Perrine Charles

Hôpital La Pitié Salpêtrière (Groupe Hospitalier "La Pitié Salpêtrière - Charles Foix"), Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France

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Publications (58)356.79 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Importance Friedreich ataxia (FRDA) is the most common genetic sensory ataxia, and myocardial involvement is a major determinant of survival.Objective To assess FRDA survival and cardiac outcome to adapt future therapeutic trials.Design, Setting, and Participants In a longitudinal follow-up study, all patients with genetically confirmed FRDA seen in the reference center and referred for cardiac evaluation (standard 12-lead electrocardiogram and transthoracic echocardiography) to the cardiology department were enrolled and followed up from April 27, 1990, to July 31, 2013. The setting was the French National Reference Center for Rare Diseases and the Department of Cardiology, Salpêtrière University Hospital, Paris, France. In total, 138 patients with FRDA were followed up. Among 133 patients homozygous for expanded GAA repeats, the mean (SD) age was 31 (10) years (age range, 11-62 years), with a mean (SD) age at disease onset of 16 (8) years (age range, 3-50 years) and a mean (SD) age at first wheelchair use of 26 (9) years (age range, 11-64 years). Cardiac hypertrophy was present in 57.9% (77 of 133), and electrocardiography was normal in 6.8% (9 of 133).Main Outcomes and Measures Long-term cardiac outcome and predictors of survival in FRDA.Results After a mean (SD) follow-up of 10.5 (5.5) years (range, 0.6-23.0 years), the 10-year survival rate was 88.5%. In 80.0% of patients (12 of 15), death was due to cardiac causes. Predictors of survival were a shorter GAA repeat length on the smaller allele of the frataxin gene (hazard ratio [HR], 1.85; 95% CI, 1.28-2.69), left ventricular ejection fraction (HR, 0.42; 95% CI, 0.20-0.89), and left ventricular mass index (HR, 1.19; 95% CI, 1.04-1.36). Two cardiac evolutions were distinguished with a group-based trajectory model, including a low-risk cardiac group (78.6% [81 of 103] with normal ejection fraction at baseline that declined slightly over time but remained within the normal range) and a high-risk cardiac group (21.4% [22 of 103] in which the ejection fraction progressively declined during follow-up). The patients with the worse cardiac evolution had longer GAA repeats. Neurological impairment was not predictive of cardiac change over time.Conclusions and Relevance Survival in FRDA is determined by cardiac complications, which are dependent on the mutation (ie, the size of the expanded GAA repeat). Patients with progressive decline of the left ventricular ejection fraction had a worse prognosis. This finding demonstrates that cardiac follow-up is important in FRDA to identify individuals at risk for further cardiac complications.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Friedreich's ataxia usually occurs before the age of 25. Rare variants have been described, such as late-onset Friedreich's ataxia and very-late-onset Friedreich's ataxia, occurring after 25 and 40 years, respectively. We describe the clinical, functional, and molecular findings from a large series of late-onset Friedreich's ataxia and very-late-onset Friedreich's ataxia and compare them with typical-onset Friedreich's ataxia. Methods: Phenotypic and genotypic comparison of 44 late-onset Friedreich's ataxia, 30 very late-onset Friedreich's ataxia, and 180 typical Friedreich's ataxia was undertaken. Results: Delayed-onset Friedreich's ataxia (late-onset Friedreich's ataxia and very-late-onset Friedreich's ataxia) had less frequently dysarthria, abolished tendon reflexes, extensor plantar reflexes, weakness, amyotrophy, ganglionopathy, cerebellar atrophy, scoliosis, and cardiomyopathy than typical-onset Friedreich's ataxia, along with less severe functional disability and shorter GAA expansion on the smaller allele (P < 0.001). Delayed-onset Friedreich's ataxia had lower scale for the assessment and rating of ataxia and spinocerebellar degeneration functional