Marina Cella

Washington University in St. Louis, San Luis, Missouri, United States

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Publications (124)1267.15 Total impact

  • Marco Colonna · Anja Fuchs · Marina Cella
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    ABSTRACT: Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are lymphocytes that lack specific antigen receptors. It has recently become apparent that ILCs comprise disparate subsets and that their diversity can be conceptualized using developmental and functional modules similar to those that designate CD4 T helper cells. ILC1 produce interferon-γ, ILC2 secrete interleukin (IL)-5 and IL-13, and ILC3 produce IL-22 and/or IL-17. ILCs preferentially localize close to the epithelial barriers at the interface between the environment and the associated lymphoid tissues. Upon pathogen invasion, ILCs detect cytokines produced by epithelial cells and antigen-presenting cells and respond by producing cytokines that preserve barrier integrity. Conversely, inappropriate or sustained activation of ILCs can lead to excessive inflammation and tissue damage. In this review, we highlight recent progress in the characterization of ILCs in the oral and gastrointestinal mucosa and their contributions to homeostasis, defense against infections, inflammatory bowel disease, and tumors.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015
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    ABSTRACT: CD8(+) T cells and NK cells protect from viral infections by killing virally infected cells and secreting interferon-γ. Several inhibitory receptors limit the magnitude and duration of these anti-viral responses. NKG2A, which is encoded by Klrc1, is a lectin-like inhibitory receptor that is expressed as a heterodimer with CD94 on NK cells and activated CD8(+) T cells. Previous studies on the impact of CD94/NKG2A heterodimers on anti-viral responses have yielded contrasting results and the in vivo function of NKG2A remains unclear. Here, we generated Klrc1(-/-) mice and found that NKG2A is selectively required for resistance to ectromelia virus (ECTV). NKG2A functions intrinsically within ECTV-specific CD8(+) T cells to limit excessive activation, prevent apoptosis, and preserve the specific CD8(+) T cell response. Thus, although inhibitory receptors often cause T cell exhaustion and viral spreading during chronic viral infections, NKG2A optimizes CD8(+) T cell responses during an acute poxvirus infection.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Immunity
  • Marina Cella · Marco Colonna
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    ABSTRACT: Mucosal and barrier tissues are unique in that they mediate crosstalk between the host and the surrounding environment, which contains many potentially harmful factors. Therefore, it is critical that cell types present at barrier and mucosal surfaces are equipped with mechanisms to sense changes in the environment and to calibrate their responses accordingly. Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor (AHR) is a ligand dependent transcription factor well known to generate biological responses to environmental pollutants, such as benzo{a}pyrene and halogenated dioxins. Surprisingly, in the last few years a large body of evidence has shown that AHR is also involved in maintaining homeostasis or in triggering pathology by modulating the biological responses of critical cell types at the barrier and mucosal interfaces. Here, we will review progresses in this field and discuss how targeting AHR activation may impact disease.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Seminars in Immunology
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    ABSTRACT: Group 3 ILCs (ILC3s) are innate sources of IL-22 and IL-17 and include lymphoid tissue-inducer (LTi)-like and NKp46(+) subsets. Both depend on RORγt and aryl hydrocarbon receptor, but NKp46(+)ILC3s also require Notch and T-bet for their development and are transcriptionally distinct. The extent to which these subsets have unique functions, especially in the context of T cell- and B cell-sufficient mice, remains largely unclear. To investigate the specific function of NKp46(+)ILC3s among other ILC3 subsets and T cells, we generated mice selectively lacking NKp46(+)ILC3s or all ILC3s and crossed them to T cell-deficient mice, thus maintaining B cells in all mice. In mice lacking T cells, NKp46(+)ILC3s were sufficient to promote inflammatory monocyte accumulation in the anti-CD40 innate colitis model through marked production of GM-CSF. In T cell-competent mice, lack of NKp46(+)ILCs had no impact on control of intestinal C. rodentium infection, whereas lack of all ILC3s partially impaired bacterial control. Thus, NKp46(+)ILC3s have a unique capacity to promote inflammation through GM-CSF-induced accumulation of inflammatory monocytes, but are superseded by LTi-like ILC3s and T cells in controlling intestinal bacterial infection.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Journal of Experimental Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: Podocytes are specialized epithelial cells in the kidney glomerulus that play important structural and functional roles in maintaining the filtration barrier. Nephrotic syndrome results from a breakdown of the kidney filtration barrier and is associated with proteinuria, hyperlipidemia, and edema. Additionally, podocytes undergo changes in morphology and internalize plasma proteins in response to this disorder. Here, we used fluid-phase tracers in murine models and determined that podocytes actively internalize fluid from the plasma and that the rate of internalization is increased when the filtration barrier is disrupted. In cultured podocytes, the presence of free fatty acids (FFAs) associated with serum albumin stimulated macropinocytosis through a pathway that involves FFA receptors, the Gβ/Gγ complex, and RAC1. Moreover, mice with elevated levels of plasma FFAs as the result of a high-fat diet were more susceptible to Adriamycin-induced proteinuria than were animals on standard chow. Together, these results support a model in which podocytes sense the disruption of the filtration barrier via FFAs bound to albumin and respond by enhancing fluid-phase uptake. The response to FFAs may function in the development of nephrotic syndrome by amplifying the effects of proteinuria.
