lb; range, 0.05 to 0.34 U/kg [0.023 to 0.155 U/lb], SC, q 12 h). Hypoglycemia was identified in 22% (10/45) of the blood glucose concentration curves, and 6 episodes of clinical hypoglycemia in 4 dogs were recorded. A subjective improvement in clinical signs was observed in all dogs during the 6-month study period. On the basis of clinical signs and blood glucose concentration curves, efficacy of insulin detemir at the end of the study was considered good in 5 dogs, moderate in 3, and poor in 2. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-Results suggested that SC injection of insulin detemir every 12 hours may be a viable treatment for diabetes mellitus in dogs. Insulin detemir dosages were lower than reported dosages of other insulin types needed to maintain glycemic control, suggesting that insulin detemir should be used with caution, especially in small dogs.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2015 · Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
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    ABSTRACT: Pancreatic amyloidosis and loss of α and β cells have been shown to occur in cats with diabetes mellitus, although the number of studies currently available is very limited. Furthermore, it is not known whether pancreatic islet inflammation is a common feature. The aims of the present study were to characterize islet lesions and to investigate whether diabetic cats have inflammation of the pancreatic islets. Samples of pancreas were collected postmortem from 37 diabetic and 20 control cats matched for age, sex, breed, and body weight. Histologic sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin and Congo red; double labeled for insulin/CD3, insulin/CD20, insulin/myeloperoxidase, insulin/proliferating cell nuclear antigen, and glucagon/Ki67; and single labeled for amylin and Iba1. Mean insulin-positive cross-sectional area was approximately 65% lower in diabetic than control cats (P = .009), while that of amylin and glucagon was similar. Surprisingly, amyloid deposition was similar between groups (P = .408). Proliferation of insulin- and glucagon-positive cells and the number of neutrophils, macrophages, and T (CD3) and B (CD20) lymphocytes in the islets did not differ. The presence of T and B lymphocytes combined tended to be more frequent in diabetic cats (n = 8 of 37; 21.6%) than control cats (n = 1 of 20; 5.0%). The results confirm previous observations that loss of β cells but not α cells occurs in diabetic cats. Islet amyloidosis was present in diabetic cats but was not greater than in controls. A subset of diabetic cats had lymphocytic infiltration of the islets, which might be associated with β-cell loss. © The Author(s) 2015.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2015 · Veterinary Pathology
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    S Šutalo · M Ruetten · S Hartnack · C E Reusch · P H Kook
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    ABSTRACT: Gastric acid suppressants frequently are used in cats with acid-related gastric disorders. However, it is not known if these drugs effectively increase intragastric pH in cats. To examine the effects of PO administered ranitidine and omeprazole on intragastric pH in cats and to compare the efficacy of once-daily versus twice-daily dosage regimens for omeprazole. Eight domestic shorthair cats. Using a randomized 4-way cross-over design, cats were given enteric-coated omeprazole granules (1.1-1.3 mg/kg q24h and q12h), ranitidine (1.5-2.3 mg/kg q12h), and placebo. Intragastric pH was monitored continuously for 96 hours using the Bravo(™) system, starting on day 4 of treatment, followed by a median washout period of 12 days. Mean percentage of time pH was ≥3 and ≥4 was compared among groups using repeated measures ANOVA. Mean ± SD percentage of time intragastric pH was ≥3 and ≥4 was 67.0 ± 24.0% and 54.6 ± 26.4% for twice-daily omeprazole, 24.4 ± 22.8% and 16.8 ± 19.3% for once-daily omeprazole, 16.5 ± 9.0% and 9.6 ± 5.9% for ranitidine, and 9.4 ± 8.0% and 7.0 ± 6.6% for placebo administration. Twice-daily omeprazole treatment significantly increased intragastric pH, whereas pH after once-daily omeprazole and ranitidine treatments did not differ from that of placebo-treated cats. Only twice-daily PO administered omeprazole significantly suppressed gastric acidity in healthy cats, whereas once-daily omeprazole and standard dosages of ranitidine were not effective acid suppressants in cats. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.
