Léder Leal Xavier

Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul, Pôrto de São Francisco dos Casaes, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

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Publications (66)130.17 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: We demonstrate in this paper that although there are statistical differences for all morphometric data [axon length, axon diameter, myelinated fiber diameter and degree of the myelination (g-Ratio)] between the fibers of recurrent laryngeal nerve right and left, the surface area/volume ratio in the fibers of both nerves is exactly the same (1/1.7). Thereby, this paper presents the hypothesis that this similarity between the nerves can actually trigger a considerable synchrony in mobility of the intrinsic muscles of the larynx that control of the vocal folds.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Medical Hypotheses
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    ABSTRACT: The goal of the current study was to evaluate the effects of electrical stimulation (ES) on the arterial baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) and cardiovascular autonomic control in rats with chronic heart failure (CHF). Male Wistar rats were designated to one of four groups: placebo sham (P-Sham, n=9), ES sham (ES-Sham, n=9), placebo CHF (P-CHF, n=9) or ES CHF (ES-CHF, n=9). The ES was adjusted at a low frequency (30Hz), duration of 250μs, with hold and rest time of 8s (4weeks, 30min/day, 5times/week). It was applied on the gastrocnemius muscle with intensity to produce a visible muscle contraction. The rats assigned to the placebo groups performed the same procedures with the equipment turned off. The two-way ANOVA and the post hoc Student-Newman-Keuls tests (P<0.05) were used to data comparison. The BRS was higher in ES-Sham group compared to the P-Sham group and the ES-CHF group compared to the P-CHF group. ES was able to decrease heart rate sympatho-vagal modulation and peripheral sympathetic modulation in ES-CHF compared to P-CHF group. Interestingly, heart rate sympatho-vagal modulation was similar between ES-CHF and P-Sham groups. Thus, ES enhances heart rate parasympathetic modulation on heart failure (ES-CHF) compared to placebo (P-CHF), with consequent decrease of sympatho-vagal balance in the ES-CHF group compared to the P-CHF. The results show that a 4week ES protocol in CHF rats enhances arterial BRS and cardiovascular autonomic control.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2015 · Autonomic neuroscience: basic & clinical
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    ABSTRACT: Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) progressively affects cognitive domains, increases blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability and promotes neurovascular impairment in specific brain areas. Physical exercise, on the other hand, has beneficial effects on brain functions, improving learning and memory. This study investigated the effects of treadmill training on cognitive and motor behavior, and on the expression of proteins related to BBB integrity, such as claudin-5 and aquaporin-4 (AQP4) in the hippocampus and striatum in diabetic rats. For this study, 60 Wistar rats were divided into four groups (n=15 per group): non-trained control (NTC), trained control (TC), non-trained diabetic (NTD), trained diabetic (TD). 30 days after diabetic induction by streptozotocin injection, the exercise groups were submitted to 5 weeks of running training. After that, all groups were assessed in a novel object- recognition task (NOR) and the rotarod test. Additionally, claudin-5 and AQP4 levels were measured using biochemical assays. The results showed that exercise enhanced NOR task performance and rotarod ability in the TC and TD animals. Diabetes produced a decrease in claudin-5 expression in the hippocampus and striatum and reduced AQP4 in the hippocampus. Exercise preserved the claudin-5 content in the striatum of TD rats, but not in the hippocampus. The reduction of AQP4 levels produced by diabetes was not reversed by exercise. We conclude that exercise improves short-term memory retention, enhances motor performance in diabetic rats and affects important structural components of the striatal BBB. The results obtained could enhance the knowledge regarding the neurochemical benefits of exercise in diabetes. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
    No preview · Article · May 2015 · Brain research
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    ABSTRACT: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is an important health problem that is often associated to stress. One of the main brain regions related to MDD is the ventral tegmental area (VTA), a dopaminergic center, part of the reward and motivation circuitry. Recent studies show that changes to VTA dopaminergic neurons are associated with depression and treatment. Ketamine has recently shown a fast, potent antidepressant effect in acute, sub-anesthetic doses. Thus, our aims were to elucidate if ketamine would be able to revert depression-like behaviors induced by a chronic unpredictable stress (CUS) protocol and if it could cause alterations to metabolism and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-immunoreactivity in VTA. For this, 48 Wistar rats were divided into four groups: control + saline (CTRL + SAL), control + ketamine (CTRL + KET), CUS + saline (CUS + SAL), CUS + ketamine (CUS + KET). The CUS groups underwent 28 days of CUS protocol. Saline or ketamine (10 mg/kg) was administered intraperitonially once on day 28. The behavior was assessed by the sucrose preference test, the open field test, and the forced swim test. Glucose brain metabolism was assessed and quantified with microPET. TH-immunoreactivity was assessed by estimating neuronal density and regional and cellular optical densities. A decrease in sucrose intake in the CUS groups and an increase in immobility was rapidly reverted by ketamine (p < 0.05). No difference was observed in the open field test. There was no alteration to VTA metabolism and TH-immunoreaction. These results suggest that the depressive-like behavior induced by CUS and the antidepressant effects of ketamine are unrelated to changes in neuronal metabolism or dopamine production in VTA.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2015 · Neurochemical Research
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    ABSTRACT: This study evaluated the effects of resveratrol on locomotor behaviors, neuronal and glial densities, and tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity in the substantia nigra pars compacta of rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes. Animals were divided into four groups: non-diabetic rats treated with saline (SAL), non-diabetic rats treated with resveratrol (RSV), diabetic rats treated with saline (DM) and diabetic rats treated with resveratrol (DM+RSV). The animals received oral gavage with resveratrol (20 mg/kg) for 35 days. The open field test and the bar test were performed to evaluate bradykinesia and akinesia, respectively. The Nissl-stained neuronal and glial densities and the dopaminergic neuronal density were estimated using planar morphometry. Tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity was evaluated using regional and cellular optical densitometry. In relation to the locomotor behaviors, it was observed that the DM group developed akinesia, which was attenuated by resveratrol in the DM+RSV group, while the DM and DM+RSV groups showed bradykinesia. Our main morpho-physiological results demonstrated: a decrease in the cellular tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity in the DM group, which was attenuated by resveratrol in the DM+RSV group; a higher neuronal density in the RSV group, when compared to the DM and DM+RSV groups; an increase in the glial density in the DM group, which was also reversed by resveratrol in the DM+RSV group. Resveratrol treatment prevents akinesia development and restores neuronal tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity and glial density in the substantia nigra pars compacta of diabetic rats, suggesting that this polyphenol could be a potential therapeutic option against diabetes-induced nigrostriatal dysfunctions.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2014 · Brain Research
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    ABSTRACT: Stroke, broadly subdivided into ischemic and hemorrhagic subtypes, is a serious health-care problem worldwide. Previous studies have suggested ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke could present different functional recovery patterns. However, little attention has been given to this neurobiological finding. Coincidently, astrocyte morphology could be related to improved sensorimotor recovery after skilled reaching training and modulated by physical exercise and environmental enrichment. Therefore, it is possible that astrocyte morphology might be linked to differential recovery patterns between ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke. Thus, we decided to compare long-term GFAP-positive astrocyte morphology after ischemic (IS, n=5), hemorrhagic (HS, n=5) and sham (S, n=5) stroke groups (induced by endothelin-1, collagenase type IV-S and salina, respectively). Our results showed ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke subtypes induced similar long-term GFAP-positive astrocyte plasticity (P>0.05) for all evaluated measures (regional and cellular optical density; astrocytic primary processes ramification and length; density of GFAP positive astrocytes) in perilesional sensorimotor cortex and striatum. These interesting negative results discourage similar studies focused on long-term plasticity of GFAP-positive astrocyte morphology and recovery comparison of stroke subtypes.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2014 · Behavioural Brain Research
  • F. Simão · P.S. Alvarez · M. Hemb · L.L. Xavier · M.L. Nunes

    No preview · Article · Sep 2014 · Epilepsy & Behavior
  • Deivis de Campos · Geraldo Pereira Jotz · Layana Heck · Léder Leal Xavier