scores and longer disease duration before wheelchair confinement (P < 0.001). Both GAA expansions were negatively correlated to age at disease onset (P < 0.001), but the smaller GAA expansion accounted for 62.9% of age at onset variation and the larger GAA expansion for 15.6%. In this comparative study of late-onset Friedreich's ataxia and very-late-onset Friedreich's ataxia, no differences between these phenotypes were demonstrated. Conclusion: Typical- and delayed-onset Friedreich's ataxia are different and Friedreich's ataxia is heterogeneous. Late-onset Friedreich's ataxia and very-late-onset Friedreich's ataxia appear to belong to the same clinical and molecular continuum and should be considered together as "delayed-onset Friedreich's ataxia." As the most frequently inherited ataxia, Friedreich's ataxia should be considered facing compatible pictures, including atypical phenotypes (spastic ataxia, retained reflexes, lack of dysarthria, and lack of extraneurological signs), delayed disease onset (even after 60 years of age), and/or slow disease progression.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2015 · Movement Disorders
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Spinocerebellar ataxias are dominantly inherited neurodegenerative diseases. As potential treatments for these diseases are being developed, precise knowledge of their natural history is needed. We aimed to study the long-term disease progression of the most common spinocerebellar ataxias: SCA1, SCA2, SCA3, and SCA6. Furthermore, we aimed to establish the order and occurrence of non-ataxia symptoms, and identify predictors of disease progression. Methods: In this longitudinal cohort study (EUROSCA), we enrolled men and women with positive genetic testing for SCA1, SCA2, SCA3, or SCA6 and with progressive, otherwise unexplained ataxia who were aged 18 years or older from 17 ataxia referral centres in ten European countries. Patients were seen every year for 3 years, and at irregular intervals thereafter. The primary outcome was the scale for the assessment and rating of ataxia (SARA), and the inventory of non-ataxia signs (INAS). We used linear mixed models to analyse progression. To account for dropouts, we applied a pattern-mixture model. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02440763. Findings: Between July 1, 2005, and Aug 31, 2006, 526 patients with SCA1, SCA2, SCA3, or SCA6 were enrolled. We analysed data for 462 patients with at least one follow-up visit. Median observation time was 49 months (IQR 35-72). SARA progression data were best fitted with a linear model in all genotypes. Annual SARA score increase was 2·11 (SE 0·12) in patients with SCA1, 1·49 (0·07) in patients with SCA2, 1·56 (0·08) in patients with SCA3, and 0·80 (0·09) in patients with SCA6. The increase of the number of non-ataxia signs reached a plateau in SCA1, SCA2, and SCA3. In patients with SCA6, the number of non-ataxia symptoms increased linearly, but more slowly than in patients with SCA1, SCA2, and SCA3 (p<0·0001). Factors that were associated with faster progression of the SARA score were short duration of follow-up (p=0·0179), older age at inclusion (0.04 [SE 0·02] per additional year; p=0·0476), and longer repeat expansions (0·06 [SE 0·02] per additional repeat unit; p=0·0128) in SCA1, short duration of follow-up (p<0·0001), lower age at onset (-0·02 [SE 0·01] per additional year; p=0·0014), and lower baseline SARA score (-0·02 [SE 0·01] per additional SARA point; p=0·0083) in SCA2, and lower baseline SARA score (-0·03 [SE 0·01] per additional SARA point; p=0·0195) in SCA6. In SCA3, we did not identify factors that affected progression of the SARA score. Interpretation: Our study provides quantitative data on the progression of the most common spinocerebellar ataxias based on a follow-up period that exceeds those of previous studies. Our data could prove useful for sample size calculation and patient stratification in interventional trials. Funding: EU FP6 (EUROSCA), German Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF; GeneMove), Polish Ministry of Science, EU FP7 (NEUROMICS).
