[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The mechanisms of electron capture and electron transfer dissociation (ECD and ETD) are investigated by covalently attaching a free-radical hydrogen atom scavenger to a peptide. The 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidin-l-oxyl (TEMPO) radical was chosen as the scavenger due to its high hydrogen atom affinity (ca. 280 kJ/mol) and low electron affinity (ca. 0.45 eV), and was derivatized to the model peptide, FQXTEMPOEEQQQTEDELQDK. The XTEMPO residue represents a cysteinyl residue derivatized with an acetamido-TEMPO group. The acetamide group without TEMPO was also examined as a control. The gas phase proton affinity (882 kJ/mol) of TEMPO is similar to backbone amide carbonyls (889 kJ/mol), minimizing perturbation to internal solvation and sites of protonation of the derivatized peptides. Collision-induced dissociation (CID) of the TEMPO-tagged peptide dication generated stable odd-electron b and y type ions without indication of any TEMPO radical induced fragmentation initiated by hydrogen abstraction. The type and abundance of fragment ions observed in the CID spectra of the TEMPO and acetamide tagged peptides are very similar. However, ECD of the TEMPO-labeled peptide dication yielded no backbone cleavage. We propose that a labile hydrogen atom in the charge reduced radical ions is scavenged by the TEMPO radical moiety, resulting in inhibition of NCα backbone cleavage processes. Supplemental activation after electron attachment (ETcaD) and CID of the charge-reduced precursor ion generated by electron transfer of the TEMPO-tagged peptide dication produced a series of b + H (bH) and y + H (yH) ions along with some c ions having suppressed intensities, consistent with stable OH bond formation at the TEMPO group. In summary, the results indicate that ECD and ETD backbone cleavage processes are inhibited by scavenging of a labile hydrogen atom by the localized TEMPO radical moiety. This observation supports the conjecture that ECD and ETD processes involve long-lived intermediates formed by electron capture/transfer in which a labile hydrogen atom is present and plays a key role with low energy processes leading to c and z ion formation. Ab initio and density functional calculations are performed to support our conclusion, which depends most importantly on the proton affinity, electron affinity and hydrogen atom affinity of the TEMPO moiety.
Full-text · Article · Jul 2015 · International Journal of Mass Spectrometry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Laser desorption is an attractive technique for in situ sampling of organics on Mars given its relative simplicity. We demonstrate that under simulated Martian conditions (~2.5 Torr CO2) laser desorption of neutral species (e.g., polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons), followed by ionization with a simple ultraviolet light source such as a discharge lamp, offers an effective means of sampling organics for detection and identification with a mass spectrometer. An electrodynamic ion funnel is employed to provide efficient ion collection in the ambient Martian environment. This experimental methodology enables in situ sampling of Martian organics with minimal complexity and maximum flexibility.
No preview · Article · Jul 2014 · Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The air-liquid interface filled with pulmonary surfactant is a unique feature of our lung alveoli. The mechanical properties of this interface play an important role in breathing and its malfunction induced by an environmental hazard, such as ozone, relates to various lung diseases. In order to understand the interfacial physics of the pulmonary surfactant system, we employed a microfluidic bubble generation platform with a model pulmonary surfactant composed of two major phospholipids: DPPC (1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-phosphatidylcholine) and POPG (1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-phosphatidylglycerol). With fluorescence imaging, we observed the ozone-induced chemical modification of the unsaturated lipid component of the lipid mixture, POPG. This chemical change due to the oxidative stress was further utilized to study the physical characteristics of the interface through the bubble formation process. The physical property change was evaluated through the oscillatory behaviour of the monolayer, as well as the bubble size and formation time. The results presented demonstrate the potential of this platform to study interfacial physics of lung surfactant system under various environmental challenges, both qualitatively and quantitatively.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We are developing techniques for martian atmospheric pressure ionization
of organic molecules to enable their detection and quantification via
mass spectrometry with minimal sample handling and preparation.
Preliminary results will be presented.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have developed an orthogonal-acceleration time-of-flight mass spectrometer to study the volatiles produced when a mineral's shock-compressed state is isentropically released, as occurs when a shock wave, driven into the mineral by an impact, reflects upon reaching a free surface. The instrument is designed to use a gun or explosive-launched projectile as the source of the shock wave, impact onto a flange separating a poor vacuum and the high vacuum (10(-7) Torr) interior of the mass spectrometer, and transmission of the shock wave through the flange to a mineral sample mounted on the high-vacuum side of the flange. The device extracts and analyzes the neutrals and ions produced from the shocked mineral prior to the possible occurrence of collateral instrument damage from the shock-inducing impact. The instrument has been tested using laser ablation of various mineral surfaces, and the resulting spectra are presented. Mass spectra are compared with theoretical distributions of molecular species, and with expected distributions from laser desorption.
