Kenneth D Gadow

Stony Brook University, 스토니브룩, New York, United States

Are you Kenneth D Gadow?

Claim your profile

Publications (165)589.09 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Aggressive behaviors can be classified into proactive and reactive functions, though there is disagreement about whether these are distinct constructs. Data suggest that proactive and reactive aggression have different etiologies, correlates, and response to treatment. Several rating scales are available to characterize aggressive behavior as proactive or reactive; one commonly used scale was originally developed for teacher ratings, referred to here as the Antisocial Behavior Scale (ABS). However, no data are available on the psychometric properties of the ABS for parent ratings. This study examined the factor structure and convergent/divergent validity of the parent-rated ABS among 168 children aged 6-12 years with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, a disruptive behavior disorder, and severe aggression enrolled in a randomized clinical trial. Multidimensional item response theory was used to confirm the original factor structure. The proactive and reactive factors were distinct but moderately correlated; the algorithm items exhibited acceptable fit on the original factors. The non-algorithm items caused theoretical problems and model misfit. Convergent and divergent validity of the scale was explored between the ABS and other parent-report measures. Proactive and reactive aggression showed differential correlates consistent with expectations for externalizing symptoms. The subscales were correlated weakly or not at all with most non-externalizing symptoms, with some exceptions. Thus, the original factor structure was supported and we found preliminary evidence for the validity of the scale, though the results suggest that the constructs measured by the ABS may not be totally distinct from general behavior problems in this clinical sample.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Journal of Child and Family Studies
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The relationship of specific psychiatric conditions to adherence has not been examined in longitudinal studies of youth with perinatal HIV infection (PHIV). We examined associations between psychiatric conditions and antiretroviral nonadherence over 2 years. Longitudinal study in 294 PHIV youth, 6-17 years old, in the United States and Puerto Rico. We annually assessed three nonadherence outcomes: missed above 5% of doses in the past 3 days, missed a dose within the past month, and unsuppressed viral load (>400 copies/ml). We fit multivariable logistic models for nonadherence using Generalized Estimating Equations, and evaluated associations of psychiatric conditions (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, disruptive behavior, depression, anxiety) at entry with incident nonadherence using multivariable logistic regression. Nonadherence prevalence at study entry was 14% (3-day recall), 32% (past month nonadherence), and 38% (unsuppressed viral load), remaining similar over time. At entry, 38% met symptom cut-off criteria for at least one psychiatric condition. Greater odds of 3-day recall nonadherence were observed at week 96 for those with depression [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 4.14, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.11-15.42] or disruptive behavior (aOR 3.36, 95% CI 1.02-11.10], but not at entry. Those with vs. without attention deficit hyperactivity disorder had elevated odds of unsuppressed viral load at weeks 48 (aOR 2.46, 95% CI 1.27-4.78) and 96 (aOR 2.35, 95% CI 1.01-5.45), but not at entry. Among 232 youth adherent at entry, 16% reported incident 3-day recall nonadherence. Disruptive behavior conditions at entry were associated with incident 3-day recall nonadherence (aOR 3.01, 95% CI 1.24-7.31). In PHIV youth, comprehensive adherence interventions that address psychiatric conditions throughout the transition to adult care are needed.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2015 · AIDS (London, England)
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In the four-site Treatment of Severe Childhood Aggression (TOSCA) study, addition of risperidone to stimulant and parent training moderately improved parent-rated disruptive behavior disorder (DBD) symptoms. This secondary study explores outcomes other than DBD and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as measured by the Child and Adolescent Symptom Inventory-4R (CASI-4R). A total of 168 children ages 6-12 with severe aggression (physical harm), DBD, and ADHD were randomized to parent training plus stimulant plus placebo (basic treatment) or parent training plus stimulant plus risperidone (augmented treatment) for 9 weeks. All received only parent training plus stimulant for the first 3 weeks, then those with room for improvement received a second drug (placebo or risperidone) for 6 weeks. CASI-4R category item means at baseline and week 9 were entered into linear mixed-effects models for repeated measures to evaluate group differences in changes. Mediation of the primary DBD outcome was explored. Parent ratings were nonsignificant with small/negligible effects, but teacher ratings (n=46 