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2015 · The Lancet Neurology
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    ABSTRACT: Autosomal recessive spastic ataxia of Charlevoix-Saguenay (ARSACS) is caused by mutations in the SACS gene. SACS encodes sacsin, a protein whose function remains unknown, despite the description of numerous protein domains and the recent focus on its potential role in the regulation of mitochondrial physiology. This study aimed to identify new mutations in a large population of ataxic patients and to functionally analyze their cellular effects in the mitochondrial compartment. A total of 321 index patients with spastic ataxia selected from the SPATAX network were analyzed by direct sequencing of the SACS gene, and 156 patients from the ATAXIC project presenting with congenital ataxia were investigated either by targeted or whole-exome sequencing. For functional analyses, primary cultures of fibroblasts were obtained from 11 patients carrying either mono- or biallelic variants, including one case harboring a large deletion encompassing the entire SACS gene. We identified biallelic SACS variants in 33 patients from SPATAX, and in five nonprogressive ataxia patients from ATAXIC. Moreover, a drastic and recurrent alteration of the mitochondrial network was observed in 10 of the 11 patients tested. Our results permit extension of the clinical and mutational spectrum of ARSACS patients. Moreover, we suggest that the observed mitochondrial network anomalies could be used as a trait biomarker for the diagnosis of ARSACS when SACS molecular results are difficult to interpret (i.e., missense variants and heterozygous truncating variant). Based on our findings, we propose new diagnostic definitions for ARSACS using clinical, genetic, and cellular criteria. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2015 American Neurological Association.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2015 · Annals of Neurology
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    ABSTRACT: Hereditary spastic paraplegias are heterogeneous neurological disorders characterized by a pyramidal syndrome with symptoms predominantly affecting the lower limbs. Some limited pyramidal involvement also occurs in patients with an autosomal recessive neurocutaneous syndrome due to ALDH18A1 mutations. ALDH18A1 encodes delta-1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthase (P5CS), an enzyme that catalyses the first and common step of proline and ornithine biosynthesis from glutamate. Through exome sequencing and candidate gene screening, we report two families with autosomal recessive transmission of ALDH18A1 mutations, and predominant complex hereditary spastic paraplegia with marked cognitive impairment, without any cutaneous abnormality. More interestingly, we also identified monoallelic ALDH18A1 mutations segregating in three independent families with autosomal dominant pure or complex hereditary spastic paraplegia, as well as in two sporadic patients. Low levels of plasma ornithine, citrulline, arginine and proline in four individuals from two families suggested P5CS deficiency. Glutamine loading tests in two fibroblast cultures from two related affected subjects confirmed a metabolic block at the level of P5CS in vivo. Besides expanding the clinical spectrum of ALDH18A1-related pathology, we describe mutations segregating in an autosomal dominant pattern. The latter are associated with a potential trait biomarker; we therefore suggest including amino acid chromatography in the clinico-genetic work-up of hereditary spastic paraplegia, particularly in dominant cases, as the associated phenotype is not distinct from other causative genes. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.
    Full-text · Article · May 2015 · Brain
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    ABSTRACT: Patients with Huntington disease (HD) and their spouses often complain of agitation during sleep, but the causes are mostly unknown. To evaluate sleep and nocturnal movements in patients with various HD stages and CAG repeats length. The clinical features and sleep studies of 29 patients with HD were retrospectively collected (11 referred for genotype-phenotype correlations and 18 for agitation during sleep) and compared with those of 29 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. All patients had videopolysomnography, but the movements during arousals were re-analyzed in six patients with HD with stored video. The patients had a longer total sleep period and REM sleep onset latency, but no other differences in sleep than controls. There was no correlation between CAG repeat length and sleep measures, but total sleep time and sleep efficiency were lower in the subgroup with moderate than milder form of HD. Periodic limb movements and REM sleep behavior disorders were excluded, although 2/29 patients had abnormal REM sleep without atonia. In contrast, they had clumsy and opisthotonos-like movements during arousals from non-REM or REM sleep. Some movements were violent and harmful. They might consist of voluntary movements inappropriately involving the proximal part of the limbs on a background of exaggerated hypotonia. Giant (>65 mcV) sleep spindles were observed in seven (24%) patients with HD and one