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    ABSTRACT: Tongue movements are critical for speech, swallowing, and respiration; and tongue dysfunction could lead to dysarthria, dysphagia, and obstructive sleep apnea, respectively. Our current understanding of the contributions of specific tongue muscles (TOs) to precise movement patterns is limited. Likewise, there is still little information regarding the orientation of histologic muscle fibers of the tongue in humans, especially between men and women. Thus, the aim of this study was to compare the histologic organization in the tongue of men and women. Ten tongues were studied in human specimens obtained from necropsies (five men and five women). The muscles were analyzed using histology, and the morphometric parameters were measured using Image Pro-Plus Software (Image Pro-Plus 6.0; Media Cybernetics, Silver Spring, MD). Slices were obtained from the anterior, median, and posterior parts of the tongue. We classified and estimated the percentages of transverse (T), oblique (O), and longitudinal (L) fibers in the tongue. To quantify the percentage of fibers in each category in the tongue, the shape coefficient (Shape Z) was estimated. Statistical differences were found between the orientation of the muscle fibers of men and women only for the middle region of the tongue. The middle region of the tongue in women compared with men has a smaller difference in the variation of the percentage of fibers T (P = 0.0004), O (P = 0.0006), and L (P = 0.0013). These morphologic findings are probably related to physiological differences.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2014
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    ABSTRACT: Exercise training has neuroprotective effects whereas myocardial infarction (MI) and heart failure (HF) can cause neuronal death and reactive gliosis in the whole amygdala. The posterodorsal medial amygdala (MePD) is involved with cardiovascular reflexes and the central control of sympathetic/parasympathetic responses. Our aim was to study the effects of prior exercise training and of MI-induced HF on the neuronal and glial densities and the glial fibrillary acidic protein-immunoreactivity (GFAP-ir) in the MePD of adult male rats. Animals (n= 5/group) were: control, sedentary submitted to a sham MI (Sed Sham), sedentary submitted to MI/HF (Sed HF), trained on a treadmill and submitted to a sham MI (T Sham) or trained on a treadmill and submitted to MI/HF (T HF). The number of neurons and glial cells in the MePD was estimated using the optical fractionator and the GFAP-ir was quantified by optical densitometry. In the respective groups, treadmill training improved physical performance and MI damaged near 40% of the left ventricle. There was a hemispheric lateralization effect on the density of neurons (higher in the right MePD), but no significant difference in either the neuronal or the glial densities due to experimental condition. Regional GFAP-ir results revealed that the Sed HF group had a higher expression in the left MePD compared to the control and the Sed Sham rats (p⟨0.01). The present data did not evidence the effects of training or MI/HF in the MePD cellular density, but indicate a possible local restructuring of astrocytic cytoskeleton after MI/HF in rats.
    Full-text · Article · May 2014 · Histology and histopathology
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    ABSTRACT: Lesions with great loss of skin and extensive burns are usually treated with heterologous skin grafts, which may lead rejection. Cell therapy with mesenchymal stem cells is arising as a new proposal to accelerate the healing process. We tested a new therapy consisting of sodium carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) as a biomaterial, in combination with adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs), to treat skin lesions in an in vivo rat model. This biomaterial did not affect membrane viability and induced a small and transient genotoxicity, only at the highest concentration tested (40 mg/mL). In a rat wound model, CMC at 10 mg/mL associated with ADSCs increased the rate of cell proliferation of the granulation tissue and epithelium thickness when compared to untreated lesions (Sham), but did not increase collagen fibers nor alter the overall speed of wound closure. Taken together, the results show that the CMC is capable to allow the growth of ADSCs and is safe for this biological application up to the concentration of 20 mg/mL. These findings suggest that CMC is a promising biomaterial to be used in cell therapy.
    Full-text · Article · May 2014 · PLoS ONE
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    ABSTRACT: Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is a public health problem. The hamster buccal pouch model is ideal for analyzing the development of OSCC. This research analysed the effects of sunitinib (tyrosine kinase inhibitor) in precancerous lesions induced by 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) in this model. Thirty-four male hamsters, divided into six groups: control-C (n = 7), acetone-A (n = 12), carbamide peroxide-CP (n = 5 ), acetone and CP-A+CP (n = 8), 1% DMBA in acetone and CP-DA+CP (n = 6), and 1% DMBA in acetone and CP and 4-week treatment with sunitinib-DA+CP+S (n = 7). The aspects evaluated were anatomopathological features (peribuccal area, paws, nose, and fur), histological sections of the hamster buccal pouches (qualitatively analyzed), epithelium thickness, and the rete ridge density (estimated). Sunitinib was unable to attenuate the decrease in weight gain induced by DMBA; no increase in volume was detected in the pouch and/or ulceration, observed in 43% of the animals in the DA+CP group. DA+CP groups presented a significant increase in rete ridge density compared to the control groups (P < 0.01) which was reverted by sunitinib in the DA+CP+S group. Sunitinib seems to have important benefits in early stage carcinogenesis and may be useful in chemoprevention.