with complete data) showed significant augmented treatment advantage for symptoms of anxiety (p=0.013, d=0.71), schizophrenia spectrum (p=0.017, d=0.45), and impairment in these domains (p=0.02, d=0.26), all remaining significant after false discovery rate correction for multiple tests. Improvement in teacher-rated anxiety significantly (p=0.001) mediated the effect of risperidone augmentation on the primary outcome, the Disruptive-total of the parent-rated Nisonger Child Behavior Rating Form. Addition of risperidone to parent training plus stimulant improves not only parent-rated DBD as previously reported, but also teacher-rated anxiety-social avoidance. Improvement in anxiety mediates improvement in DBD, suggesting anxiety-driven fight-or-flight disruptive behavior with aggression, with implications for potential treatment strategies. Clinicians should attend to possible anxiety in children presenting with aggression and DBD. Clinical Trial Registry: Treatment of Severe Childhood Aggression (The TOSCA Study). NCT00796302.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2015 · Journal of child and adolescent psychopharmacology
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to examine the satisfaction of families who participated in the Treatment of Severe Childhood Aggression (TOSCA) study. TOSCA was a randomized clinical trial of psychostimulant plus parent training plus placebo (basic treatment) versus psychostimulant plus parent training plus risperidone (augmented treatment) for children with severe physical aggression, disruptive behavior disorder, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Parents completed a standardized Parent Satisfaction Questionnaire (PSQ). Of the 168 families randomized, 150 (89.3%) provided consumer satisfaction data. When they were asked if they would join the study again if they had the option to repeat, 136 (91%) said "yes," 11 (7%) said "maybe," and one (<1%) said "no." When asked if they would recommend the study to other parents with children having similar problems, 147 (98%) said "yes" and 3 (2%) said "maybe." Between 71% (rating one aspect of the Parent Training) and 96% (regarding the diagnostic interview) endorsed study procedures using the most positive response option. Asked if there were certain aspects of the study that they especially liked, 64 (43%) spontaneously reported parent training. Treatment assignment (basic vs. augmented) and responder status were not associated with reported satisfaction. However, responder status was strongly associated with parent confidence in managing present (p<0.001) and future (p<0.005) problem behaviors. These findings indicate high levels of satisfaction with TOSCA study involvement and, taken together with previous pediatric psychopharmacology social validity studies, suggest high levels of support for the research experience. These findings may inform research bioethics and may have implications for deliberations of institutional review boards. Treatment of Severe Childhood Aggression (The TOSCA Study), NCT00796302, .
    No preview · Article · Apr 2015 · Journal of child and adolescent psychopharmacology
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In this study, we evaluated parent and child characteristics as predictors and moderators of response in the four-site Treatment of Severe Childhood Aggression (TOSCA) study. A total of 168 children with severe aggression, disruptive behavior disorder, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) were enrolled in a 9-week trial of basic treatment (n=84, stimulant+parent training+placebo) versus augmented treatment (n=84, stimulant+parent training+risperidone). In the initial report, augmented treatment surpassed basic treatment in reducing the primary outcome of disruptive behavior (D-Total) scores. In the current study, we evaluated parent (income, education, family functioning, employment) and child variables (intelligence quotient [IQ], aggression type, comorbid symptomatology) as predictors or moderators, using linear mixed models and the MacArthur guidelines. Higher scores on ADHD symptom severity and callous/unemotional traits predicted better outcome on D-Total regardless of treatment assignment. Two moderators of D-Total were found: Higher anger/irritability symptoms and lower mania scores were associated with faster response, although not better overall effect at endpoint, in the augmented but not the basic group. Several variables moderated response on secondary outcomes (ADHD severity and prosocial behavior), and were characterized by faster response, although not better outcome, in the augmented but not in the basic group. Maternal education moderated outcome on the measure of positive social behavior; children of mothers with less education benefited more from augmented treatment relative to basic than those with more education. Although these findings require validation, they tentatively suggest that augmented treatment works equally well across the entire sample. Nevertheless, certain child characteristics may be useful indicators for the speed of response to augmented treatment.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2015 · Journal of child and adolescent psychopharmacology
