Arlene B Chapman

Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, United States

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Publications (169)1186.33 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) often results in ESRD but with a highly variable course. Mutations to PKD1 or PKD2 cause ADPKD; both loci have high levels of allelic heterogeneity. We evaluated genotype-phenotype correlations in 1119 patients (945 families) from the HALT Progression of PKD Study and the Consortium of Radiologic Imaging Study of PKD Study. The population was defined as: 77.7% PKD1, 14.7% PKD2, and 7.6% with no mutation detected (NMD). Phenotypic end points were sex, eGFR, height-adjusted total kidney volume (htTKV), and liver cyst volume. Analysis of the eGFR and htTKV measures showed that the PKD1 group had more severe disease than the PKD2 group, whereas the NMD group had a PKD2-like phenotype. In both the PKD1 and PKD2 populations, men had more severe renal disease, but women had larger liver cyst volumes. Compared with nontruncating PKD1 mutations, truncating PKD1 mutations associated with lower eGFR, but the mutation groups were not differentiated by htTKV. PKD1 nontruncating mutations were evaluated for conservation and chemical change and subdivided into strong (mutation strength group 2 [MSG2]) and weak (MSG3) mutation groups. Analysis of eGFR and htTKV measures showed that patients with MSG3 but not MSG2 mutations had significantly milder disease than patients with truncating cases (MSG1), an association especially evident in extreme decile populations. Overall, we have quantified the contribution of genic and PKD1 allelic effects and sex to the ADPKD phenotype. Intrafamilial correlation analysis showed that other factors shared by families influence htTKV, with these additional genetic/environmental factors significantly affecting the ADPKD phenotype.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Journal of the American Society of Nephrology
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    ABSTRACT: Background and objectives: Our study developed a fully automated method for segmentation and volumetric measurements of kidneys from magnetic resonance images in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease and assessed the performance of the automated method with the reference manual segmentation method. Design, setting, participants, & measurements: Study patients were selected from the Consortium for Radiologic Imaging Studies of Polycystic Kidney Disease. At the enrollment of the Consortium for Radiologic Imaging Studies of Polycystic Kidney Disease Study in 2000, patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease were between 15 and 46 years of age with relatively preserved GFRs. Our fully automated segmentation method was on the basis of a spatial prior probability map of the location of kidneys in abdominal magnetic resonance images and regional mapping with total variation regularization and propagated shape constraints that were formulated into a level set framework. T2-weighted magnetic resonance image sets of 120 kidneys were selected from 60 patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease and divided into the training and test datasets. The performance of the automated method in reference to the manual method was assessed by means of two metrics: Dice similarity coefficient and intraclass correlation coefficient of segmented kidney volume. The training and test sets were swapped for crossvalidation and reanalyzed. Results: Successful segmentation of kidneys was performed with the automated method in all test patients. The segmented kidney volumes ranged from 177.2 to 2634 ml (mean, 885.4±569.7 ml). The mean Dice similarity coefficient ±SD between the automated and manual methods was 0.88±0.08. The mean correlation coefficient between the two segmentation methods for the segmented volume measurements was 0.97 (P<0.001 for each crossvalidation set). The results from the crossvalidation sets were highly comparable. Conclusions: We have developed a fully automated method for segmentation of kidneys from abdominal magnetic resonance images in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease with varying kidney volumes. The performance of the automated method was in good agreement with that of manual method.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology
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    ABSTRACT: African Americans suffer a higher prevalence of hypertension compared with other racial/ethnic groups. In this study, we performed a pharmacogenomic genome-wide association study of blood pressure (BP) response to β-blockers in African Americans with uncomplicated hypertension. Genome-wide meta-analysis was performed in 318 African American hypertensive participants in the 2 Pharmacogenomic Evaluation of Antihypertensive Responses studies: 150 treated with atenolol monotherapy and 168 treated with metoprolol monotherapy. The analysis adjusted for age, sex, baseline BP and principal components for ancestry. Genome-wide significant variants with P<5×10(-8) and suggestive variants with P<5×10(-7) were evaluated in an additional cohort of 141 African Americans treated with the addition of atenolol to hydrochlorothiazide treatment. The validated variants were then meta-analyzed in these 3 groups of African Americans. Two variants discovered in the monotherapy meta-analysis were validated in the add-on therapy. African American participants heterozygous for SLC25A31 rs201279313 deletion versus wild-type genotype had better diastolic BP response to atenolol monotherapy, metoprolol monotherapy, and atenolol add-on therapy: -9.3 versus -4.6, -9.6 versus -4.8, and -9.7 versus -6.4 mm Hg, respectively (3-group meta-analysis P=2.5×10(-8), β=-4.42 mm Hg per variant allele). Similarly, LRRC15 rs11313667 was validated for systolic BP response to β-blocker therapy with 3-group meta-analysis P=7.2×10(-8) and β=-3.65 mm Hg per variant allele. In this first pharmacogenomic genome-wide meta-analysis of BP response to β-blockers in African Americans, we identified novel variants that may provide valuable information for personalized antihypertensive treatment in this group.
    Preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Hypertension
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    ABSTRACT: Identification of genetic markers of antihypertensive drug responses could assist in individualization of hypertension treatment. We conducted a genome-wide association study to identify gene loci influencing the responsiveness of 228 male patients to 4 classes of antihypertensive drugs. The Genetics of Drug Responsiveness in Essential Hypertension (GENRES) study is a double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over study where each subject received amlodipine, bisoprolol, hydrochlorothiazide, and losartan, each as a monotherapy, in a randomized order. Replication analyses were performed in 4 studies with patients of European ancestry (PEAR Study, N=386; GERA I and II Studies, N=196 and N=198; SOPHIA Study, N=372). We identified 3 single-nucleotide polymorphisms within the ACY3 gene that showed associations with bisoprolol response reaching genome-wide significance (P<5×10(-8)); however, this could not be replicated in the PEAR Study using atenolol. In addition, 39 single-nucleotide polymorphisms showed P values of 10(-5) to 10(-7). The 20 top-associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms were different for each antihypertensive drug. None of these top single-nucleotide polymorphisms co-localized with the panel of >40 genes identified in genome-wide association studies of hypertension. Replication analyses of GENRES results provided suggestive evidence for a missense variant (rs3814995) in the NPHS1 (nephrin) gene influencing losartan response, and for 2 variants influencing hydrochlorothiazide response, located within or close to the ALDH1A3 (rs3825926) and CLIC5 (rs321329) genes. These data provide some evidence for a link between biology of the glomerular protein nephrin and antihypertensive action of angiotensin receptor antagonists and encourage additional studies on aldehyde dehydrogenase-mediated reactions in antihypertensive drug action. © 2015 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2015 · Journal of the American Heart Association
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    ABSTRACT: Background The TEMPO 3:4 Trial results suggested that tolvaptan had no effect compared with placebo on albuminuria in autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) patients. However, the use of categorical ‘albuminuria events’ may have resulted in a loss of sensitivity to detect changes. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of tolvaptan on albuminuria as a continuous variable. Methods Post hoc analysis of a 3-year prospective, blinded randomized controlled trial, including 1375 ADPKD patients. Albuminuria was measured in a spot morning urine sample prior to tolvaptan dosing and expressed as albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR). Results Baseline median (interquartile range) ACR was 3.2 (1.7–7.1) mg/mmol. Of note, 47.9% of ADPKD patients had normal, 48.7% moderately increased and 3.4% severely increased ACR. Subjects with higher baseline ACR had higher blood pressure and total kidney volume (TKV) and lower estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). During follow-up, higher baseline ACR was associated with more rapid eGFR loss (P < 0.0001 for trend), but not with rate of growth in TKV. During the 3-year trial, ACR rose in placebo- and decreased in tolvaptan-treated patients (+0.23 versus −0.40 mg/mmol). The difference ACR increased over time, reaching a maximum of 24% at Month 36 (P < 0.001). At that time only a minor difference in blood pressure was observed (mean arterial pressure −1.9 mmHg for tolvaptan). The decrease in ACR was similar in all subgroups investigated, and remained after withdrawal of study drug. The beneficial effect of tolvaptan on TKV growth and eGFR loss was stronger in patients with higher baseline ACR. Conclusions In ADPKD, higher baseline albuminuria was associated with more eGFR loss. Tolvaptan decreased albuminuria compared with placebo, independent of blood pressure. Treatment efficacy of tolvaptan on changes in TKV and eGFR was more readily detected in patients with higher albuminuria.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: The aim of this study is to identify single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) influencing blood pressure (BP) response to the β-blocker atenolol. Methods: Genome-wide association analysis of BP response to atenolol monotherapy was performed in 233 white participants with uncomplicated hypertension in the pharmacogenomic evaluation of antihypertensive responses study. Forty-two polymorphisms with P less than 10 for association with either diastolic or systolic response to atenolol monotherapy were validated in four independent groups of hypertensive individuals (total n = 2114). Results: In whites, two polymorphisms near the gene PTPRD (rs12346562 and rs1104514) were associated with DBP response to atenolol (P = 3.2 × 10 and P = 5.9 × 10, respectively) with directionally opposite association for response to hydrochlorothiazide in another group of 228 whites (P = 0.0018 and P = 0.00012). A different polymorphism (rs10739150) near PTPRD was associated with response to atenolol in 150 black hypertensive individuals (P = 8.25 × 10). rs12346562 had a similar trend in association with response to bisoprolol (a different β-blocker) in 207 Finnish men in the genetics of drug responsiveness in essential hypertension study. In addition, an intronic single-nucleotide polymorphism (rs4742610) in the PTPRD gene was associated with resistant hypertension in whites and Hispanics in the international verapamil SR trandolapril study (meta-analysis P = 3.2 × 10). Conclusion: PTPRD was identified as a novel locus potentially associated with BP response to atenolol and resistant hypertension in multiple ethnic groups.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Journal of Hypertension
