[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives:
To investigate changes in virulence-related genotypes and in the antimicrobial susceptibility of Bordetella pertussis isolates collected from the 1970s to 2014 in the northern part of China.
A total of 124 B. pertussis isolates from three periods, the 1970s, 2000-2008, and May 2013-Sept 2014, were typed by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and tested for antimicrobial susceptibility and virulence-related genes. A fragment of the 23S rRNA gene from each of the 99 isolates from 2013-2014 was amplified and sequenced.
All isolates from 2000-2008 and 2013-2014 were identified as ST2, whereas isolates from the 1970s were ST1. PtxA2/ptxC1/ptxP1/prn1/fim2-1/fim3-1/tcfA2, which was the same as the vaccine strain, was the only type in the 1970s. During the 2000s and 2013-2014, the virulence type ptxA1/ptxC1/ptxP1/prn1/fim2-1/fim3-1/tcfA2 was dominant, with frequencies of 68.4% and 91.9%, respectively. Nine ptxP3 strains, which were more virulent, were detected after 2000. All 124 isolates were susceptible to levofloxacin, sulphamethoxazole/trimethoprim and tetracycline. The isolates from the 1970s and 2000-2008 were susceptible to all tested macrolides, whereas 91.9% of the 2013-2014 isolates were highly resistant (minimal inhibitory concentration, MIC >256 μg/ml). No ptxP3 strain was resistant to macrolides. All erythromycin-resistant strains except for one had the A2047G mutation in the 23S rRNA gene.
Macrolide resistance of the B. pertussis population has been a serious problem in the northern part of China. Because most of the epidemic clone of the pathogen expresses the same antigen profiles as the vaccine strain, except ptxA, improvements in immunization strategies may prevent the spread of infection and drug resistance.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the last decade, the Streptococcus pneumoniae population has changed, mainly due to the abuse of antibiotics. The aim of this study was to determine the genetic structure of 144 S. pneumonia serotype 14 isolates collected from children with acute respiratory infections during 1997-2012 in China.
All isolated pneumococci were tested for their sensitivity to 11 kinds of antibiotics with the E-test method or disc diffusion. The macrolides resistance genes ermB and mefA, as well as the sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim resistance gene dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) were detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The sequence types (STs) were analyzed with multilocus sequence typing (MLST).
From 1997 to 2012, the percentage of serotype 14 S. pneumonia isolates in the whole isolates increased. All of the 144 serotype 14 S. pneumonia isolates were susceptible to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, vancomycin and levofloxacin. No penicillin resistant isolate was found, and the intermediate rate was as low as 0.7 %. Erythromycin resistance was confirmed among 143 isolates. The ermB gene was determined in all erythromycin resistant isolates, and the mefA gene was positive additionally in 13 of them. The non-susceptibility rate to the tested cephalosporins increased from 1997-2012. All trimethoprim-resistant isolates contained the Ile100-Leu mutation. Overall, 30 STs were identified, among which ST876 was the most prevalent, followed by ST875. During the study period, the percentage of CC876 increased from 0 % in 1997-2000 to 96.4 % in 2010-2012, whereas CC875 decreased from 84.2 to 0 %. CC876 showed higher non-susceptibility rates to β-lactam antibiotics than CC875.
The percentage of serotype 14 S. pneumonia isolates increased over time in China. The increase of resistance to β-lactam antibiotics in this serotype isolates was associated with the spread of CC876.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Haemophilus influenzae is one of the main pathogens that cause community-acquired respiratory infections in children. Our previous study showed that H. influenzae is the second most common pathogen causing pneumonia and accounts for 30–50% of bacterial meningitis among Chinese children. H. influenzae carriage in children and its resistance to commonly used antimicrobials varies widely both geographically and over time.