Preview · Article · Apr 2012 · The Review of scientific instruments
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We present novel homobifunctional amine-reactive clickable cross-linkers (CXLs) for investigation of three-dimensional protein structures and protein-protein interactions (PPIs). CXLs afford consolidated advantages not previously available in a simple cross-linker, including (1) their small size and cationic nature at physiological pH, resulting in good water solubility and cell-permeability, (2) an alkyne group for bio-orthogonal conjugation to affinity tags via the click reaction for enrichment of cross-linked peptides, (3) a nucleophilic displacement reaction involving the 1,2,3-triazole ring formed in the click reaction, yielding a lock-mass reporter ion for only clicked peptides, and (4) higher charge states of cross-linked peptides in the gas-phase for augmented electron transfer dissociation (ETD) yields. Ubiquitin, a lysine-abundant protein, is used as a model system to demonstrate structural studies using CXLs. To validate the sensitivity of our approach, biotin-azide labeling and subsequent enrichment of cross-linked peptides are performed for cross-linked ubiquitin digests mixed with yeast cell lysates. Cross-linked peptides are detected and identified by collision induced dissociation (CID) and ETD with linear quadrupole ion trap (LTQ)-Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FTICR) and LTQ-Orbitrap mass spectrometers. The application of CXLs to more complex systems (e.g., in vivo cross-linking) is illustrated by Western blot detection of Cul1 complexes including known binders, Cand1 and Skp2, in HEK 293 cells, confirming good water solubility and cell-permeability.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2012 · Analytical Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report the development of novel reagents for cell-level protein quantification, referred to as Caltech isobaric tags (CITs), which offer several advantages in comparison with other isobaric tags (e.g., iTRAQ and TMT). Click chemistry, copper(I)-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC), is applied to generate a gas-phase cleavable linker suitable for the formation of reporter ions. Upon collisional activation, the 1,2,3-triazole ring constructed by CuAAC participates in a nucleophilic displacement reaction forming a six-membered ring and releasing a stable cationic reporter ion. To investigate its utility in peptide mass spectrometry, the energetics of the observed fragmentation pathway are examined by density functional theory. When this functional group is covalently attached to a target peptide, it is found that the nucleophilic displacement occurs in competition with formation of b- and y-type backbone fragment ions regardless of the amino acid side chains present in the parent bioconjugate, confirming that calculated reaction energetics of reporter ion formation are similar to those of backbone fragmentations. Based on these results, we apply this selective fragmentation pathway for the development of CIT reagents. For demonstration purposes, duplex CIT reagent is prepared using a single isotope-coded precursor, allyl-d(5)-bromide, with reporter ions appearing at m/z 164 and 169. Isotope-coded allyl azides for the construction of the reporter ion group can be prepared from halogenated alkyl groups which are also employed for the mass balance group via N-alkylation, reducing the cost and effort for synthesis of isobaric pairs. Owing to their modular designs, an unlimited number of isobaric combinations of CIT reagents are, in principle, possible. The reporter ion mass can be easily tuned to avoid overlapping with common peptide MS/MS fragments as well as the low mass cutoff problems inherent in ion trap mass spectrometers. The applicability of the CIT reagent is tested with several model systems involving protein mixtures and cellular systems.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2012 · Journal of the American Chemical Society
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Field-induced droplet ionization (FIDI) is a recently developed ionization technique that can transfer ions from the surface of microliter droplets to the gas phase intact. The air-liquid interfacial reactions of cholesterol sulfate (CholSO(4)) in a 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-phosphatidylglycerol (POPG) surfactant layer with ozone (O(3)) are investigated using field-induced droplet ionization mass spectrometry (FIDI-MS). Time-resolved studies of interfacial ozonolysis of CholSO(4) reveal that water plays an important role in forming oxygenated products. An epoxide derivative is observed as a major product of CholSO(4) oxidation in the FIDI-MS spectrum after exposure of the droplet to O(3) for 5 s. The abundance of the epoxide product then decreases with continued O(3) exposure as the finite number of water molecules at the air-liquid interface becomes exhausted. Competitive oxidation of CholSO(4) and POPG is observed when they are present together in a lipid surfactant layer at the air-liquid interface. Competitive reactions of CholSO(4) and POPG with O(3) suggest that CholSO(4) is present with POPG as a well-mixed interfacial layer. Compared with CholSO(4) and POPG alone, the overall ozonolysis rates of both CholSO(4) and POPG are reduced in a mixed layer, suggesting the double bonds of both molecules are shielded by additional hydrocarbons from one another. Molecular dynamics simulations of a monolayer comprising POPG and CholSO(4) correlate well with experimental observations and provide a detailed picture of the interactions between CholSO(4), lipids, and water molecules in the interfacial region.