    Preview · Article · Feb 2014
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    ABSTRACT: It has been recently shown that enriched environment led to a significant benefit in learning and retention of visual-spatial memory, being able to reverse the cognitive impairment generated by undernourishment and recurrent seizures. We investigated the hippocampal morphological effects of recurrent seizures and undernourishment early in life in Wistar rats and the possible benefits produced by the enriched environment in these conditions. The morphological parameters stereologically evaluated were hippocampal volume, thickness of pyramidal stratum of the CA1 subfield and neuronal and glial densities in the same subfield. Male Wistar rats were divided into eight groups including nourished, nourished+enriched environment, nourished+recurrent seizures, nourished+recurrent seizures+enriched environment, undernourished, undernourished+enriched environment, undernourished+recurrent seizures and undernourished+recurrent seizures+ enriched environment. Undernourishement model consisted in nutritional deprivation regimen from post-natal day 2 (P2) to P15. From P8 to P10, recurrent seizures group were induced by flurothyl three times per day. Enriched environment groups were exposed between P21 and P51. Our main findings were: 1- Animals submitted to the enriched environment showed an increased hippocampal volume; 2- Enriched environment promotes increases in the thickness of the pyramidal layer in hippocampal CA1 subfield in animals nourished and undernourished with recurrent seizures; 3- Undernourishment during early development decreased neuronal density in CA1 and CA3 subfields. Our findings show that these three conditions induces important changes in hippocampal morphology, the most deleterious changes are induced by undernourishment and recurrent seizures, while more beneficial morphological changes are produced by enriched environment.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2013 · International journal of developmental neuroscience: the official journal of the International Society for Developmental Neuroscience
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    ABSTRACT: Glutaric aciduria type I (GA-I) is characterized by accumulation of glutaric acid (GA) and neurological symptoms, such as cognitive impairment. Although this disease is related to oxidative stress and inflammation, it is not known whether these processes facilitate the memory impairment. Our objective was to investigate the performance of rat pups chronically injected with GA and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in spatial memory test, antioxidant defenses, cytokines levels, Na+, K+-ATPase activity, and hippocampal volume. We also evaluated the effect of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) on theses markers. Rat pups were injected with GA (5umol g of body weight-1, subcutaneously; twice per day; from 5th to 28th day of life), and were supplemented with NAC (150mg/kg/day; intragastric gavage; for the same period). LPS (2mg/kg; E.coli 055 B5) or vehicle (saline 0.9%) was injected intraperitoneally, once per day, from 25th to 28th day of life. Oxidative stress and inflammatory biomarkers as well as hippocampal volume were assessed. GA caused spatial learning deficit in the Barnes maze and LPS potentiated this effect. GA and LPS increased TNF-α and IL-1β levels. The co-administration of these compounds potentiated the increase of IL-1β levels but not TNF-α levels in the hippocampus. GA and LPS increased TBARS (thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance) content, reduced antioxidant defenses and inhibited Na+, K+-ATPase activity. GA and LPS co-administration did not have additive effect on oxidative stress markers and Na+, K+ pump. The hippocampal volume did not change after GA or LPS administration. NAC protected against impairment of spatial learning and increase of cytokines levels. NAC Also protected against inhibition of Na+,K+-ATPase activity and oxidative markers. These results suggest that inflammatory and oxidative markers may underlie at least in part of the neuropathology of GA-I in this model. Thus, NAC could represent a possible adjuvant therapy in treatment of children with GA-I.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2013 · PLoS ONE
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    ABSTRACT: This study is a morphologic description of the recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) and of the number and size of motor units (MUs) in the thyroarytenoid (TA) muscle bilaterally of a human fetus aged 25 weeks. A quantitative analysis of RLN and MUs is presented to investigate similarities with equivalent structures in adults. In the fetus used in our study, the morphologic organization of the RLN was similar to that commonly described in the adult RLN. Moreover, as is observed in adult TA, the TA of the analyzed fetus, particularly the right TA, showed MUs typical of muscles with great motor accuracy. These results may be used to increase our knowledge of the features of the voice in adults and newborns.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2013
  • Deivis de Campos · Layana Heck · Geraldo Pereira Jotz · Léder Leal Xavier