Surveys of the nasopharyngeal carriage of H. influenzae in children younger than 5 years of age with acute respiratory tract infection (ARI) were conducted in Beijing Children’s Hospital, China in 2000, 2002, 2010, and 2012. The overall annual carriage rates of H. influenzae among children younger than 5 years of age with ARI were 35.5%, 20.6%, 14.4%, and 18.7%, and the percentages of H. influenzae isolates producing β-lactamase were 4%, 13%, 27.1%, and 31%, respectively. The percentages of susceptibility to ampicillin progressively decreased from 96% (2000) to 87% (2002) to 63% (2010) to 61% (2012). All of the ampicillin-resistant isolates were found to be beta-lactamase producers. The susceptibility to tetracycline increased from 54% (2000) to 60% (2002) to 91.5% (2010) to 94.5% (2012). No statistically significant differences were observed in the susceptibility to cefaclor, cefuroxime, sulfamethoxazole, and chloramphenicol. Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and ceftriaxone were the most effective antimicrobials for the isolates of H. influenzae across the 10-year period.
This report on the H. influenzae carriage rates in children and the susceptibility of these bacteria to commonly used antibiotics showed that H. influenzae carriage decreased from 2000 to 2012. Additionally, the percentage of β-lactamase-producing isolates increased while their susceptibility to ampicillin progressively decreased during this time. These results indicate that the appropriate empirical antimicrobial therapy should be changed for pediatric patients in China.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective:
To investigate nasopharyngeal carriage rate, antimicrobial resistance and serotype distribution of Streptococcus pneumoniae among children with upper respiratory infection.
Nasopharygeal swabs were collected from children with upper respiratory infection visiting the outpatient department of Beijing Children′s Hospital between March 2013 and February 2014. The antibiotic susceptibility was tested by Etest method, and the serotype was determined by Quellung reaction.
The nasopharyngeal carriage rate for Streptococcus pneumoniae was 23.8% (699/2 941). One hundred isolates were randomly chosen for antimicrobial susceptiblity test and serotyping. Up to 98.0% isolates were susceptible to parenteral penicillin. The susceptible rate against oral penicillin, however, was 33.0%. The non-susceptible rate to erythromycin and azithromycin was 97.0%. The multi-drug resistance rate was up to 86.0%. The common serotypes were 6A(12.0%), 19F(12.0%), 6B(10.0%), 23F(9.0%) and 14(8.0%). The coverage rates of 7-, 10- and 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine were 41.0%, 42.0% and 59.0% respectively.
About 25% of children with upper respiratory infection are nasopharyngeal colonized by Streptococcus pneumoniae. The isolates show a high antimicrobial resistance. The 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine covers about 60.0% of the isolates.
No preview · Article · Oct 2014 · Zhongguo dang dai er ke za zhi = Chinese journal of contemporary pediatrics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective:
To study the clinical characteristics of whooping cough in neonates and the antimicrobial resistance of the bacterial isolates.
Clinical information of 7 neonates with whooping cough confirmed by bacterial culture was collected. The antimirobial resistance of the isolates was tested using E-test and disk diffusion methods.
The children′s mothers or other family members had cough for more than 10 days in 6 neonates, in which four neonates contacted with 3 or more family members with cough. All the neonates had rhinobyon and slight cough at the beginning of the disease. Five cases presented typical spasmodic cough after 4-7 days of the onset. Five cases displayed cyanosis, four cases occurred apnea, three cases suffered breath holding, and only two cases had fever. Nares flaring and three depression signs were found in the physical examination. No bacteriostatic ring around the erythromycin disks were found for five bacterial isolates. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) for erythromycin, azithromycin, clarithromycin and clindamycin were all >256 mg/L against the five isolates.
Whooping cough should be considered for neonates with respiratory symptoms and a history of close contact with respiratory infection patients. Macrolide-resistant Bordetella pertussis is common in children with whooping cough.
