[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Epidermis is composed mainly of keratinocytes and is the ma-jor barrier of human body. The development and maintenance of normal epithelial structures and functions require the transcrip-tion factor p63. The p63 gene encodes proteins with structures simi-lar to that of p53, including an N-terminal transacti-vation (TA) domain, a DNA-binding domain and a car-boxy-oligomerization domain. TAp63 and ΔNp63 (p63 isoforms without TA domain) regulate a wide range of target genes that are important for embryonal development and epithelial integrity. Mutations of p63 gene cause epider-mal abnormalities characterized by ectodermal dysplasia. Recent reports have indicated that p63 plays important role in tumorigenesis as well. However, the relative importance of TAp63 and ΔNp63 in epidermal development and tumorigenesis re-mains mostly unclear and awaits further investigation. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge on the structure and function of p63 and its isoforms.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The transcription factor p63 belongs to the p53 protein family and plays an important role in epithelial development. Recent studies showed that p63 is over-expressed in some human squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck, suggesting a role in carcinogenesis. The p63 gene contains two promoters and alternative promoter usage generates two groups of proteins with (TAp63) or without (ΔNp63) the transactivation domain. Although the roles of TAp63 in epithelial development have been described in numerous recent studies, the regulation of its expression has not been elucidated. In this study, we showed that the transcriptional activity of the TAp63 promoter and TAp63 protein level were both up-regulated by an increased c-jun activity in Hep3B human hepatocellular carcinoma cell. Moreover, the elevated TAp63 expression was coincided with an increased binding of c-jun to the TAp63 promoter. Point mutation of the sp1 binding site within the TAp63 promoter region attenuated the effect of c-jun on TAp63 expression. Knockdown of TAp63 expression by shRNA led to increased proliferation of Hep3B cell compared to that of the mock cell, suggesting a growth suppressive effect of TAp63.
No preview · Article · Dec 2010 · Journal of Cellular Physiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: p53, p63, and p73 belong to the p53 family of proteins, which mediate development, differentiation, and various other cellular responses. p53 is involved in many anti-cancer mechanisms, such as cell cycle regulation, apoptosis, and the maintenance of genomic integrity. The p63 gene is controlled by two promoters that direct the expression of two isoforms, one with and one without transactivating properties, known as TAp63 and ΔNp63. In this study, p53-deficient cells (Hep3B and PC-3) and p53-expressing cells (A549 and HepG2) were treated with doxorubicin to examine the possible roles of TAp63 in these cells under genotoxic stress; TAp63 expression was induced in p53-deficient cell lines, but not in p53-expressing cell lines. The ectopic expression of p53 in p53-deficient cells (Hep3B) reduced TAp63 promoter activity, and knockdown of TAp63 attenuated doxorubicin-induced cell growth arrest by promoting cell cycle progression, leading to an increase in the percentage of G(2)/M cells. Moreover, knockdown of TAp63 increased cell sensitivity to doxorubicin-induced genomic damage. Our results suggest that TAp63 may play a compensatory role in cell cycle regulation and DNA damage repair in p53-deficient cancer cells.
No preview · Article · Nov 2010 · Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cultured human limbocorneal epithelial (HLE) cells secrete endostatin-related molecules that are augmented when the cells are cultivated on denuded amniotic membrane (DAM). This study is to identify mechanisms for enhanced endostatin production by HLE cells cultivated on AM.
HLE cells were cultured on dish, on intact AM (IAM) or on DAM. Collagen XVIII alpha1 mRNA was analyzed by real-time quantitative PCR. In HLE/DAM cultures, inhibitors of MMPs (GM-6001; 1,10-phenanthroline), cathepsins (E64; cathepsin B inhibitor II), elastase (elastatinal), and serine proteases (AEBSF; aprotinin) were added. Endostatin in the conditioned medium (CM) was detected by Western blot. MMP-7; MMP-9; and cathepsins B, K, L, and V in the CM were quantitated by ELISA. Exogenous cathepsin B or V was added to the concentrated HLE/DAM CM to see the effect on endostatin production.
The expression of collagen XVIII alpha1 mRNA in the three groups was similar. Elastatinal, AEBSF, and aprotinin had no effect on endostatin generation. MMP inhibitors inhibited the generation of all the 20- and 28- to 30-kDa endostatin-related fragments, while cathepsin inhibitors inhibited only the 20-kDa endostatin. The level of MMP-7 and cathepsin B but not cathepsin V increased as the culture time increased, and paralleled with endostatin production. However, cathepsins K and L were absent in the CM. Exogenous cathepsins B and V further augmented the generation of endostatin.
MMP-7 and cathepsins B and V are involved in the generation of endostatin by HLE cells. Facilitating endostatin generation may be a novel physiological function of the cornea-specific cathepsin V.