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Although psychiatric symptom severity and impairment are overlapping but nevertheless distinct illness parameters, little research has examined whether variables found to be associated with the severity are also correlated with symptom-induced impairment. Parents and teachers completed ratings of symptom-induced impairment for DSM-IV-referenced syndromes, and parents completed a background questionnaire for a consecutively referred sample of primarily male (81 %) 6-to-12 year olds with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) (N = 221). Some clinical correlates (e.g., IQ < 70, maternal level of education, pregnancy complications, current use of psychotropic medication, season of birth) were associated with impairment for several disorders, whereas others were correlated with only a few syndromes (e.g., gender, co-morbid medical conditions) or were not related to impairment in any disorder (e.g., family psychopathology). There was little convergence in findings for parents' versus teachers' ratings. Some clinical correlates (e.g., season of birth, current psychotropic medication, maternal education) were unique predictors of three or more disorders. Pregnancy complications were uniquely associated with social anxiety and schizoid personality symptom-induced impairment. IQ was a unique predictor of schizophrenia, ASD, oppositional defiant disorder symptom-induced impairment. Children whose mothers had relatively fewer years of education had greater odds for symptom-induced impairment in social anxiety, depression, aggression, and mania and greater number of impairing conditions. Season of birth was the most robust correlate of symptom-induced impairment as rated by teachers but not by parents. Children born in fall evidenced higher rates of co-occurring psychiatric and ASD symptom-induced impairment and total number of impairing conditions. Many variables previously linked with symptom severity are also correlated with impairment.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2015 · Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Forty-eight boys and 43 girls (age: range = 5.0 to 9.5 years) from a public elementary school participated in this evaluation of a critical television viewing skills curriculum. One class of kindergarteners and one class of second graders were taught the curriculum (14 half-hour lessons) by their regular teachers. Another class at each grade level served as no-treatment controls. Comparison of pretest and posttest scores on a comprehension test of reality versus fantasy portrayals, special effects, and commercials revealed significant knowledge gains by the children who received the curriculum. Pretest and posttest scores on an opinion questionnaire showed no parallel shift in the children’s attitudes about television after training. The educational and social implications of the findings are discussed.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2015 · The Journal of Educational Research
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objective: In this study, we aimed to expand on our prior research into the relative efficacy of combining parent training, stimulant medication, and placebo (Basic therapy) versus parent training, stimulant, and risperidone (Augmented therapy) by examining treatment effects for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), and conduct disorder (CD) symptoms and peer aggression, symptom-induced impairment, and informant discrepancy. Method: Children (6-12 years of age; N = 168) with severe physical aggression, ADHD, and co-occurring ODD/CD received an open trial of parent training and stimulant medication for 3 weeks. Participants failing to show optimal clinical response were randomly assigned to Basic or Augmented therapy for an additional 6 weeks. Results: Compared with Basic therapy, children receiving Augmented therapy experienced greater reduction in parent-rated ODD severity (p = .002, Cohen's d = 0.27) and peer aggression (p = .02, Cohen's d = 0.32) but not ADHD or CD symptoms. Fewer children receiving Augmented (16%) than Basic (40%) therapy were rated by their parents as impaired by ODD symptoms at week 9/endpoint (p = .008). Teacher ratings indicated greater reduction in ADHD severity (p = .02, Cohen's d = 0.61) with Augmented therapy, but not for ODD or CD symptoms or peer aggression. Although both interventions were associated with marked symptom reduction, a relatively large percentage of children were rated as impaired for at least 1 targeted disorder at week 9/endpoint by parents (Basic 47%; Augmented 27%) and teachers (Basic 48%; Augmented 38%). Conclusion: Augmented therapy was superior to Basic therapy in reducing severity of ADHD and ODD symptoms, peer aggression, and symptom-induced impairment, but clinical improvement was generally context specific, and effect sizes ranged from small to moderate. Clinical trial registration information-Treatment of Severe Childhood Aggression (The TOSCA Study);; NCT00796302.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2014 · Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
  • Kenneth D Gadow · Ryan M Smith · Julia K Pinsonneault