No preview · Article · Oct 2014 · Zhongguo dang dai er ke za zhi = Chinese journal of contemporary pediatrics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The recently determined serotypes 6C and 6D Streptococcus pneumoniae, as well as subtypes 6B-I and 6B-II, were not reported in China. Among the 171 invasive isolates, 19 were identified as serogroup 6. There were equal distribution (42.1%) of 6B-I and 6B-II, 15.8% of 6A and lack of 6C and 6D. Among 1662 noninvasive isolates, 210 were identified as serogroup 6. The rates of types 6A, 6B-I, 6B-II, 6C, and 6D were 42.4%, 21.0%, 29.1%, 4.8%, and 2.9%, respectively. Subtype 6B-II was more resistant to antibiotics than others. The main sequence types (STs) of serotype 6C and 6D isolates were ST2912 and ST982, respectively. These results suggested that all recognized types of serogroup 6 can be found in China and that subtype 6B-II was more drug resistant. The epidemic STs of serotype 6C and 6D did not show genetic association with the STs spreading in other countries.
No preview · Article · Jul 2011 · Diagnostic microbiology and infectious disease
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the epidemiology and molecular features of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) and methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) from children with skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) in Beijing, China, prospective community-acquired S. aureus SSTIs surveillance was conducted at the Beijing Children's Hospital, Beijing, China, for a 12-month period from August 1, 2008, to July 30, 2009. Susceptibility to 12 antimicrobials was determined by the agar dilution method. Genotypic characteristics of CA-MRSA isolates were tested by SCCmec typing, spa typing, and multilocus sequence typing. Panton-Valentine leukocidin gene was detected. Of 1104 cases, 31.8% (351) were community-acquired S. aureus. CA-MRSA accounted for 4% (14) of S. aureus. Among 14 CA-MRSA and 120 MSSA isolates tested, 100% and 91.7% were multidrug resistant, respectively. ST59-MRSA-IVa-t437 (42.9%) was the most common form of CA-MRSA. Spa typing analysis of 120 MSSA isolates was performed, followed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and multilocus sequence typing of a selected number of isolates. The most common spa types among MSSA were t084 (8.3%), t091 (5.8%), t034 (5%), t127 (4.2%), t002 (4.2%), and t796 (4.2%). No predominant spa type was seen. Of the MSSA isolates that could be classified into spa-CCs, 15.0% had a genetic background observed in CA-MRSA clones (spa-CC437, spa-CC342, and spa-CC377). Panton-Valentine Leukocidin (PVL)-positive community-acquired S. aureus strains were more commonly associated with skin abscesses than other SSTIs (29.4% versus 5.9%, P < 0.01).In conclusion, CA-MRSA infections are not common among Chinese children with SSTIs. Our findings show that MSSA strains in China have diverse genetic backgrounds.
No preview · Article · Mar 2010 · Diagnostic microbiology and infectious disease
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the nasopharyngeal carriage and antimicrobial susceptibility of H. influenzae among children younger than 5 years old and to assess antibiotics usage patterns in the outpatient department of Beijing Children's Hospital from 2000 to 2004.
From 2000 to 2004, At least 100 strains of H. influenzae were isolated from the pediatric patients who were younger than 5 years and who presented with symptoms of acute upper respiratory tract infections during February to May in each of the study years. Antimicrobial susceptibilities were determined; and antibiotics usage was expressed as defined daily dose (DDD)/100 patient days.
The overall nasopharyngeal carriage rate of H. influenzae is 26.3% (562/2,137) in children younger than 5 years old with acute upper respiratory tract infection. The percentage of ampicillin-resistant isolates ranges from 4.0% (4/100) to 14.3% (17/119) from 2000 to 2004. All the ampicillin-resistant isolates are beta-lactamase producers. More than 80% of the isolates are susceptible to amoxicillin, cefaclor, and chloramphenicol; whereas, almost all (99-100%) of the isolates are sensitive to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, ceftriaxone, and cefuroxime. For antibiotics utilization, macrolides are the predominantly used antibiotics, followed by cephalosporins and penicillins among pediatric patients in the outpatient department during the study period.
All amoxicillin-resistant isolates of H. influenzae are producing beta-Lactamase; and the rates of amoxicillin-resistant isolates are increasing over time. Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and cephalosporins are highly sensitive to H. influenzae isolated from Chinese pediatric patients. Macrolides are the most used antibiotics in the outpatient department during the study period.