Preview · Article · Nov 2011 · Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We present the implementation of a switched ferroelectric plasma ionizer (SwiFerr) for ambient analysis of trace substances by mass spectrometry. The device utilizes the ferroelectric properties of barium titanate (BaTiO(3)) to take advantage of the high electric field resulting from polarization switching in the material. The source comprises a -oriented barium titanate crystal (5 × 5 × 1 mm) with a metallic rear electrode and a metallic grid front electrode. When a high voltage AC waveform is applied to the rear electrode to switch polarization, the resulting electric field on the face of the crystal promotes electron emission and results in plasma formation between the crystal face and the grounded grid at ambient pressure. Interaction with this plasma and the resulting reagent ions effects ionization of trace neutrals. The source requires less than 1 W of power to operate under most circumstances, ionizes molecules with acidic and basic functional groups easily, and has proven quite versatile for ambient analysis of both vapor phase and aspirated powdered solid samples. Ionization of vapor phase samples of the organics triethylamine, tripropylamine, tributylamine, and pyridine results in observation of the singly protonated species in the positive ion mass spectrum with sensitivity extending into the high ppb range. With acetic acid, deprotonated clusters dominate the negative ion mass spectrum. Aerodynamic sampling of powdered samples is used to record mass spectra of the pharmaceuticals loperamide and ibuprofen. Chemical signatures, including protonated loperamide and deprotonated ibuprofen, are observed for each drug. The robust, low power source lends itself easily to miniaturization and incorporation in field-portable devices used for the rapid detection and characterization of trace substances and hazardous materials in a range of different environments.
Preview · Article · Jan 2011 · Analytical Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Field induced droplet ionization mass spectrometry (FIDI-MS) comprises a soft ionization method to sample ions from the surface of microliter droplets. A pulsed electric field stretches neutral droplets until they develop dual Taylor cones, emitting streams of positively and negatively charged submicrometer droplets in opposite directions, with the desired polarity being directed into a mass spectrometer for analysis. This methodology is employed to study the heterogeneous ozonolysis of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-phosphatidylglycerol (POPG) at the air-liquid interface in negative ion mode using FIDI mass spectrometry. Our results demonstrate unique characteristics of the heterogeneous reactions at the air-liquid interface. We observe the hydroxyhydroperoxide and the secondary ozonide as major products of POPG ozonolysis in the FIDI-MS spectra. These products are metastable and difficult to observe in the bulk phase, using standard electrospray ionization (ESI) for mass spectrometric analysis. We also present studies of the heterogeneous ozonolysis of a mixture of saturated and unsaturated phospholipids at the air-liquid interface. A mixture of the saturated phospholipid 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-phosphatidylglycerol (DPPG) and unsaturated POPG is investigated in negative ion mode using FIDI-MS while a mixture of 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) and 1-stearoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-phosphatidylcholine (SOPC) surfactant is studied in positive ion mode. In both cases FIDI-MS shows the saturated and unsaturated pulmonary surfactants form a mixed interfacial layer. Only the unsaturated phospholipid reacts with ozone, forming products that are more hydrophilic than the saturated phospholipid. With extensive ozonolysis only the saturated phospholipid remains at the droplet surface. Combining these experimental observations with the results of computational analysis provides an improved understanding of the interfacial structure and chemistry of a surfactant layer system when subject to oxidative stress.
