[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: sorLA is a sorting receptor for amyloid precursor protein (APP) genetically linked to Alzheimer's disease (AD). Retromer, an adaptor complex in the endosome-to-Golgi retrieval pathway, has been implicated in APP transport because retromer deficiency leads to aberrant APP sorting and processing and levels of retromer proteins are altered in AD. Here we report that sorLA and retromer functionally interact in neurons to control trafficking and amyloidogenic processing of APP. We have identified a sequence (FANSHY) in the cytoplasmic domain of sorLA that is recognized by the VPS26 subunit of the retromer complex. Accordingly, we characterized the interaction between the retromer complex and sorLA and determined the role of retromer on sorLA-dependent sorting and processing of APP. Mutations in the VPS26 binding site resulted in receptor redistribution to the endosomal network, similar to the situation seen in cells with VPS26 knockdown. The sorLA mutant retained APP-binding activity but, as opposed to the wild-type receptor, misdirected APP into a distinct non-Golgi compartment, resulting in increased amyloid processing. In conclusion, our data provide a molecular link between reduced retromer expression and increased amyloidogenesis as seen in patients with sporadic AD.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2012 · The Journal of Neuroscience : The Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Endosome-to-Golgi retrieval of the cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate receptor (CIMPR) requires the function of the retromer complex. Retromer is localized to endosomes and comprises two distinct sub complexes: the vacuolar protein sorting 35/29/26 sub complex that binds cargo and the sorting nexin (SNX)1/2 sub complex that tubulates endosomal membranes. To identify up- or down-stream regulatory factors of retromer, a comparative proteomic strategy was employed. Protein profiles of endosomally enriched membranes, from either wild-type or retromer-deficient mouse cells, were compared to identify proteins with either elevated or reduced expression levels. Eps15 homology domain-containing protein-1 (EHD1) was identified in endosomally enriched membrane fractions from retromer-deficient cells and was found to be approximately threefold upregulated in the absence of retromer. EHD1 is localized to tubular and vesicular endosomes, partially colocalizes with retromer and is associated with retromer in vivo. Mutation of the nucleotide-binding P-loop of EHD1 results in a dominant-negative effect upon retromer localization and endosome-to-Golgi retrieval, while loss of EHD1 expression by RNA interference destabilizes SNX1-positive tubules and inhibits endosome-to-Golgi retrieval. The interaction between EHD1 and retromer and the requirement for EHD1 to stabilize SNX1-tubules establish EHD1 as a novel facilitating component of endosome-to-Golgi retrieval.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The retromer complex is a conserved cytoplasmic coat complex that mediates the endosome-to-Golgi retrieval of vacuole/lysosome hydrolase receptors in yeast and mammals. The recognition of cargo proteins by the retromer is performed by the Vps35p/VPS35 (where Vps is vacuolar protein sorting) component, which together with Vps26p/VPS26 and Vps29p/VPS29, forms the cargo-selective subcomplex. In this report, we have identified a highly-conserved region of Vps35p/VPS35 that is essential for the interaction with Vps26p/VPS26 and for assembly of the retromer complex. Mutation of residues within the conserved region results in Vps35p/VPS35 mutants, which cannot bind to Vps26p/VPS26 and are not efficiently targeted to the endosomal membrane. These data implicate Vps26p/VPS26 in regulating Vps35p/VPS35 membrane association and therefore suggest a role for Vps26p/VPS26 in cargo recognition.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2008 · Biochemical Journal