No preview · Article · May 2008 · Pediatric Pulmonology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study investigated macrolide-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae carried by Beijing children presenting with respiratory tract infections. Nasopharyngeal S. pneumoniae strains were tested for sensitivity with 15 antibiotics and further analyzed for phenotypes of macrolide-resistant strains and by PCR for the macrolide-resistant genes ermB, mefA, tetM, and integrase of conjugative transposon (Tn1545) intTn. We found 185 strains of S. pneumoniae relatively highly resistant to erythromycin (78.9%), clindamycin (76.2%), tetracycline (86%), and SMZ-TMP (78.7%) but with relatively low resistance to amoxicillin (2.2%), cefaclor (15.5%), ceftriaxone (2.8%), and cefuroxime (14.1%). The 146 strains of erythromycin-resistant S. pneumoniae showed extensive cross-resistance to other macrolides like azithromycin (100%), clarithromycin (100%), acetylspiramycin (95.2%), and clindamycin (95.9%). Genes ermB and mefA were detected in all erythromycin-resistant strains, with ermB(+) 79.5%, ermB + mefA(+) 17.8%, and mefA(+) 2.7%. About 96.9% of tetracycline-resistant isolates were positive for tetM, compared to 26.9% of sensitive strains. Ninety percent of tetracycline-resistant strains were also erythromycin-resistant versus 11.5% of tetracycline-sensitive strains. The intTn gene was present in 87.6% of S. pneumoniae strains and correlated with erythromycin and tetracycline resistance. The close relationship between the conjugative transposon Tn1545 and the genes ermB and tetM is probably one of the important mechanisms explaining the multiple drug resistance of S. pneumoniae.
No preview · Article · Feb 2008 · Microbial Drug Resistance
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present study was designed to investigate the situation of serotype distribution and beta-lactam antibiotics resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae) isolated from Chinese children, and to further understand the significance of vaccine for preventing infection caused by the bactria and controlling the resistance to antibiotics.
Nasopharageal swab specimens were collected from randomly selected less than 5-year-old out-patients with upper respiratory infection in Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou, 2000 - 2002. Capsular typing was performed by the Quellung reaction tested using a simplified chessboard system for typing of S. pneumoniae. The coverage rate of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (4, 6B, 9V, 14, 18C, 19F and 23F) was calculated. Antibiotic susceptibility was determined by E-test MIC method for beta-lactam antibiotics (penicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, cefaclor, cefuroxime and ceftriaxone).
Totally 625 pneumococcal strains were typed. Serogroup 19, including 121 strains, was the most frequent serogroup observed (19.4%). Other frequently observed serotypes/serogroups in decreasing order of frequency were serotype/serogroups 23 (15.4%), 6 (13.3%), 14 (6.6%) and 15 (4.3%). Of all these isolates, about 57.6% (360/625) were in the 7-valent conjugate vaccine. Only 1, 6 and 12 strains were serotypes/serogroups 4, 9 and 18, respectively. The coverage rate for the 7-valent vaccine of penicillin nonsusceptible S. pneumoniae (PNSP) was higher than penicillin susceptible S. pneumoniae (PSSP) (73.2% and 46.1%). Serogroups 19 and 23, without other serotypes/serogroups, were significantly associated with PNSP (serogroup 19 accounted for 29.1% of PNSP and 12.2% of PSSP; serogroup 23 accounted for 23.8% of PNSP to 9.2% of PSSP). Overall, 140 strains (22.4%) could not be typed by using the chessboard system, and 117 strains (18.7%) were identified as other 28 kinds of serotype/serogroup. The strains showed different resistance change for beta-lactam antibiotics according to different serotype/serogroup during the three years.
Serotype/Serogroup 19, 23, 6, 14 and 15 were the common types among the pneumococcal strains isolated from Chinese children. Serogroups 19 and 23 were significantly associated with PNSP. The 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine could cover most of the islotes.