Full-text · Article · Jul 2010 · The Journal of Physical Chemistry B
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Oxidative stresses from irritants such as hydrogen peroxide and ozone (O(3)) can cause dysfunction of the pulmonary surfactant (PS) layer in the human lung, resulting in chronic diseases of the respiratory tract. For identification of structural changes of pulmonary surfactant protein B (SP-B) due to the heterogeneous reaction with O(3), field-induced droplet ionization (FIDI) mass spectrometry has been utilized. FIDI is a soft ionization method in which ions are extracted from the surface of microliter-volume droplets. We report structurally specific oxidative changes of SP-B(1-25) (a shortened version of human SP-B) at the air-liquid interface. We also present studies of the interfacial oxidation of SP-B(1-25) in a nonionizable 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycerol (POG) surfactant layer as a model PS system, where competitive oxidation of the two components is observed. Our results indicate that the heterogeneous reaction of SP-B(1-25) at the interface is quite different from that in the solution phase. In comparison with the nearly complete homogeneous oxidation of SP-B(1-25), only a subset of the amino acids known to react with ozone are oxidized by direct ozonolysis in the hydrophobic interfacial environment, both with and without the lipid surfactant layer. Combining these experimental observations with the results of molecular dynamics simulations provides an improved understanding of the interfacial structure and chemistry of a model lung surfactant system subjected to oxidative stress.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2010 · Journal of the American Chemical Society
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We investigate the Rayleigh discharge and evaporation dynamics of highly charged two-component droplets consisting principally of methanol with 2-methoxyethanol, tert-butanol, or m-nitrobenzyl alcohol. A phase Doppler anemometer (PDA) characterizes droplets generated by electrospray ionization (ESI) according to size, velocity, and charge as they move through a uniform electric field within an ion mobility spectrometer (IMS). Repeated field reversals result in droplet "ping-pong" through the PDA. This generates individual droplet histories of solvent evaporation behavior and the dynamics of charge loss to progeny droplets during Rayleigh discharge events. On average, methanol droplets discharge at 127% their Rayleigh limit of charge, q(R), and release 25% of the net charge. Charge loss from methanol/2-methoxyethanol droplets behaves similarly to pure 2-methoxyethanol droplets which release approximately 28% of their net charge. Binary methanol droplets containing up to 50% tert-butanol discharge at a lower percent q(R) than pure methanol and release a greater fraction of their net charge. Mixed 99% methanol/1% m-nitrobenzyl alcohol droplets possess discharge characteristics similar to those of methanol. However, droplets of methanol containing 2% m-nitrobenzyl evaporate down to a fixed size and charge that remains constant with no observable discharges. Quasi-steady-state evaporation models accurately describe observed evaporation phenomena in which methanol/tert-butanol droplets evaporate at a rate similar to that of pure methanol and methanol/2-methoxyethanol droplets evaporate at a rate similar to that of 2-methoxyethanol. We compare these results to previous Rayleigh discharge experiments and discuss the implications for binary solvents in electrospray mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and field-induced droplet ionization mass spectrometry (FIDI-MS).
No preview · Article · Oct 2009 · The Journal of Physical Chemistry A
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We present studies of the ionization mechanism operative in the ambient pressure pyroelectric ionization source (APPIS), along with applications that include detection of simulants for chemical nerve agents. It is found that ionization by APPIS occurs in the gas-phase. As the crystal is thermally cycled over a narrow temperature range, electrical discharges near the surface of the crystal produce energetic species which, through reactions with atmospheric molecules, result in reactant ions such as protonated water clusters or clusters of hydroxide and water. Reactant ions can be observed directly in the mass spectrometer. These go on to react with trace neutrals via proton transfer reactions to produce the ions observed in mass spectra, which are usually singly protonated or deprotonated species. Further implicating gas-phase ionization, observed product distributions are highly dependent on the composition of ambient gases, especially the concentration of water vapor and oxygen surrounding the source. For example, basic species such as triethylamine are observed as singly protonated cations at a water partial pressure of 10 torr. At a water pressure of 4 torr, reactive oxygen species are formed and lead to observation of protonated amine oxides. The ability of the APPIS source to detect basic molecules with high proton affinities makes it highly suited for the detection of chemical nerve agents. We demonstrate this application using simulants corresponding to VX and GA (Tabun). With the present source configuration pyridine is detected readily at a concentration of 4 ppm, indicating ultimate sensitivity in the high ppb range.