    Preview · Article · Apr 2015 · The Journal of clinical investigation
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    Full-text · Dataset · Apr 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Viral infections and type 2 immune responses are thought to be critical for the development of chronic respiratory disease, but the link between these events needs to be better defined. Here, we study a mouse model in which infection with a mouse parainfluenza virus known as Sendai virus (SeV) leads to long-term activation of innate immune cells that drive IL-13-dependent lung disease. We find that chronic postviral disease (signified by formation of excess airway mucus and accumulation of M2-differentiating lung macrophages) requires macrophage expression of triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-2 (TREM-2). Analysis of mechanism shows that viral replication increases lung macrophage levels of intracellular and cell surface TREM-2, and this action prevents macrophage apoptosis that would otherwise occur during the acute illness (5-12 d after inoculation). However, the largest increases in TREM-2 levels are found as the soluble form (sTREM-2) long after clearance of infection (49 d after inoculation). At this time, IL-13 and the adapter protein DAP12 promote TREM-2 cleavage to sTREM-2 that is unexpectedly active in preventing macrophage apoptosis. The results thereby define an unprecedented mechanism for a feed-forward expansion of lung macrophages (with IL-13 production and consequent M2 differentiation) that further explains how acute infection leads to chronic inflammatory disease. © 2015 Wu et al.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2015 · Journal of Experimental Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: Characterization of functionally distinct dendritic cell (DC) subsets in mice has fueled interest in whether analogous counterparts exist in humans. Transcriptional modules of coordinately expressed genes were used for defining shared functions between the species. Comparing modules derived from four human skin DC subsets and modules derived from the Immunological Genome Project database for all mouse DC subsets revealed that human Langerhans cells (LCs) and the mouse XCR1(+)CD8α(+)CD103(+) DCs shared the class I-mediated antigen processing and cross-presentation transcriptional modules that were not seen in mouse LCs. Furthermore, human LCs were enriched in a transcriptional signature specific to the blood cross-presenting CD141/BDCA-3(+) DCs, the proposed equivalent to mouse CD8α(+) DCs. Consistent with our analysis, LCs were highly adept at inducing primary CTL responses. Thus, our study suggests that the function of LCs may not be conserved between mouse and human and supports human LCs as an especially relevant therapeutic target. © 2015 Artyomov et al.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2015 · Journal of Experimental Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (TREM2) is a microglial surface receptor that triggers intracellular protein tyrosine phosphorylation. Recent genome-wide association studies have shown that a rare R47H mutation of TREM2 correlates with a substantial increase in the risk of developing Alzheimer's disease (AD). To address the basis for this genetic association, we studied TREM2 deficiency in the 5XFAD mouse model of AD. We found that TREM2 deficiency and haploinsufficiency augment β-amyloid (Aβ) accumulation due to a dysfunctional response of microglia, which fail to cluster around Aβ plaques and become apoptotic. We further demonstrate that TREM2 senses a broad array of anionic and zwitterionic lipids known to associate with fibrillar Aβ in lipid membranes and to be exposed on the surface of damaged neurons. Remarkably, the R47H mutation impairs TREM2 detection of lipid ligands. Thus, TREM2 detects damage-associated lipid patterns associated with neurodegeneration, sustaining the microglial response to Aβ accumulation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2015 · Cell
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    ABSTRACT: Although the transcription factor c-Myc is essential for the establishment of a metabolically active and proliferative state in T cells after priming, its expression is transient. It remains unknown how T cell activation is maintained after c-Myc expression is downregulated. Here we identified AP4 as the transcription factor that was induced by c-Myc and sustained activation of antigen-specific CD8(+) T cells. Despite normal priming, AP4-deficient CD8(+) T cells failed to continue transcription of a broad range of c-Myc-dependent targets. Mice lacking AP4 specifically in CD8(+) T cells showed enhanced susceptibility to infection with West Nile virus. Genome-wide analysis suggested that many activation-induced genes encoding molecules involved in metabolism were shared targets of c-Myc and AP4. Thus, AP4 maintains c-Myc-initiated cellular activation programs in CD8(+) T cells to control microbial infection.