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    ABSTRACT: The g-ratio (estimated by dividing the axon diameter by the myelinated fiber diameter) can be useful to the evaluation of the relationship between nerve conduction velocity and fiber morphology during peripheral nerve regeneration. However, there is little detailed information about the g-ratio of the human recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN), especially between men and women. The objective of this study was to investigate the g-ratio of the RLN by quantifying histomorphometric data (axon diameter and myelinated fiber diameter) in the RLN of men and women. The RLN was bilaterally studied in human specimens obtained from necropsies (seven men and seven women). The nerves were analyzed using histology, and the morphometric parameters were measured using Image Pro-Plus Software (Image Pro-Plus 6.0; Media Cybernetics, Silver Spring, MD, USA). When compared with the RLN of the women, the parameters of the RLN of the men are significantly larger, as shown by the axon diameter (19.0 %) (P = 0.0001), myelinated fiber diameter (7.1 %) (P = 0.0497), and g-ratio (12.5 %) (P = 0.0005). Our findings demonstrated that there are morphological asymmetries between the g-ratio (degree of the myelination) of the masculine and feminine RLN. These morphological findings are probably related to physiological differences.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2013 · Archives of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: The present study evaluated HLA-G gene polymorphisms in patients with aggressive periodontitis (AP), chronic periodontitis (CP) and healthy controls. Methods: The insertion/deletion (ins/del) polymorphism of 14 bp and a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) C>G on the position +3142 of the 3’ untranslated region (UTR) of the gene were analyzed in AP (n=24), CP (n=62) patients and healthy control (n=47). Results: It was observed a significant deviation from Hardy–Weinberg expectations in the CP group, considering the 14 bp ins/del, but not in the others groups. No significant deviations were observed in patients and control groups considering the +3142 C>G SNP. In the CP group it was observed a significantly increased frequency of homozygotes for the 14 bp del allele as compared to controls. The CP group presented a higher frequency of the del allele, which was marginally not significant. Concerning this polymorphism, no significant differences were observed between the AP and healthy control groups. No significant differences were observed among patients and controls when considering the +3142 C>G SNP frequencies. An increased frequency of the del/G haplotype in CP patients and a decreased frequency of the ins/G haplotype with no statistical significance. Conclusion: No differences were found among patients (CP and AG) and controls when considering the +3142 C>G SNP haplotypes frequencies, but a significant increased frequency of homozygotes for the 14 bp del allele was observed in CP patients compared to healthy controls, suggesting a susceptibility role of this polymorphism in the pathogenesis of this condition.
    No preview · Conference Paper · Mar 2013
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    ABSTRACT: This study investigated the sexual dimorphism in the recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) and thyroarytenoid (TA) muscle, which control the vocal fold. The RLN and TA were bilaterally studied in human specimens obtained from necropsies (seven men and seven women). Analysis of the morphometric parameters showed that the RLN of the men were significantly larger, as shown by the intraperineural area (42.5%) (P=0.006), total number of fibers (38.0%) (P=0.0002), axonal area (34.3%) (P=0.0001), axonal diameter (19.0%) (P=0.0001), and the area of the nerve occupied by myelinated fibers (34.9%) (P=0.001). By contrast, in women, our results showed that the area of the RLN occupied by endoneurial connective tissue was larger (5.7%) (P=0.001). Estimation of the fiber area and shape coefficient showed that the histologic organization of TA is similar in men and women. These results may contribute toward enhancing our understanding about the voice neurobiology.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2013 · Journal of voice: official journal of the Voice Foundation
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    ABSTRACT: The medial nucleus (Me) is a superficial component of the amygdaloid complex. Here, we assessed the density and morphology of the neurons and glial cells, the glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) immunoreactivity and the ultrastructure of the synaptic sites in the human Me. The optical fractionator method was applied. The Me presented an estimated mean neuronal density of 1.53 × 10(5) neurons/mm(3) (greater in the left hemisphere), more glia (72% of all cells) than neurons and a nonneuronal/neuronal ratio of 2.7. Golgi-impregnated neurons had round or ovoid, fusiform, angular and polygonal cell bodies (10 to30 μm in diameter). The length of the dendrites varied, and pleomorphic spines were found in sparsely spiny or densely spiny cells (1.5 to 5.2 spines/dendritic μm). The axons in the Me neuropil were fine or coarsely beaded and fibers showed simple or notably complex collateral terminations. The protoplasmic astrocytes were either isolated or formed small clusters and showed GFAP-immunoreactive cell bodies and multiple branches. Further, we identified both asymmetrical (with various small, clear, round electron-lucent vesicles and, occasionally, large dense-core vesicles) and symmetrical (with small flattened vesicles) axo-dendritic contacts, also including multisynaptic spines. The astrocytes surround and may compose tripartite or tetrapartite synapses, this latter including the extracellular matrix between the pre- and post-synaptic elements. Interestingly, the terminal axons exhibited a glomerular-like structure with various asymmetric contacts. These new morphological data about the cellular population and synaptic complexity of the human Me can contribute to our knowledge of its role in health and pathological conditions. J. Comp. Neurol., 2012. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2013 · The Journal of Comparative Neurology
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    ABSTRACT: Stroke causes disability and mortality worldwide and is divided into ischemic and hemorrhagic subtypes. Although clinical trials suggest distinct recovery profiles for ischemic and hemorrhagic events, this is not conclusive due to stroke heterogeneity. The aim of this study was to produce similar brain damage, using experimental models of ischemic (IS) and hemorrhagic (HS) stroke and evaluate the motor spontaneous recovery profile. We used 31 Wistar rats divided into the following groups: Sham (n=7), ischemic (IS) (n=12) or hemorrhagic (HS) (n=12). Brain ischemia or hemorrhage was induced by endotelin-1 (ET-1) and collagenase type IV-S (collagenase) microinjections, respectively. All groups were evaluated in the open field, cylinder and ladder walk behavioral tests at distinct time points as from baseline to 30 days post-surgery (30 PS). Histological and morphometric analyses were used to assess the volume of lost tissue and lesion length. Present results reveal that both forms of experimental stroke had a comparable long-term pattern of damage, since no differences were found in volume of tissue lost or lesion size 30 days after surgery. However, behavioral data showed that hemorrhagic rats were less impaired at skilled walking than ischemic ones at 15 and 30 days post-surgery. We suggest that experimentally comparable stroke design is useful because it reduces heterogeneity and facilitates the assessment of neurobiological differences related to stroke subtypes; and that spontaneous skilled walking recovery differs between experimental ischemic and hemorrhagic insults.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2013 · Behavioural brain research
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    ABSTRACT: Physical exercise has an important influence on brain plasticity, which affects the neuron-glia interaction. Astrocytes are susceptible to plasticity, and induce and stabilize synapses, regulate the concentration of various molecules, and support neuronal energy metabolism. The aim of our study was to investigate whether physical exercise is capable of altering the morphology, density and expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) in astrocytes from the CA1 region of rat hippocampus. Thirteen male rats were divided in two groups: sedentary (n = 6) and exercise (n = 7). The animals in the exercise group were submitted to a protocol of daily physical exercise on a treadmill for four consecutive weeks. GFAP immunoreactivity was evaluated using optical densitometry and the morphological analyses were an adaptation of Sholl's concentric circles method. Our results show that physical exercise is capable of increasing the density of GFAP-positive astrocytes as well as the regional and cellular GFAP expression. In addition, physical exercise altered astrocytic morphology as shown by the increase observed in the degree of ramification in the lateral quadrants and in the length of the longest astrocytic processes in the central quadrants. Our data demonstrate important changes in astrocytes promoted by physical exercise, supporting the idea that these cells are involved in regulating neural activity and plasticity.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2013 · Brain Structure and Function

Publication Stats

863 Citations
130.17 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2005-2015
    • Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul
      • • Departamento de Ciências Morfofisiológias
      • • Faculdade de Biociências
      • • Laboratório de Neurociências
      Pôrto de São Francisco dos Casaes, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil
  • 2014
    • Universidade Federal de Ciências da Saúde de Porto Alegre
      • Department of Basic Health Sciences
      Pôrto de São Francisco dos Casaes, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil
  • 2011
    • Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio de Janeiro
      Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
  • 1999-2011
    • Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
      • • Institute of Basic Sciences and Health
      • • Departamento de Ciências Morfológicas
      Pôrto de São Francisco dos Casaes, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil
  • 2007
    • Pontifícia Universidade Católica de Minas Gerais
      • Departamento de Ciências Biológicas
      Cidade de Minas, Minas Gerais, Brazil