control. The nocturnal agitation in patients with HD seems related to anosognostic voluntary movements on arousals, rather than to REM sleep behavior disorder and other sleep problems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2015 · Sleep Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: Friedreich's ataxia is a rare autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder. Here we report cross-sectional baseline data to establish the biological and clinical characteristics for a prospective, international, European Friedreich's ataxia database registry. Within the European Friedreich's Ataxia Consortium for Translational Studies (EFACTS) framework, we assessed a cohort of patients with genetically confirmed Friedreich's ataxia. The primary outcome measure was the Scale for the Assessment and Rating of Ataxia (SARA) and secondary outcome measures were the Inventory of Non-Ataxia Signs (INAS), the performance-based coordination test Spinocerebellar Ataxia Functional Index (SCAFI), the neurocognitive phonemic verbal fluency test, and two quality-of-life measures: the activities of daily living (ADL) part of the Friedreich's Ataxia Rating Scale and EQ-5D. The Friedreich's ataxia cohort was subdivided into three groups: early disease onset (≤14 years), intermediate onset (15-24 years), and late onset (≥25 years), which were compared for clinical characteristics and outcome measures. We used linear regression analysis to estimate the annual decline of clinical outcome measures based on disease duration. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02069509. We enrolled 592 patients with genetically confirmed Friedreich's ataxia between Sept 15, 2010, and April 30, 2013, at 11 sites in seven European countries. Age of disease onset was inversely correlated with the number of GAA repeats in the frataxin (FXN) gene: every 100 GAA repeats on the smaller repeat allele was associated with a 2·3 year (SE 0·2) earlier onset. Regression analyses showed significant estimated annual worsening of SARA (regression coefficient 0·86 points [SE 0·05], INAS (0·14 points [0·01]), SCAFI Z scores (-0·09 [0·01]), verbal fluency (-0·34 words [0·07]), and ADL (0·64 points [0·04]) during the first 25 years of disease; the regression slope for health-related quality-of-life state from EQ-5D was not significant (-0·33 points [0·18]). For SARA, the predicted annual rate of worsening was significantly higher in early-onset patients (n=354; 1·04 points [0·13]) and intermediate-onset patients (n=137; 1·17 points [0·22]) than in late-onset patients (n=100; 0·56 points [0·10]). The results of this cross-sectional baseline analysis of the EFACTS cohort suggest that earlier disease onset is associated with larger numbers of GAA repeats and more rapid disease progression. The differential estimated progression of ataxia symptoms related to age of onset have implications for the design of clinical trials in Friedreich's ataxia, for which SARA might be the most suitable measure to monitor disease progression. European Commission. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2015 · The Lancet Neurology
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    ABSTRACT: PMM2-CDG (formerly known as CDG Ia) a deficiency in phosphomannomutase, is the most frequent congenital disorder of glycosylation. The phenotype encompasses a wide range of neurological and non-neurological manifestations comprising cerebellar atrophy and intellectual deficiency. The phenotype of the disorder is well characterized in children but the long term course of the disease is unknown and the phenotype of late onset forms has not been comprehensively described. We thus retrospectively collected the clinical, biological and radiological data of 29 French PMM2-CDG patients aged 15 years or more with a proven molecular diagnosis (16 females and 13 males). In addition, thirteen of these patients were reexamined at the time of the study to obtain detailed information. 27 of the 29 patients had a typical PMM2-CDG phenotype, with infantile hypotonia, strabismus, developmental delay followed by intellectual deficiency, epilepsy, retinitis pigmentosa and/or visceral manifestations. The main health problems for these patients as teenagers and in adulthood were primary ovarian insufficiency, growth retardation, coagulation anomalies and thrombotic events, skeletal deformities and osteopenia/osteoporosis, retinitis pigmentosa, as well as peripheral neuropathy. Three patients had never walked and three lost their ability to walk. The two remaining patients had a late-onset phenotype unreported to date. All patients (n¿=¿29) had stable cerebellar atrophy. Our findings are in line with those of previous adult PMM2-CDG cohorts and points to the need for a multidisciplinary approach to the follow up of PMM2-CDG patients to prevent late complications. Additionally, our findings add weight to the view that PMM2-CDG may be diagnosed in teenage/adult patients with cerebellar atrophy, even in the absence of intellectual deficiency or non-neurological involvement.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2014 · Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