    Preview · Article · Jul 2014 · Nature Immunology
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    Marina Cella · Hannah Miller · Christina Song
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    ABSTRACT: For a long time, natural killer (NK) cells were thought to be the only innate immune lymphoid population capable of responding to invading pathogens under the influence of changing environmental cues. In the last few years, an increasing amount of evidence has shown that a number of different innate lymphoid cell (ILC) populations found at mucosal sites rapidly respond to locally produced cytokines in order to establish or maintain homeostasis. These ILC populations closely mirror the phenotype of adaptive T helper subsets in their repertoire of secreted soluble factors. Early in the immune response, ILCs are responsible for setting the stage to mount an adaptive T cell response that is appropriate for the incoming insult. Here, we review the diversity of ILC subsets and discuss similarities and differences between ILCs and NK cells in function and key transcriptional factors required for their development.
    Preview · Article · Jun 2014 · Frontiers in Immunology
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    ABSTRACT: Nfil3 is viewed as an obligate transcription factor for NK cell development. However, mouse CMV (MCMV) infection recently was shown to bypass the requirement for Nfil3 by inducing the appearance of NK cells that express the MCMV-specific receptor Ly49H. Thus, signals transmitted by Ly49H and proinflammatory cytokines are sufficient to promote NK cell differentiation in the absence of Nfil3. In this study, we report that salivary gland (SG) NK cells develop in an Nfil3-independent fashion in the steady-state in the absence of MCMV or any infection. Moreover, we show that SG NK cells have an integrin profile reminiscent of tissue-resident lymphocytes and express TRAIL for killing target cells. These results demonstrate that SG NK cells, although related to conventional NK cells, are a distinct subset of innate lymphoid cells that deviates from the conventional developmental pathway, perhaps under the influence of tissue-specific factors.
    Preview · Article · Apr 2014 · The Journal of Immunology
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    ABSTRACT: The transcription factors c-Myc and N-Myc-encoded by Myc and Mycn, respectively-regulate cellular growth and are required for embryonic development. A third paralogue, Mycl1, is dispensable for normal embryonic development but its biological function has remained unclear. To examine the in vivo function of Mycl1 in mice, we generated an inactivating Mycl1(gfp) allele that also reports Mycl1 expression. We find that Mycl1 is selectively expressed in dendritic cells (DCs) of the immune system and controlled by IRF8, and that during DC development, Mycl1 expression is initiated in the common DC progenitor concurrent with reduction in c-Myc expression. Mature DCs lack expression of c-Myc and N-Myc but maintain L-Myc expression even in the presence of inflammatory signals such as granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor. All DC subsets develop in Mycl1-deficient mice, but some subsets such as migratory CD103(+) conventional DCs in the lung and liver are greatly reduced at steady state. Importantly, loss of L-Myc by DCs causes a significant decrease in in vivo T-cell priming during infection by Listeria monocytogenes and vesicular stomatitis virus. The replacement of c-Myc by L-Myc in immature DCs may provide for Myc transcriptional activity in the setting of inflammation that is required for optimal T-cell priming.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2014 · Nature
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    ABSTRACT: The transcription factors c-Myc and N-Myc-encoded by Myc and Mycn, respectively-regulate cellular growth and are required for embryonic development. A third paralogue, Mycl1, is dispensable for normal embryonic development but its biological function has remained unclear. To examine the in vivo function of Mycl1 in mice, we generated an inactivating Mycl1(gfp) allele that also reports Mycl1 expression. We find that Mycl1 is selectively expressed in dendritic cells (DCs) of the immune system and controlled by IRF8, and that during DC development, Mycl1 expression is initiated in the common DC progenitor concurrent with reduction in c-Myc expression. Mature DCs lack expression of c-Myc and N-Myc but maintain L-Myc expression even in the presence of inflammatory signals such as granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor. All DC subsets develop in Mycl1-deficient mice, but some subsets such as migratory CD103(+) conventional DCs in the lung and liver are greatly reduced at steady state. Importantly, loss of L-Myc by DCs causes a significant decrease in in vivo T-cell priming during infection by Listeria monocytogenes and vesicular stomatitis virus. The replacement of c-Myc by L-Myc in immature DCs may provide for Myc transcriptional activity in the setting of inflammation that is required for optimal T-cell priming.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2014 · Nature