    Full-text · Article · May 2015 · Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: Background Diagnosis of pheochromocytoma (PC) is based on a combination of clinical suspicion, finding an adrenal mass, increased plasma, and urine concentrations of catecholamine metabolites and is finally confirmed with histopathology. In human medicine, it is controversial whether biochemically testing plasma is superior to testing urine.Objectives To measure urinary and plasma catecholamines and metanephrines in healthy dogs, dogs with PC, hypercortisolism (HC), and nonadrenal diseases (NAD) and to determine the test with the best diagnostic performance for dogs with PC.AnimalsSeven PC dogs, 10 dogs with HC, 14 dogs with NAD, 10 healthy dogs.Methods Prospective diagnostic clinical study. Urine and heparin plasma samples were collected and stored at −80°C before analysis using high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to electrochemical detection or tandem mass spectrometry were performed. Urinary variables were expressed as ratios to urinary creatinine concentration.ResultsDogs with PC had significantly higher urinary normetanephrine and metanephrine : creatinine ratios and significantly higher plasma-total and free normetanephrine and plasma-free metanephrine concentrations compared to the 3 other groups. There were no overlapping results of urinary normetanephrine concentrations between PC and all other groups, and only one PC dog with a plasma normetanephrine concentration in the range of the dogs with HC and NAD disease. Performances of total and free plasma variables were similar. Overlap of epinephrine and norepinephrine results between the groups was large with both urine and plasma.Conclusion and clinical importanceMeasurement of normetanephrine is the preferred biochemical test for PC and urine was superior to plasma.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2015 · Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
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    E. Zini · M. Hafner · P. Kook · T.A. Lutz · S. Ohlerth · C.E. Reusch
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    ABSTRACT: Background Cats with diabetes mellitus can have subclinical pancreatitis but prospective studies to confirm this are lacking. Metabolic control of diabetic cats with pancreatitis is difficult.HypothesisSubclinical pancreatitis occurs in diabetic cats at the time diabetes is diagnosed or might develop during the follow-up period, hampering diabetic remission.AnimalsThirty cats with newly diagnosed diabetes without clinical signs of pancreatitis on admission.Methods Prospective study. On admission and 2 and 6 months later, serum Spec fPL and DGGR-lipase were measured and the pancreas underwent ultrasonographic examination. Pancreatitis was suspected if serum markers were increased or ≥2 ultrasonographic abnormalities were detected. Cats were treated with insulin glargine and diabetic remission was defined as euglycemia ≥4 weeks after discontinuation of insulin. Nonparametric statistical tests were used for analysis.ResultsSubclinical pancreatitis at the time of diagnosis was suspected in 33, 50, and 31% of cats based on Spec fPL, DGGR-lipase and ultrasonography, respectively; and in 60% when diagnostic criteria were combined. During the follow-up period, suspected pancreatitis developed in additional 17–30% cats. Only 1 cat had transient clinical signs compatible with pancreatitis. Seventeen of the 30 cats (57%) achieved remission. Frequency of abnormal Spec fPL and DGGR-lipase and abnormal ultrasonographic findings did not differ in cats achieving remission and those who did not. Cats achieving remission had significantly lower Spec fPL at 2 months (P < .001).Conclusions and Clinical ImportanceBased on laboratory and ultrasonographic measurements, many cats with diabetes might have pancreatitis, although without clinical signs. Cats with high Spec fPL might have a reduced chance of diabetic remission; however, this topic needs further studies in large cohorts of diabetic cats.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2015 · Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a common endocrinopathy in cats that appears to be increasing in prevalence. The prognosis for affected cats can be good when the disease is well managed, but clinical management presents challenges, both for the veterinary team and for the owner. These ISFM Guidelines have been developed by an independent, international expert panel of clinicians and academics to provide practical advice on the management of routine (uncomplicated) diabetic cats. Although the diagnosis of diabetes is usually straightforward, optimal management can be challenging. Clinical goals should be to limit or eliminate clinical signs of the disease using a treatment regimen suitable for the owner, and to avoid insulin-induced hypoglycaemia or other complications. Optimising bodyweight, feeding an appropriate diet and using a longer acting insulin preparation (eg, protamine zinc insulin, insulin glargine or insulin detemir) are all factors that are likely to result in improved glycaemic control in the majority of cats. There is also some evidence that improved glycaemic control and reversal of glucose toxicity may promote the chances of diabetic remission. Owner considerations and owner involvement are an important aspect of management. Provided adequate support is given, and owners are able to take an active role in monitoring blood glucose concentrations in the home environment, glycaemic control may be improved. Monitoring of other parameters is also vitally important in assessing the response to insulin. Insulin adjustments should always be made cautiously and not too frequently - unless hypoglycaemia is encountered. The Panel has produced these Guidelines after careful review of the existing literature and of the quality of the published studies. They represent a consensus view on practical management of cats with DM based on available clinical data and experience. However, in many areas, substantial data are lacking and there is a need for better studies in the future to help inform and refine recommendations for the clinical management of this common disease. © ISFM and AAFP 2015.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2015 · Journal of Feline Medicine & Surgery
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    I. Padrutt · T.A. Lutz · C.E. Reusch · E. Zini
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    ABSTRACT: Incretin analogues and inhibitors of the breakdown of endogenous incretins are antidiabetic drugs that increase β-cell proliferation and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in rodents and humans. Objectives were to test whether exenatide, exenatide extended-release, and sitagliptin can be safely used in cats, to identify the most effective drug, and to test the effects of prolonged exenatide extended-release administration. Three cats each were given exenatide (0.2-2µg/kg, q12h, subcutaneously, 5 days), exenatide extended-release (40-400µg/kg, subcutaneously, once), and sitagliptin (1-10mg/kg, q24h, orally, 5 days). Before and after treatment, glucose, insulin and glucagon areas under the curve (AUC) were assessed by meal response tests (MRT). Exenatide increased insulin AUC by 224%, 258%, 331% and 93%, exenatide extended-release by 127%, 169%, 178% and 95%, and sitagliptin by 32%, 69%, 62%, and 43%, respectively. The tested drugs are safe to use in cats and enhance insulin secretion. Incretin-based therapy may be beneficial in cats with diabetes mellitus.