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objective and background: Our aim was to characterize the association of 2 functional single nucleotide polymorphisms (rs6311 and rs6314) in the serotonin 2A receptor gene (HTR2A) with severity of depression symptoms in children with autism spectrum disorder. These polymorphisms have been shown to be associated with depression symptom severity and response to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor drugs in adults with diagnosed depressive disorder. Methods: Parents of 104 children with autism spectrum disorder rated their children's depressive symptoms using a validated scale based on criteria from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition. We compared severity of depression symptoms across the rs6311 and rs6314 genotypes, measured from the children's genomic DNA. Results: Children homozygous for the G allele of rs6311 had significantly more severe depression symptoms than those with G/A or A/A genotypes (P=0.025). The effect size (partial eta-squared) was small (ηp=0.047) but was somewhat larger when we controlled for severity of generalized anxiety disorder symptoms (P=0.006, ηp=0.072). When we restricted our analyses to white participants, our results were essentially the same as for the entire sample (P=0.004, ηp=0.086). There was no significant association between rs6314 (C/C versus T carriers) and severity of depression. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that the HTR2A functional rs6311 polymorphism, which other studies have associated with differential HTR2A mRNA expression, may modulate the severity of depression symptoms in children with autism spectrum disorder. These tentative, hypothesis-generating findings need replication with larger, independent samples.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2014 · Cognitive and behavioral neurology: official journal of the Society for Behavioral and Cognitive Neurology
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association of dopaminergic gene variants with emotion dysregulation (EMD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Three dopamine transporter gene (SLC6A3/DAT1) polymorphisms (intron8 5/6 VNTR, 3'-UTR 9/10 VNTR, rs27072 in the 3'-UTR) and one dopamine D2 receptor gene (DRD2) variant (rs2283265) were selected for genotyping based on à priori evidence of regulatory activity or, in the case of DAT1 9/10 VNTR, commonly reported associations with ADHD. A sample of 110 children with ASD was assessed with a rigorously validated DSM-IV-referenced rating scale. Global EMD severity (parents' ratings) was associated with DAT1 intron8 (ηp(2)=.063) and rs2283265 (ηp(2)=.044). Findings for DAT1 intron8 were also significant for two EMD subscales, generalized anxiety (ηp(2)=.065) and depression (ηp(2)=.059), and for DRD2 rs2283265, depression (ηp(2)=.053). DRD2 rs2283265 was associated with teachers' global ratings of ADHD (ηp(2)=.052). DAT1 intron8 was associated with parent-rated hyperactivity (ηp(2)=.045) and both DAT1 9/10 VNTR (ηp(2)=.105) and DRD2 rs2283265 (ηp(2)=.069) were associated with teacher-rated inattention. These findings suggest that dopaminergic gene polymorphisms may modulate EMD and ADHD symptoms in children with ASD but require replication with larger independent samples.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2014 · Research in developmental disabilities
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Although combination pharmacotherapy is common in child and adolescent psychiatry, there has been little research evaluating it. The value of adding risperidone to concurrent psychostimulant and parent training (PT) in behavior management for children with severe aggression was tested. One hundred sixty-eight children 6 to 12 years old (mean age 8.89 ± 2.01 years) with severe physical aggression were randomized to a 9-week trial of PT, stimulant (STIM), and placebo (Basic treatment; n = 84) or PT, STIM, and risperidone (Augmented treatment; n = 84). All had diagnoses of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and oppositional-defiant disorder (n = 124) or conduct disorder (n = 44). Children received psychostimulant (usually Osmotic Release Oral System methylphenidate) for 3 weeks, titrated for optimal effect, while parents received PT. If there was room for improvement at the end of week 3, placebo or risperidone was added. Assessments included parent ratings on the Nisonger Child Behavior Rating Form (Disruptive-Total subscale was the primary outcome) and Antisocial Behavior Scale; blinded clinicians rated change on the Clinical Global Impressions scale. Compared with Basic treatment (PT + STIM [44.8 ± 14.6 mg/day] + placebo [1.88 mg/day ± 0.72]), Augmented treatment (PT + STIM [46.1 ± 16.8 mg/day] + risperidone [1.65 mg/day ± 0.75]) showed statistically significant improvement on the Nisonger Child Behavior Rating Form Disruptive-Total subscale (treatment-by-time interaction, p = .0016), the Nisonger Child Behavior Rating Form Social Competence subscale (p = .0049), and Antisocial Behavior Scale Reactive Aggression subscale (p = .01). Clinical Global Impressions scores were substantially improved for the 2 groups but did not discriminate between treatments (Clinical Global Impressions-Improvement score ≤2, 70% for Basic treatment versus 79% for Augmented treatment). Prolactin elevations and gastrointestinal upset occurred more with Augmented treatment; other adverse events differed modestly from Basic treatment; weight gain in the Augmented treatment group was minor. Risperidone provided moderate but variable improvement in aggressive and other seriously disruptive child behaviors when added to PT and optimized stimulant treatment. Clinical trial registration information-Treatment of Severe Childhood Aggression (The TOSCA Study), URL:, unique identifier: NCT00796302.