  • Marina Cella · Giorgio Trinchieri

    No preview · Article · Dec 2013 · Nature Immunology
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    ABSTRACT: Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) are a dendritic cell subset that secrete type I IFNs in response to microbial stimuli. The scaffold protein, CD2-associated protein (CD2AP), is a marker of human pDCs as it is highly expressed in this cell type. Recently, in human pDCs, decreased CD2AP expression appeared to enhance the production of type I IFNs via an inhibitory receptor-induced signaling cascade. In this study, we sought to determine the role of CD2AP in murine pDCs using CD2AP knockout (KO) mice. CD2AP was dispensable for the development of pDCs and for the upregulation of activation markers following stimulation. Loss of CD2AP expression did not affect the production of type I IFNs stimulated by TLR ligation, and only slightly impaired type I IFN production when inhibitory pathways were engaged in vitro. This was also confirmed by showing that CD2AP deficiency did not influence type I IFN production by pDCs in vivo. Because CD2AP plays a role in regulating actin dynamics, we examined the actin cytoskeleton in pDCs and found that activated CD2AP KO pDCs had significantly higher levels of actin polymerization than wild-type pDCs. Using two different inflammation models, we found that CD2AP KO pDCs have a defect in lymph node migration, correlating with the defects in actin dynamics. Our work excludes a role for CD2AP in the regulation of type I IFNs in pDCs, and suggests that the major function of CD2AP is on the actin cytoskeleton, affecting migration to local lymph nodes under conditions of inflammation.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2013 · The Journal of Immunology
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    ABSTRACT: Viruses have long been studied not only for their pathology and associated disease but also as model systems for understanding cellular and immunological processes. Rodent herpesvirus Peru (RHVP) is a recently characterized rhadinovirus related to murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (MHV68) and Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) that establishes acute and latent infection in laboratory mice. RHVP encodes numerous unique proteins that we hypothesize might facilitate host immune evasion during infection. We report here that ORF R17 encodes a high affinity chemokine binding protein that broadly recognizes human and murine CC-and C-chemokines. The interaction of R17 with chemokines is generally characterized by rapid association kinetics, and in the case of CCL3, CCL4, CCL5, CCL24, and XCL1, extremely stable complexes are formed. Functionally, R17 potently inhibited CCL2 driven chemotaxis of the human monocytic cell line THP-1, CCL3 driven chemotaxis of peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and CCL2 mediated calcium flux. Our studies also reveal that R17 binds to glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) in a process dependent upon two BBXB motifs, and that chemokine and GAG binding can occur simultaneously at distinct sites. Collectively, these studies suggest that R17 may play a role in RHVP immune evasion through the targeted sabotage of chemokine mediated immune surveillance.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2013 · Journal of Virology