Preview · Article · Aug 2009 · Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Electron capture dissociation (ECD) and electron transfer dissociation (ETD) of doubly protonated electron affinity (EA)-tuned peptides were studied to further illuminate the mechanism of these processes. The model peptide FQpSEEQQQTEDELQDK, containing a phosphoserine residue, was converted to EA-tuned peptides via beta-elimination and Michael addition of various thiol compounds. These include propanyl, benzyl, 4-cyanobenzyl, perfluorobenzyl, 3,5-dicyanobenzyl, 3-nitrobenzyl, and 3,5-dinitrobenzyl structural moieties, having a range of EA from -1.15 to +1.65 eV, excluding the propanyl group. Typical ECD or ETD backbone fragmentations are completely inhibited in peptides with substituent tags having EA over 1.00 eV, which are referred to as electron predators in this work. Nearly identical rates of electron capture by the dications substituted by the benzyl (EA = -1.15 eV) and 3-nitrobenzyl (EA = 1.00 eV) moieties are observed, which indicates the similarity of electron capture cross sections for the two derivatized peptides. This observation leads to the inference that electron capture kinetics are governed by the long-range electron-dication interaction and are not affected by side chain derivatives with positive EA. Once an electron is captured to high-n Rydberg states, however, through-space or through-bond electron transfer to the EA-tuning tags or low-n Rydberg states via potential curve crossing occurs in competition with transfer to the amide pi* orbital. The energetics of these processes are evaluated using time-dependent density functional theory with a series of reduced model systems. The intramolecular electron transfer process is modulated by structure-dependent hydrogen bonds and is heavily affected by the presence and type of electron-withdrawing groups in the EA-tuning tag. The anion radicals formed by electron predators have high proton affinities (approximately 1400 kJ/mol for the 3-nitrobenzyl anion radical) in comparison to other basic sites in the model peptide dication, facilitating exothermic proton transfer from one of the two sites of protonation. This interrupts the normal sequence of events in ECD or ETD, leading to backbone fragmentation by forming a stable radical intermediate. The implications which these results have for previously proposed ECD and ETD mechanisms are discussed.
Full-text · Article · Apr 2009 · Journal of the American Chemical Society
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Simple and fast identification of disulfide linkages in insulin is demonstrated with a peptic digest using the Route 66 method. This is accomplished by collisional activation of singly and doubly charged cationic Na(+) and Ca(2+) complexes generated using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). Collisional activation of doubly charged metal complexes of peptides with intermolecular disulfide linkages yields two sets of singly charged paired products separated by 66 mass units resulting from selective SC bond cleavages. Highly selective elimination of 66 mass units, which corresponds to the molecular weight of hydrogen disulfide (H(2)S(2)), is observed from singly charged metal complexes of peptides with disulfide linkages. The mechanism proposed for these processes is initiated by formation of a metal-stabilized enolate at Cys, followed by cleavage of the S-C bond. Further activation of the products yields sequence information that facilitates locating the position of the disulfide linkages in the peptic digest fragments. For example, the doubly charged Ca(2+) complex of the peptic digest product GIVEQCCASVCSL/FVNQHLCGSHL yields paired products separated by 66 mass units resulting from selective SC bond cleavages at an intermolecular disulfide linkage under low-energy collision-induced dissociation. Further activation of the product comprising the A chain reveals the presence of a second disulfide bridge, an intramolecular linkage. Experimental and theoretical studies of the disulfide linked model peptides provide mechanistic details for the selective cleavage of the S-C bond.