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    ABSTRACT: The HALT Polycystic Kidney Disease Trials Network consisted of two randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled trials among patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease. The trials involved 5-8 years of participant follow-up with interventions in blood pressure and antihypertensive therapy. We provide a framework for designing and implementing closeout near the end of a trial while ensuring patient safety and maintaining scientific rigor and study morale. We discuss issues and resolutions for determining the last visit, tapering medications, and unblinding of participants to study allocation and results. We also discuss closure of clinical sites and Data Coordinating Center responsibilities to ensure timely release of study results and meeting the requirements of regulatory and funding authorities. Just over 90% of full participants had a 6-month study visit prior to their last visit preparing them for trial closeout. Nearly all patients wanted notification of study results (99%) and treatment allocation (99%). All participants were safely tapered off study and open label blood pressure medications. Within 6months, the trials were closed, primary papers published, and 805 letters distributed to participants with results and allocation. DCC obligations for data repository and clinicaltrials.gov reporting were completed within 12months of the last study visit. Closeout of our trials involved years of planning and significant human and financial resources. We provide questions for investigators to consider when planning closeout of their trials with focus on (1) patient safety (2) dissemination of study results and (3) compliance with regulatory and funding responsibilities. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2015 · Contemporary clinical trials
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    ABSTRACT: Data standards provide a structure for consistent understanding and exchange of data and enable the integration of data across studies for integrated analysis. There is no data standard applicable to kidney disease. We describe the process for development of the first-ever Clinical Data Interchange Standards Consortium (CDISC) data standard for autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) by the Polycystic Kidney Disease Outcomes Consortium (PKDOC). Definition of common data elements and creation of ADPKD-specific data standards from case report forms used in long-term ADPKD registries, an observational cohort (Consortium for Radiologic Imaging Studies of Polycystic Kidney Disease [CRISP] 1 and 2), and a randomized clinical trial (Halt Progression of Polycystic Kidney Disease [HALT-PKD]) are described in detail. This data standard underwent extensive review, including a global public comment period, and is now available online as the first PKD-specific data standard (www.cdisc.org/therapeutic). Submission of clinical trial data that use standard data structures and terminology will be required for new electronic submissions to the US Food and Drug Administration for all disease areas by the end of 2016. This data standard will allow for the mapping and pooling of available data into a common data set in addition to providing a foundation for future studies, data sharing, and long-term registries in ADPKD. This data set will also be used to support the regulatory qualification of total kidney volume as a prognostic biomarker for use in clinical trials. The availability of consensus data standards for ADPKD has the potential to facilitate clinical trial initiation and increase sharing and aggregation of data across observational studies and among completed clinical trials, thereby improving our understanding of disease progression and treatment. Copyright © 2015 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2015 · American Journal of Kidney Diseases
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    ABSTRACT: The T-synthase (Core 1 β3-galactosyltransferase) and its molecular chaperone Cosmc regulate the biosynthesis of mucin type O-glycans on glycoproteins, and evidence suggests that both T-synthase and Cosmc are transcriptionally suppressed in several human diseases, although the transcriptional regulation of these two genes is not understood. Here we characterized the promoters essential for human Cosmc and T-synthase transcription. The upstream regions of the genes lack a conventional TATA box but contain CpG-islands: cCpG-I and cCpG-II for Cosmc and tCpG for T-synthase. Using luciferase reporter assays, site-directed mutagenesis, ChIP assays, and Mithramycin A treatment, we identified the core promoters within cCpG-II and tCpG, which contain two binding sites for Kruppel-like transcription factors (KLF), including SP1/SP3, respectively. Methylome analysis of Tn4 B cells, which harbor a silenced Cosmc, confirmed the hypermethylation of Cosmc core promoter, but not for that of T-synthase. These results demonstrate that Cosmc and T-synthase are transcriptionally regulated at a basal level by SP/KLF family transcription factors, which explains their ubiquitous and coordinated expression, and also indicates that they are differentially epigenetically regulated beyond X-chromosome imprinting. These results are important in understanding the regulation of these genes that have roles in human diseases, such as IgA Nephropathy and cancer. Copyright © 2015, The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2015 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