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    ABSTRACT: Background & aims: An increased number of macrophages in adipose tissue is associated with insulin resistance and metabolic dysfunction in obese people. However, little is known about other immune cells in adipose tissue from obese people, and whether they contribute to insulin resistance. We investigated the characteristics of T cells in adipose tissue from metabolically abnormal insulin-resistant obese (MAO) subjects, metabolically normal insulin-sensitive obese (MNO) subjects, and lean subjects. Insulin sensitivity was determined by using the hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp procedure. Methods: We assessed plasma cytokine concentrations and subcutaneous adipose tissue CD4(+) T-cell populations in 9 lean, 12 MNO, and 13 MAO subjects. Skeletal muscle and liver samples were collected from 19 additional obese patients undergoing bariatric surgery to determine the presence of selected cytokine receptors. Results: Adipose tissue from MAO subjects had 3- to 10-fold increases in numbers of CD4(+) T cells that produce interleukin (IL)-22 and IL-17 (a T-helper [Th] 17 and Th22 phenotype) compared with MNO and lean subjects. MAO subjects also had increased plasma concentrations of IL-22 and IL-6. Receptors for IL-17 and IL-22 were expressed in human liver and skeletal muscle samples. IL-17 and IL-22 inhibited uptake of glucose in skeletal muscle isolated from rats and reduced insulin sensitivity in cultured human hepatocytes. Conclusions: Adipose tissue from MAO individuals contains increased numbers of Th17 and Th22 cells, which produce cytokines that cause metabolic dysfunction in liver and muscle in vitro. Additional studies are needed to determine whether these alterations in adipose tissue T cells contribute to the pathogenesis of insulin resistance in obese people.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2013 · Gastroenterology
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    ABSTRACT: Mucosal innate lymphoid cell (ILC) subsets promote immune responses to pathogens by producing distinct signature cytokines in response to changes in the cytokine microenvironment. We previously identified human ILC3 distinguished by interleukin-22 (IL-22) secretion. Here we characterized a human ILC1 subset that produced interferon-γ (IFN-γ) in response to IL-12 and IL-15 and had a unique integrin profile, intraepithelial location, hallmarks of TGF-β imprinting, and a memory-activated phenotype. Because tissue-resident memory CD8+ T cells share this profile, intraepithelial ILC1 may be their innate counterparts. In mice, intraepithelial ILC1 were distinguished by CD160 expression and required Nfil3- and Tbx21-encoded transcription factors for development, but not IL-15 receptor-α, indicating that intraepithelial ILC1 are distinct from conventional NK cells. Intraepithelial ILC1 were amplified in Crohn's disease patients and contributed to pathology in the anti-CD40-induced colitis model in mice. Thus, intraepithelial ILC1 may initiate IFN-γ responses against pathogens but contribute to pathology when dysregulated.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2013 · Immunity
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    ABSTRACT: The differentiation of bone marrow-derived progenitor cells into monocytes, tissue macrophages and some dendritic cell (DC) subtypes requires the growth factor CSF1 and its receptor, CSF1R. Langerhans cells (LCs) and microglia develop from embryonic myeloid precursor cells that populate the epidermis and central nervous system (CNS) before birth. Notably, LCs and microglia are present in CSF1-deficient mice but absent from CSF1R-deficient mice. Here we investigated whether an alternative CSF1R ligand, interleukin 34 (IL-34), is responsible for this discrepancy. Through the use of IL-34-deficient (Il34(LacZ/LacZ)) reporter mice, we found that keratinocytes and neurons were the main sources of IL-34. Il34(LacZ/LacZ) mice selectively lacked LCs and microglia and responded poorly to skin antigens and viral infection of the CNS. Thus, IL-34 specifically directs the differentiation of myeloid cells in the skin epidermis and CNS.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2012 · Nature Immunology

Publication Stats

19k Citations
1,267.15 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2001-2015
    • Washington University in St. Louis
      • Department of Pathology and Immunology
      San Luis, Missouri, United States
  • 2009
    • University of Nebraska Medical Center
      Omaha, Nebraska, United States
  • 2008
    • Tohoku University
      • Institute of Development, Aging and Cancer
      Sendai, Kagoshima, Japan
  • 2003
    • University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio
      • Department of Microbiology and Immunology
      San Antonio, Texas, United States
  • 1999
    • National Public Health Institute
      Helsinki, Uusimaa, Finland
  • 1998
    • Hospital Universitario de La Princesa
      • Servicio de Inmunología
      Madrid, Madrid, Spain
  • 1997
    • Netherlands Cancer Institute
      Amsterdamo, North Holland, Netherlands