No preview · Article · Mar 2007 · Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Corneal angiogenesis is associated with a variety of corneal diseases, and is sometimes vision threatening. In recent years, with the discovery of major pro- and anti-angiogenic factors in the cornea, details of the angiogenic process are gradually unveiled. Of note, corneal inflammation and neovascularization associated with severe limbal stem cell (LSC) deficiency is a clinically challenging issue in that the condition persists long after the initial insult, and will not improve without transplantation of LSCs. However, to date the molecular mechanism by which LSC transplantation restores corneal avascularity is not fully understood. In addition to discussing major pro-angiogenic factors involved in corneal neovascularization, this review article also focuses on possible molecular mechanisms underlying persistent inflammation and neovascularization following severe LSC deficiency, and anti-angiogenic factors expressed by human limbo-corneal epithelial cells (HLCECs). Most of the recently discovered corneal anti-angiogenic factors belong to extracellular matrix proteins that acquire angio-inhibitory activity only after proper proteolytic processing. Our recent findings showed that the secretion of endostatin (derived from basement membrane collagen XVIII) and restin (from collagen XV) by HLCECs were enhanced when HLCECs were cultivated on amniotic membrane (AM). This adds to the advantage of transplanting ex vivo expanded HLCECs cultivated on AM in that the anti-angiogenic activity of the epithelial cells is augmented in a physiological way. Furthermore, proteomic profiling of HLCECs and human conjunctival epithelial cells (HCECs) identified a 14-3-3 protein (stratifin) preferentially expressed by HLCECs. In addition to functioning as a cell cycle controller, keratinocyte-derived stratifin induces MMPs which are involved in the generation of restin (by MMP-1) and endostatin (by MMP-3). These findings highlight the significance of delicate epithelial-matrix interactions in the maintenance of corneal avascularity.
No preview · Article · Dec 2006 · Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To compare the in vitro antiangiogenic activities of ex vivo expanded human limbocorneal epithelial (HLE) cells cultivated on preserved human amniotic membrane (AM) and to identify factors responsible for the activities.
The antiangiogenic effects were compared of culture media conditioned by AM, HLE cells, or HLE cells cultivated on intact AM (HLE/IAM), on denuded AM (HLE/DAM), or on DAM cocultured with 3T3 fibroblasts (HLE/DAM/3T3). A monolayer culture of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (ECs) was used in a proliferation and migration assay. ECs suspended in type I collagen gel were used to assess capillary tube formation. Quantitative analyses of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1, thrombospondin (TSP)-1, pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF), and endostatin (proteolytic fragment of collagen XVIII) were performed by ELISA. Immunoconfocal microscopy was performed to localize the site of endostatin expression in HLE cells and AM.
HLE cell- but not AM-conditioned medium (CM) inhibited the proliferation and migration of ECs, and coculture of HLE cells, but not of AM, with ECs inhibited capillary tube formation. Although some data from HLE cells alone are not significantly different from the control, increased inhibitory activity was expressed by HLE/IAM and HLE/DAM and was most significantly expressed by HLE/DAM/3T3. Quantitation of TIMP-1, TSP-1, PEDF, and endostatin revealed that only the level of endostatin showed an increased expression by HLE cells cultivated on AM. Neutralizing antibody to endostatin substantially abrogated the inhibitory effect on EC proliferation and migration, but was less effective on EC differentiation. Endostatin signal was more prominent in the basement membrane zone of HLE cells cultivated on denuded AM than in those cultivated on intact AM.
The antiangiogenic effect of HLE cells was enhanced when they were cultivated on AM and cocultured with 3T3 fibroblasts, and endostatin-related antiangiogenic factor may play a major role. This highlights the significance of cell-matrix and cell-cell interaction in the regulation of antiangiogenic factor secretion by HLE cells.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To study the expression of TIMP-4 in cultured corneal cells and in corneal neovascularization.
Human limbo-corneal epithelial cells, fibroblasts, and endothelial cells were cultured in serum-free, PMA- or basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF)-treated condition. Neovascularization in rat cornea was induced by suturing. The expression of TIMP-4 was examined by immunohistochemistry, Western blot and RT-PCR.
TIMP-4 was constitutively expressed in cultured human corneal cells. The expression was only mildly enhanced after mitogen treatment. TIMP-4 immunoreactivity was predominantly expressed in normal rat corneal epithelium, and also in ingrowing blood vessels following suturing, which persisted up to day 28. Increased staining in corneal epithelium and blood vessels were also noted in vascularized human corneas.
TIMP-4 is expressed in the cornea, which may play a role in modulating extracellular matrix remodeling associated with corneal wound healing and angiogenesis.
No preview · Article · Jun 2003 · Ophthalmic Research