  • Bharathi Reddy · Arlene B Chapman

    No preview · Article · Jun 2015 · American Journal of Kidney Diseases
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    Full-text · Conference Paper · May 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is marked by gradual renal cyst and kidney enlargement and ultimately renal failure. Magnetic resonance-based, height-adjusted total kidney volume (htTKV) over 600 cc/m predicts the development of CKD stage 3 within 8 years in the Consortium for Radiologic Imaging in Polycystic Kidney Disease cohort. Here we compared simultaneous ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging to determine whether ultrasound and kidney length (KL) predict future CKD stage 3 over longer periods of follow-up. A total of 241 ADPKD patients, 15-46 years, with creatinine clearance of 70 ml/min and above had iothalamate clearance, magnetic resonance, and ultrasound evaluations. Participants underwent an average of five repeat clearance measurements over a mean follow-up of 9.3 years. Ultrasound and magnetic resonance-based TKV and KL were compared using Bland-Altman plots and intraclass correlations. Each measure was tested to predict future CKD stage 3. Relatively strong intraclass correlations between ultrasound and magnetic resonance were found for both htTKV and KL (0.81 and 0.85, respectively). Ultrasound and magnetic resonance-based htTKV and KL predicted future CKD stage 3 similarly (AUC of 0.87, 0.88, 0.87, and 0.88, respectively). An ultrasound kidney length over 16.5 cm and htTKV over 650 ml/min had the best cut point for predicting the development of CKD stage 3. Thus, kidney length alone is sufficient to stratify the risk of progression to renal insufficiency early in ADPKD using either ultrasound or magnetic resonance imaging.Kidney International advance online publication, 1 April 2015; doi:10.1038/ki.2015.71.
    Preview · Article · Apr 2015 · Kidney International
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    ABSTRACT: Autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) affects up to 12 million individuals and is the fourth most common cause for renal replacement therapy worldwide. There have been many recent advances in the understanding of its molecular genetics and biology, and in the diagnosis and management of its manifestations. Yet, diagnosis, evaluation, prevention, and treatment vary widely and there are no broadly accepted practice guidelines. Barriers to translation of basic science breakthroughs to clinical care exist, with considerable heterogeneity across countries. The Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes Controversies Conference on ADPKD brought together a panel of multidisciplinary clinical expertise and engaged patients to identify areas of consensus, gaps in knowledge, and research and health-care priorities related to diagnosis; monitoring of kidney disease progression; management of hypertension, renal function decline and complications; end-stage renal disease; extrarenal complications; and practical integrated patient support. These are summarized in this review.Kidney International advance online publication, 18 March 2015; doi:10.1038/ki.2015.59.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2015 · Kidney International
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    ABSTRACT: Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) results in kidney cyst development and enlargement, resulting in chronic kidney disease (CKD) leading to renal failure. This study sought to determine if ADPKD patients in the early stages of CKD contribute to a sizable economic burden for the US health care system. This was a retrospective, matched cohort study, reviewing medical resource utilization (MRU) and costs for adults in a US private-payer claims database with a diagnosis code of ADPKD (ICD-9-CM 753.13). ADPKD patients were matched by age grouping (0-17, 18-34, 35-44, 45-54, 55-64, and 65+ years) and sex to controls to understand the burden of ADPKD. Descriptive statistics on 6-month MRU and costs were assessed by CKD stages, dialysis use, or previous renal transplant. The analysis included ADPKD patients in CKD stages 1-5 (n=316 to n=860), dialysis (n=586), and post-transplant (n=615). Mean ages did not differ across CKD stages (range 43-56 years). Men were the majority in the later stages but the minority in the early stages. The proportion of patients with at least one hospitalization increased with CKD stage, (12% to >40% CKD stage 2 to stage 5, dialysis or post-transplant). The majority had at least one hospital outpatient visit and at least one pharmacy claim. Total 6-month per-patient costs were greater among ADPKD patients than in age-matched and sex-matched healthy non-ADPKD controls (P<0.001 for all comparisons). ADPKD patients with normal kidney function are associated with a significant economic burden to the health care system relative to the general population. Any treatments that delay progression to later stages of CKD may provide potential health care cost offsets.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2015 · ClinicoEconomics and Outcomes Research