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    ABSTRACT: Inherited spinocerebellar ataxias (SCAs) are known to be genetically and clinically heterogeneous. Whether severity and survival are variable, however, is not known. We, therefore, studied survival and severity in 446 cases and 509 relatives with known mutations. Survival was 68 years [95% CI: 65–70] in 223 patients with polyglutamine expansions versus 80 years [73–84] in 23 with other mutations (P < 0.0001). Disability was also more severe in the former: at age 60, 30% were wheelchair users versus 3% with other SCAs (P < 0.001). This has implications for genetic counseling and the design of therapeutic trials.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2014
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    ABSTRACT: Autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxia corresponds to a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of neurodegenerative disorders that primarily affect the cerebellum. Here, we report the identification of the causative gene in spinocerebellar ataxia 21, an autosomal-dominant disorder previously mapped to chromosome 7p21.3-p15.1. This ataxia was firstly characterized in a large French family with slowly progressive cerebellar ataxia, accompanied by severe cognitive impairment and mental retardation in two young children. Following the recruitment of 12 additional young family members, linkage analysis enabled us to definitively map the disease locus to chromosome 1p36.33-p36.32. The causative mutation, (c.509C>T/p.P170L) in the transmembrane protein gene TMEM240, was identified by whole exome sequencing and then was confirmed by Sanger sequencing and co-segregation analyses. Index cases from 368 French families with autosomal-dominant cerebellar ataxia were also screened for mutations. In seven cases, we identified a range of missense mutations (c.509C>T/p.P170L, c.239C>T/p.T80M, c.346C>T/p.R116C, c.445G>A/p.E149K, c.511C>T/p.R171W), and a stop mutation (c.489C>G/p.Y163*) in the same gene. TMEM240 is a small, strongly conserved transmembrane protein of unknown function present in cerebellum and brain. Spinocerebellar ataxia 21 may be a particular early-onset disease associated with severe cognitive impairment. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: [email protected] /* */
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2014 · Brain
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    ABSTRACT: WFS1 mutations are responsible for Wolfram syndrome (WS) characterized by juvenile-onset diabetes mellitus and optic atrophy, and for low-frequency sensorineural hearing loss (LFSNHL). Our aim was to analyse the French cohort of 96 patients with WFS1-related disorders in order (i) to update clinical and molecular data with 37 novel affected individuals, (ii) to described uncommon phenotypes and, (iii) to precise the frequency of large-scale rearrangements in WFS1. We performed quantitative PCR in 13 patients, carrying only one heterozygous variant, to identify large-scale rearrangements in WFS1. Among the 37 novel patients, 15 carried 15 novel deleterious putative mutations, including one large deletion of 17444 base pairs. The analysis of the cohort revealed unexpected phenotypes including (i) late-onset symptoms in 13.8% of patients with a probable autosomal recessive transmission; (ii) 2 siblings with recessive optic atrophy without diabetes mellitus and, (iii) 6 patients from 4 families with dominantly-inherited deafness and optic atrophy. We highlight the expanding spectrum of WFS1-related disorders and we show that, even if large deletions are rare events, they have to be searched in patients with classical WS carrying only one WFS1 mutation after sequencing.
    No preview · Article · May 2014 · Clinical Genetics
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    ABSTRACT: The most common spinocerebellar ataxias (SCA)-SCA1, SCA2, SCA3, and SCA6-are caused by (CAG)n repeat expansion. While the number of repeats of the coding (CAG)n expansions is correlated with the age at onset, there are no appropriate models that include both affected and preclinical carriers allowing for the prediction of age at onset. We combined data from two major European cohorts of SCA1, SCA2, SCA3, and SCA6 mutation carriers: 1187 affected individuals from the EUROSCA registry and 123 preclinical individuals from the RISCA cohort. For each SCA genotype, a regression model was fitted using a log-normal distribution for age at onset with the repeat length of the alleles as covariates. From these models, we calculated expected age at onset from birth and conditionally that this age is greater than the current age. For SCA2 and SCA3 genotypes, the expanded allele was a significant predictor of age at onset (-0.105±0.005 and -0.056±0.003) while for SCA1 and SCA6 genotypes both the size of the expanded and normal alleles were significant (expanded: -0.049±0.002 and -0.090±0.009, respectively; normal: +0.013±0.005 and -0.029±0.010, respectively). According to the model, we indicated the median values (90% critical region) and the expectancy (SD) of the predicted age at onset for each SCA genotype according to the CAG repeat size and current age. These estimations can be valuable in clinical and research. However, results need to be confirmed in other independent cohorts and in future longitudinal studies. NCT01037777 and NCT00136630 for the French patients.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2014 · Journal of Medical Genetics