Preview · Article · Nov 2008 · Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A number of tertiary amine and quaternary ammonium cations spanning a mass range of 60-146 amu (trimethylamine, tetramethylammonium, trimethylethylammonium, N,N-dimethylaminoethanol, choline, N,N-dimethylglycine, betaine, acetylcholine, (3-carboxypropyl)trimethylammonium) were investigated using electrospray ionization ion mobility spectrometry. Measured ion mobilities demonstrate a high correlation between mass and mobility in N(2). In addition, identical mobilities within experimental uncertainties are observed for structurally dissimilar ions with similar ion masses. For example, dimethylethylammonium (88 amu) cations and protonated N,N-dimethylaminoethanol cations (90 amu) show identical mobilities (1.93 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1)) though N,N-dimethylaminoethanol contains a hydroxyl functional group while dimethylethylammonium only contains alkyl groups. Computational analysis was performed using the modified trajectory (TJ) method with nonspherical N(2) molecules as the drift gas. The sensitivity of the ammonium cation collision cross sections to the details of the ion-neutral interactions was investigated and compared to other classes of organic molecules (carboxylic acids and abiotic amino acids). The specific charge distribution of the molecular ions in the investigated mass range has an insignificant affect on the collision cross section.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report a new method for identifying disulfide linkages in peptides using mass spectrometry. This is accomplished by collisional activation of singly charged cationic alkali and alkaline earth metal complexes, which results in the highly selective elimination of hydrogen disulfide (H2S2). Complexes of peptides possessing disulfide bonds with sodium and alkaline earth metal are generated using electrospray ionization (ESI). Isolation followed by collision induced dissociation (CID) of singly charged peptide complexes results in selective elimination of H2S2 to leave newly formed dehydroalanine residues in the peptide. Further activation of the product yields sequence information in the region previously short circuited by the disulfide bond. For example, singly charged magnesium and calcium ion bound complexes of [Lys8]-vasopressin exhibit selective elimination of H2S2 via low-energy CID. Further isolation of the product followed by CID yields major b- and z-type fragments revealing the peptide sequence in the region between the newly formed dehydroalanine residues. Numerous model peptides provide mechanistic details for the selective elimination of H2S2. The process is initiated starting with a metal stabilized enolate anion at Cys, followed by cleavage of the S-C bond. An examination of the peptic digest of insulin provides an example of the application of the selective elimination of H2S2 for the identification of peptides with disulfide linkages. The energetics and mechanisms of H2S2 elimination from model compounds are investigated using density functional theory (DFT) calculations.
No preview · Article · Feb 2008 · Journal of the American Chemical Society
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A homologous series of cationic gas-phase clusters of dicarboxylic acids (oxalic acid, malonic acid, succinic acid, glutaric acid, and adipic acid) generated via electrospray ionization (ESI) are investigated using collision-induced dissociation (CID). Singly charged cationic clusters with the composition (Na(+))(2n+1)(dicarboxylate(2-))(n), where n = 1-5, are observed as major gas-phase species. Significant abundances of singly charged sodiated hydrogen dicarboxylate clusters with the composition (Na(+))(2n)(dicarboxylate(2-))(n)(H+), where n = 1-6, are observed with oxalic acid, malonic acid, and succinic acid. Isolation of the clusters followed by CID results mainly in sequential loss of disodium dicarboxylate moieties for the clusters of succinic acid, glutaric acid, and adipic acid. However, the dimer of sodiated hydrogen succinate, all malonate clusters, and all oxalate clusters, with the exception of the dimer, exhibit complex chemical reactions initiated by the collision of vibrationally excited clusters with water molecules. Generally, water molecules serve as proton donors for reacting dicarboxylate anions in the cluster, initiating dissociation pathways such as the decomposition of the malonate ion to yield an acetate ion and CO(2). The reactivity of several mixed dicarboxylate clusters is also reported. For example, malonate anion is shown to be more reactive than oxalate anion for decarboxylation when both are present in a cluster. The energetics of several representative cluster phase reactions are evaluated using computational modeling. The present results for cationic clusters are compared and contrasted to earlier studies of anionic sodiated dicarboxylic acid clusters.
No preview · Article · Aug 2007 · The Journal of Physical Chemistry A
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We present the construction and implementation of a compact, low-power ambient pressure pyroelectric ionization source. The source comprises a z-cut lithium niobate or lithium tantalate crystal with an attached resistive heater mounted in front of the atmospheric pressure inlet of an ion trap mass spectrometer. Positive and negative ion formation alternately results from thermally cycling the crystal over a narrow temperature range. Ionization of 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-propanol or benzoic acid results in the observation of the singly deprotonated species and their clusters in the negative ion mass spectrum. Ionization of triethylamine or triphenylamine with the source results in observation of the corresponding singly protonated species of each in the positive ion mass spectrum. Although processes in which ion formation occurs directly on the highly charged crystal surface may contribute to the observed signal, ion formation appears to result mainly from electrical discharges occurring on the surface of the crystal, from one z face to another. This dielectric breakdown originates from the high electric fields generated at the surface of pyroelectric crystals when they are thermally cycled by as little as 30 K from ambient temperature. Ion formation is largely unaffected by contamination of the crystal faces. This robust source might prove particularly useful in applications where unattended operation in harsh environments, long service lifetimes, and durability are desirable characteristics.
No preview · Article · Jun 2007 · Analytical Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We designed a novel mass spectrometer for in situ characterization of micro-particulates in regions of high concentration, such as a comet fly-by, planetary ring, or impact-generated plume. This device is based on novel ion optics that allow high performa