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    ABSTRACT: Thiazide diuretics have been recommended as a first-line antihypertensive treatment, although the choice of 'the right drug in the individual essential hypertensive patient' remains still empirical. Essential hypertension is a complex, polygenic disease derived from the interaction of patient's genetic background with the environment. Pharmacogenomics could be a useful tool to pinpoint gene variants involved in antihypertensive drug response, thus optimizing therapeutic advantages and minimizing side effects. We looked for variants associated with blood pressure response to hydrochlorothiazide over an 8-week follow-up by means of a genome-wide association analysis in two Italian cohorts of never-treated essential hypertensive patients: 343 samples from Sardinia and 142 from Milan. TET2 and CSMD1 as plausible candidate genes to affect SBP response to hydrochlorothiazide were identified. The specificity of our findings for hydrochlorothiazide was confirmed in an independent cohort of essential hypertensive patients treated with losartan. Our best findings were also tested for replication in four independent hypertensive samples of European Ancestry, such as GENetics of drug RESponsiveness in essential hypertension, Genetic Epidemiology of Responses to Antihypertensives, NORdic DILtiazem intervention, Pharmacogenomics Evaluation of Antihypertensive Responses, and Campania Salute Network-StayOnDiur. We validated a polymorphism in CSMD1 and UGGT2. This exploratory study reports two plausible loci associated with SBP response to hydrochlorothiazide: TET2, an aldosterone-responsive mediator of αENaC gene transcription; and CSMD1, previously described as associated with hypertension in a case-control study.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2015 · Journal of Hypertension
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    ABSTRACT: Background: The three branched amino acids (valine, leucine, and isoleucine) and two aromatic amino acids (tyrosine and phenylalanine) have been associated with many adverse metabolic pathways, including diabetes. However, these associations have been identified primarily in otherwise healthy Caucasian populations. We aimed to investigate the association of this five-amino-acid signature with metabolic syndrome and impaired fasting glucose (IFG) in a hypertensive cohort of Caucasian and African Americans. Methods: We analyzed data from the Pharmacogenomic Evaluation of Antihypertensive Responses (PEAR) studies PEAR and PEAR2 conducted between 2005 and 2014. Subjects were enrolled at the University of Florida (Gainesville, FL), Emory University (Atlanta, GA), and Mayo Clinic (Rochester, MN). A total of 898 patients with essential hypertension were included in this study. Presence of metabolic syndrome and IFG at baseline were determined on the basis of measurements of demographic and biochemical data. Levels of the five amino acids were quantified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectroscopy (LC-MS/MS). Results: With a multiple logistic regression model, we found that all five amino acids were significantly associated with metabolic syndrome in both Caucasian and African Americans. IFG and the five amino acids were associated in the Caucasian Americans. Only valine was significantly associated with IFG in African Americans. Conclusion: In both Caucasian and African Americans with uncomplicated hypertension, plasma levels of the five-amino-acid signature are associated with metabolic syndrome. Additionally, in Caucasians we have confirmed the five-amino-acid signature was associated with IFG.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2015 · Metabolic Syndrome and Related Disorders

  • No preview · Conference Paper · Feb 2015

  • No preview · Conference Paper · Feb 2015
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    Arlene B Chapman
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    ABSTRACT: Healthy autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) patients with normal kidney function demonstrate reduced endothelial-dependent vasodilation that improves with increasing local dopamine levels. Dopamine regulates renal sodium excretion, and dopamine receptors are located on primary cilia in both vascular and renal tubular epithelial cells. The study by Lorthioir and colleagues links endothelial function and dopamine availability in ADPKD patients.
    Preview · Article · Feb 2015 · Kidney International

  • No preview · Conference Paper · Feb 2015

Publication Stats

6k Citations
1,186.33 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1999-2016
    • Emory University
      • • Department of Internal Medicine
      • • School of Medicine
      Atlanta, Georgia, United States
    • Saint Louis University
      Сент-Луис, Michigan, United States
  • 2015
    • University of Chicago
      Chicago, Illinois, United States
  • 2006-2008
    • University of Alabama at Birmingham
      • Department of Medicine
      Birmingham, Alabama, United States
  • 2005
    • Utrecht University
      • Division of Pharmacoepidemiology and Pharmacotherapy
      Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands
  • 2002
    • University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston
      • Human Genetics Center
      Houston, Texas, United States
  • 2001-2002
    • Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research
      • Department of Internal Medicine
      Rochester, MI, United States
  • 1994
    • University of Colorado
      • Department of Medicine
      Denver, Colorado, United States
  • 1992
    • University of Denver
      Denver, Colorado, United States
  • 1990
    • University of Colorado Hospital
      • Department of Medicine
      Denver, Colorado, United States