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    ABSTRACT: Huntington's disease (HD) is a rare multi-factorial neurodegenerative disease. Both its natural course and any placebo effect are poorly known. All are obstacles to design randomized controlled trials (RCTs). We conducted meta-analyses of RCTs and cohorts on all parameters of the Unified Huntington's Disease Rating Scale to determine the most appropriate outcomes and to minimize the number of patients required to design RCTs in HD.Twenty-four RCTs were included, involving 838 patients with a mean age of 50.0 ± 2.3 years and a mean Total Functional Capacity (TFC) score of 9.8 ± 0.6. Nineteen cohorts were included involving 1939 patients with a mean age of 48.9 ± 2.3 years and a mean TFC of 10.1 ± 0.7.Significant deterioration was observed in RCTs for all scores except behavioral score. Effect sizes were comparable between RCTs and cohorts for each test except that there was a significant difference for TFC. The weighted mean deterioration per year on the TFC scale was -0.5 (0.2) in RCTs and -0.8 (0.2) in cohorts. The lowest number of patients required per group in a RCT was for TFC (19 per group), whereas 30 patients would be required per group for the Total Motor Score (TMS). For cognition, the Verbal Fluency test required the smallest number of patients: 104 per group.In conclusion, TMS and TFC are the most appropriate outcomes to design RCTs on HD likewise the Verbal Fluency test for cognition. Our results suggest an effect of placebo administration on the Total Functional Capacity.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2014 · Fundamental and Clinical Pharmacology
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: Huntington's disease is a rare condition. Patients are commonly treated with antipsychotics and tetrabenazine. The evidence of their effect on disease progression is limited and no comparative study between these drugs has been conducted. We therefore compared the effectiveness of antipsychotics on disease progression. Methods: 956 patients from the Huntington French Speaking Group were followed for up to 8 years between 2002 and 2010. The effectiveness of treatments was assessed using Unified Huntington's Disease Rating Scale (UHDRS) scores and then compared using a mixed model adjusted on a multiple propensity score. Results: 63% of patients were treated with antipsychotics during the survey period. The most commonly prescribed medications were dibenzodiazepines (38%), risperidone (13%), tetrabenazine (12%) and benzamides (12%). There was no difference between treatments on the motor and behavioural declines observed, after taking the patient profiles at the start of the drug prescription into account. In contrast, the functional decline was lower in the dibenzodiazepine group than the other antipsychotic groups (Total Functional Capacity: 0.41±0.17 units per year vs. risperidone and 0.54±0.19 vs. tetrabenazine, both p<0.05). Benzamides were less effective than other antipsychotics on cognitive evolution (Stroop interference, Stroop color and Literal fluency: p<0.05). Conclusions: Antipsychotics are widely used to treat patients with Huntington's disease. Although differences in motor or behavioural profiles between patients according to the antipsychotics used were small, there were differences in drug effectiveness on the evolution of functional and cognitive scores.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2014 · PLoS ONE
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    ABSTRACT: Autosomal recessive cerebellar ataxia 2 (ARCA2) is a recently identified recessive ataxia due to ubiquinone deficiency and biallelic mutations in the ADCK3 gene. The phenotype of the twenty-one patients reported worldwide varies greatly. Thus, it is difficult to decide which ataxic patients are good candidates for ADCK3 screening without evidence of ubiquinone deficiency. We report here the clinical and molecular data of 10 newly diagnosed patients from seven families and update the disease history of four additional patients reported in previous articles to delineate the clinical spectrum of ARCA2 phenotype and to provide a guide to the molecular diagnosis. First signs occurred before adulthood in all 14 patients. Cerebellar atrophy appeared in all instances. The progressivity and severity of ataxia varied greatly, but no patients had the typical inexorable ataxic course that characterizes other childhood-onset recessive ataxias. The ataxia was frequently associated with other neurological signs. Importantly, stroke-like episodes contributed to significant deterioration of the neurological status in two patients. Ubidecarenone therapy markedly improved the movement disorders, including ataxia, in two other patients. The 7 novel ADCK3 mutations found in the 10 new patients were two missense and five truncating mutations. There was no apparent correlation between the genotype and the phenotype. Our series reveals that the clinical spectrum of ARCA2 encompasses a range of ataxic phenotypes. On one end, it may manifest as a pure ataxia with very slow progressivity and, on the other end, as a severe infantile encephalopathy with cerebellar atrophy. The phenotype of most patients, however, lies in between. It is characterized by a very slowly progressive or apparently stable ataxia associated with other signs of central nervous system involvement. We suggest undergoing the molecular analysis of ADCK3 in patients with this phenotype and in those with cerebellar atrophy and a stroke-like episode. The diagnosis of patients with a severe ARCA2 phenotype may also be performed on the basis of biological data, i.e. low ubiquinone level or functional evidence of ubiquinone deficiency. This diagnosis is crucial since the neurological status of some patients may be improved by ubiquinone therapy.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2013 · Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