    Preview · Article · Jan 2015 · Research in Veterinary Science

  • No preview · Article · Jan 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Information on composition of uroliths collected between 2003 and 2009 from dogs in Switzerland and epidemiologic data of affected dogs are summarised in this paper. Of 490 stones analysed 44% were composed of calcium oxalate, 33% of struvite, 8% of silica, 7% of urate, 3% of cystine, 3% were mixed stones and 1% each were calcium phosphate and xanthine stones. Compared to other dogs, Norwich Terriers, Norfolk Terriers, Miniature Schnauzers, Miniature Pinscher and Yorkshire Terriers had a significantly increased risk to suffer from calcium oxalate stones, Dalmatians and Continental Bulldogs from urate stones and English Bulldogs from cystine stones. No breed had an increased risk of struvite or silica stones. Stones composed of silica were more prevalent in Switzerland compared to other countries and were more common in the eastern part than in the western part of Switzerland. This study shows that there are differences in occurrence and prevalence of uroliths between Switzerland and surveys of other countries.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2015 · SAT Schweizer Archiv für Tierheilkunde

  • No preview · Article · Nov 2014
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    ABSTRACT: Background Remission occurs in 10–50% of cats with diabetes mellitus (DM). It is assumed that intensive treatment improves β-cell function and increases remission rates.HypothesisInitial intravenous infusion of insulin that achieves tight glycemic control decreases subsequent insulin requirements and increases remission rate in diabetic cats.AnimalsThirty cats with newly diagnosed DM.Methods Prospective study. Cats were randomly assigned to one of 2 groups. Cats in group 1 (n = 15) received intravenous infusion of insulin with the goal of maintaining blood glucose concentrations at 90–180 mg/dL, for 6 days. Cats in group 2 (n = 15) received subcutaneous injections of insulin glargine (cats ≤4 kg: 0.5–1.0 IU, q12h; >4 kg 1.5–2.0 IU, q12h), for 6 days. Thereafter, all cats were treated with subcutaneous injections of insulin glargine and followed up for 6 months. Cats were considered in remission when euglycemia occurred for ≥4 weeks without the administration of insulin. Nonparametric tests were used for statistical analysis.ResultsIn groups 1 and 2, remission was achieved in 10/15 and in 7/14 cats (P = .46), and good metabolic control was achieved in 3/5 and in 1/7 cats (P = .22), respectively. Overall, good metabolic control or remission occurred in 13/15 cats of group 1 and in 8/14 cats of group 2. In group 1, the median insulin dosage given during the 6-month follow-up was significantly lower than in group 2 (group 1: 0.32 IU/kg/day, group 2: 0.51 IU/kg/day; P = .013).Conclusions and Clinical ImportanceInitial intravenous infusion of insulin for tight glycemic control in cats with DM decreases insulin requirements during the subsequent 6 months.
    Preview · Article · Oct 2014 · Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine

Publication Stats

3k Citations
297.80 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2015
    • University of Padova
      Padua, Veneto, Italy
  • 1998-2015
    • University of Zurich
      • • Vetsuisse-Faculty
      • • Clinic for Small Animal Medicine
      Zürich, Zurich, Switzerland
  • 2009
    • St. Luke's Hospital
      CID, Iowa, United States
    • Szent István University, Godollo
      • Department of Parasitology and Zoology
      Gödölö, Pest, Hungary
  • 1991-1995
    • Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich
      • Institut für Tierpathologie
      München, Bavaria, Germany