No preview · Article · Jan 2007 · Zhonghua er ke za zhi. Chinese journal of pediatrics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Haemophilus (H.) influenzae is a gram-negative bacillus that is a common commensal organism of the human upper respiratory tract and an important cause of human diseases such as pneumonia, meningitis, septicemia, epiglottitis and cellulitis. Strains of H. influenzae are classified according to their capsular polysaccharide. There are six serotypes, designated as a through f. In addition, there are nonencapsulated strains. Although the type of infectious diseases caused by H. influenzae has changed considerably in recent years because of the widespread and routine immunization of children against type b H. influenzae (Hib), Hib remains an important pathogen. Ampicillin is the drug of choice for treating many infections caused by H. influenzae, but its usefulness has been compromised by the increasing prevalence of ampicillin-resistant strains. The continued monitoring of resistant strains by using genotyping methods may provide insights into the epidemiology of transmission. A molecular epidemiological study of ampicillin-resistant H. influenzae derived from nasopharyngeal swabs specimens of children less than 5 years of age with respiratory tract infection were investigated in this study.
A total of 899 isolates were collected from Beijing, Shanghai, and Guangzhou during 2000-2003. Susceptibility to ampicillin was determined by using E-test. Ampicillin-resistant H. influenzae strains were selected according to National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS) 2002 breakpoints. Nested PCR method with primers specific for bexA gene and b capsulate type-specific gene was established. Genotyping by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multiplex PCR assay was performed for all ampicillin-resistant H. influenzae strains.
Seventy-four ampicillin-resistant H. influenzae strains were obtained. Two strains were positive by nested PCR, characterized as b genotype. The incidence of Hib in ampicillin-resistant H. influenzae strains was 2.7%; 38 genotypes were detected by PFGE. Detection of five types strains of clonal dissemination by PFGE accounted for 55.4% in all ampicillin-resistant H. influenzae strains. Among them eighteen H. influenzae strains belonged to one type, accounted for 24.3% in all ampicillin-resistant H. influenzae strains. Thirty one genotypes were identified by multiplex PCR assay for ampicillin-resistant H. influenzae. The identity ratio of PFGE and multiplex PCR was 63.5%.
In Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou areas 55.4% of ampicillin-resistant H. influenzae strains had clonal dissemination during the 4 years.
No preview · Article · Oct 2005 · Zhonghua er ke za zhi. Chinese journal of pediatrics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To analyze the mechanisms of macrolide resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae from children in Beijing.
The MICs of penicillin and erythromycin were determined by the E-test methods for 200 Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates collected from 2002 to 2003 at Beijing Children's Hospital. MICs of azithrhomycin, clarithromycin, acetylspiramycin and clindamycin for 147 erythromycin-resistant isolates were detected by the agar dilution methods. For phenotyping, macrolide resistance induction tests were used in erythromycin-resistant isolates. PCR was used to determine the presence of the erythromycin-resistant genes.
Of 200 Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates, 89.5% were resistant to erythromycin. In 147 erythromycin-resistant isolates, resistance rates were as follows: azithromycin, 100%; clarithromycin, 100%; acetylspiramycin, 95.2%; and clindamycin, 95.9%. The most common macrolide resistance phenotype was the cMIS phenotype (95.9%), 1.4% had the iMLS phenotype and 2.7% the M phenotype. Erythromycin-resistant isolates were characterized for the underlying resistance genotype, with 79.6% having the ermB genotypes, 17.7% having both ermB and mefA, 2.7% having the mefA, and none having neither ermB nor mefA genotypes.
The rates of carriage of macrolide-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae by children were high in Beijing during 2002 - 2003. cMLS was the most prevalent phenotype among erythromycin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates, and ribosomal modification (ermB gene coded) was the main resistance mechanism against macrolides in Beijing region.
No preview · Article · Jan 2005 · Zhonghua er ke za zhi. Chinese journal of pediatrics