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    ABSTRACT: Hereditary spastic paraplegias (HSPs) form a heterogeneous group of neurological disorders. A whole-genome linkage mapping effort was made with three HSP-affected families from Spain, Portugal, and Tunisia and it allowed us to reduce the SPG26 locus interval from 34 to 9 Mb. Subsequently, a targeted capture was made to sequence the entire exome of affected individuals from these three families, as well as from two additional autosomal-recessive HSP-affected families of German and Brazilian origins. Five homozygous truncating (n = 3) and missense (n = 2) mutations were identified in B4GALNT1. After this finding, we analyzed the entire coding region of this gene in 65 additional cases, and three mutations were identified in two subjects. All mutated cases presented an early-onset spastic paraplegia, with frequent intellectual disability, cerebellar ataxia, and peripheral neuropathy as well as cortical atrophy and white matter hyperintensities on brain imaging. B4GALNT1 encodes β-1,4-N-acetyl-galactosaminyl transferase 1 (B4GALNT1), involved in ganglioside biosynthesis. These findings confirm the increasing interest of lipid metabolism in HSPs. Interestingly, although the catabolism of gangliosides is implicated in a variety of neurological diseases, SPG26 is only the second human disease involving defects of their biosynthesis.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2013 · The American Journal of Human Genetics
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    ABSTRACT: Habitual consumption of caffeine, a non-selective adenosine receptors (ARs) antagonist, has been suggested to be beneficial in Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases. Experimental evidence support that ARs play a role in Huntington's disease (HD) raising the hypothesis that caffeine may be a life-style modifier in HD. To determine a possible relationship between caffeine consumption and age at onset (AAO) in HD, we retrospectively assessed caffeine consumption in 80 HD patients using a dietary survey and determined relationship with AAO. Following adjustment for gender, smoking status and CAG repeat length, caffeine consumption greater than 190 mg/day was significantly associated with an earlier AAO. These data support an association between habitual caffeine intake and AAO in HD patients, but further studies are warranted to understand the link between these variables.
    Full-text · Article · May 2013 · Neurobiology of Disease
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    ABSTRACT: Early onset epileptic encephalopathies (EOEEs) are dramatic heterogeneous conditions in which aetiology, seizures and/or interictal EEG have a negative impact on neurological development. Several genes have been associated with EOEE and a molecular diagnosis workup is challenging since similar phenotypes are associated with mutations in different genes and since mutations in one given gene can be associated with very different phenotypes. Recently, de novo mutations in KCNQ2, have been found in about 10% of EOEE patients. Our objective was to confirm that KCNQ2 was an important gene to include in the diagnosis workup of EOEEs and to fully describe the clinical and EEG features of mutated patients. We have screened KCNQ2 in a cohort of 71 patients with an EOEE, without any brain structural abnormality. To be included in the cohort, patient’s epilepsy should begin before three months of age and be associated with abnormal interictal EEG and neurological impairment. Brain MRI should not show any structural abnormality that could account for the epilepsy. Out of those 71 patients, 16 had a de novo mutation in KCNQ2 (23%). Interestingly, in the majority of the cases, the initial epileptic features of these patients were comparable to those previously described in the case of benign familial neonatal epilepsy (BFNE) also caused by KCNQ2 mutations. However, in contrast to BFNE, the interictal background EEG was altered and displayed multifocal spikes or a suppression-burst pattern. The ongoing epilepsy and development were highly variable but overall severe: 15/16 had obvious cognitive impairment, half of the patients became seizure-free, 5/16 could walk before the age of 3 and only 2/16 patient acquired the ability to speak. This study confirms that KCNQ2 is frequently mutated de novo in neonatal onset epileptic encephalopathy. We show here that despite a relatively stereotyped beginning of the condition, the neurological and epileptic evolution is variable.
    Full-text · Article · May 2013 · Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Spinocerebellar ataxias (SCAs) are autosomal, dominantly inherited, fully penetrant neurodegenerative diseases. Our aim was to study the preclinical stage of the most common SCAs: SCA1, SCA2, SCA3, and SCA6. METHODS: Between Sept 13, 2008, and Dec 1, 2011, offspring or siblings of patients with SCA1, SCA2, SCA3, or SCA6 were enrolled into a prospective, longitudinal observational study at 14 European centres. To be eligible for inclusion in our study, individuals had to have no ataxia and be aged 18-50 years if directly related to individuals with SCA1, SCA2, or SCA3, or 35-70 years if directly related to individuals with SCA6. We did anonymous genetic testing to identify mutation carriers. We assessed participants with clinical scales, questionnaires, and performance-based coordination tests. In eight of the 14 centres, participants underwent MRI. We analysed relations between outcome variables and time from onset (defined as the difference between present age and estimated age at ataxia onset). This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01037777. FINDINGS: 276 participants met inclusion criteria and agreed to participate, of whom 12 (4%) were excluded from final analysis because DNA samples were missing or genotyping failed. Estimated time from onset was -9 years (IQR -13 to -6) in 50 carriers of the SCA1 mutation, -12 years (-15 to -9) in 31 SCA2 mutation carriers, -8 years (-11 to -6) in 26 SCA3 mutation carriers, and -18 years (-22 to -16) in 16 SCA6 mutation carriers. Compared with non-carriers of each mutation, SCA1 mutation carriers had higher median scores on the scale for the assessment and rating of ataxia (SARA; 0·5 [IQR 0-1·0] vs 0 [0-0]; p=0·0052), as did SCA2 mutation carriers (0·5 [0-2·0] vs 0 [0-0·5]; p=0·0037). SCA2 mutation carriers had lower SCA functional index scores than did non-carriers (-0·43 [-0·91 to -0·07] vs 0·09 [-0·30 to 0·56]; p=0·0007). SCA2 mutation carriers had worse composite cerebellar functional scores than did their non-carrier counterparts (0·915 [0·861-0·959] vs 0·849 [0·764-0·886]; p=0·0039). All other differences between carriers and non-carriers were non-significant. In SCA1 and SCA2 mutation carriers, SARA scores were increased in participants who were closer to the estimated age at onset (SCA1: r=0·36, p=0·0112; SCA2: r=0·50, p=0·0038). 83 individuals (30%) underwent MRI. Voxel-based morphometry showed grey-matter loss in the brainstem and cerebellum in SCA1 and SCA2 mutation carriers, and normalised brainstem volume was lower in SCA2 mutation carriers (median 0·015, range 0·012-0·016) than in non-carriers (0·019, 0·017-0·021; p=0·0107). INTERPRETATION: Preclinical SCA1 and SCA2 mutation carriers seem to have mild coordination deficits and abnormalities in the brain that are more common in carriers who are closer to the estimated onset of ataxia. Individuals in this early disease stage could be targeted in future preventive trials. FUNDING: ERA-Net E-Rare and Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education.
    Full-text · Article · May 2013 · The Lancet Neurology
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    Full-text · Dataset · Apr 2013

Publication Stats

1k Citations
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Institutions

  • 2008-2015
    • Hôpital La Pitié Salpêtrière (Groupe Hospitalier "La Pitié Salpêtrière - Charles Foix")
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 2007-2015
    • Hôpitaux Universitaires La Pitié salpêtrière - Charles Foix
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
    • Pierre and Marie Curie University - Paris 6
      • Centre de Recherche de l'Institut du Cerveau et de la Moelle Epinière
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 2014
    • French National Centre for Scientific Research
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
    • Hôpital Albert Chenevier – Hôpitaux Universitaires Henri Mondor
      Créteil, Île-de-France, France
  • 2007-2014
    • Assistance Publique – Hôpitaux de Paris
      • Department of Neurology
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 2010-2013
    • Polytech Paris-UPMC
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 2011
    • French Institute of Health and Medical Research
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France