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2014 · Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background: Obtaining accurate estimates of mental health problems among youth perinatally infected with HIV (PHIV) helps clinicians develop targeted interventions but requires enrollment and retention of representative youth into research studies. Methods: The study design for IMPAACT P1055, a US-based, multisite prospective study of psychiatric symptoms among PHIV youth and uninfected controls aged 6 to 17 years old, is described. Participants were compared with nonparticipants by demographic characteristics and reasons were summarized for study refusal. Adjusted logistic regression models were used to evaluate the association of psychiatric symptoms and other factors with loss to follow-up (LTFU). Results: Among 2281 youth screened between 2005 and 2006 at 29 IMPAACT research sites, 580 (25%) refused to participate, primarily because of time constraints. Among 1162 eligible youth approached, 582 (50%) enrolled (323 PHIV and 259 Control), with higher participation rates for Hispanic youth. Retention at 2 years was significantly higher for PHIV than Controls (84% vs 77%, P = 0.03). In logistic regression models adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics and HIV status, youth with any self-assessed psychiatric condition had higher odds of LTFU compared with those with no disorder (adjusted odds ratio = 1.56, 95% confidence interval: 1.00 to 2.43). Among PHIV youth, those with any psychiatric condition had 3-fold higher odds of LTFU (adjusted odds ratio = 3.11, 95% confidence interval: 1.61 to 6.01). Conclusions: Enrollment and retention of PHIV youth into mental health research studies is challenging for those with psychiatric conditions and may lead to underestimated risks for mental health problems. Creative approaches for engaging HIV-infected youth and their families are required for ensuring representative study populations.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2013 · JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes

  • No preview · Conference Paper · May 2013
  • Aaron J Kaat · Kenneth D Gadow · Luc Lecavalier
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The general aim of this study was to examine the relation of psychiatric symptom-induced impairment with other common parameters of mental health in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Prevalence rates are used to illustrate the implications of different criteria for caseness. Parents/teachers completed DSM-IV-referenced rating scales for 6-12 year old children with ASD (N = 115), the majority of whom were boys (86 %). Most children were rated by parents (81 %) or teachers (86 %) as being socially or academically impaired by symptoms of at least one psychiatric disorder. The most common impairing conditions (parent/teacher) were attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (67 %/71 %), oppositional defiant disorder (35 %/33 %), and anxiety disorder (47 %/34 %), and the combined rates based on either informant were generally much higher. Agreement between symptom cutoff and impairment cutoff was acceptable for most disorders. A larger percentage of youth were impaired by psychiatric symptoms than met symptom cutoff criteria, and the discrepancy between impairment cutoff and clinical cutoff (impairment cutoff plus symptom cutoff) was even greater. Impairment was moderately to highly correlated with both number and severity of symptoms. Parents' and teachers' ratings indicated little agreement as to whether a child was impaired. Findings for youth with ASD were similar to non ASD child psychiatry outpatient referrals, but clearly different in several ways from comparable studies of community-based samples.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2013 · Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
  • Kenneth D Gadow · Aaron J Kaat · Luc Lecavalier
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objective: To examine the relation of caregiver ratings of psychiatric symptom-induced impairment with number and severity of symptoms and informant agreement in consecutive child psychiatry outpatient referrals. Methods: Parents and teachers completed a broadband DSM-IV-referenced rating scale with disorder-specific impairment for 636 youth (6-18 years). Illness parameters included impairment, number and severity of symptoms, and their combination (symptom + impairment) as well as categorical (cut-off) and dimensional scoring. Results: Agreement between impairment and other illness parameters showed considerable variation as a function of type of parameter, disorder, and informant, but to lesser extent age and gender. Many youth who met impairment cut-off for specific disorders did not meet symptom cut-off. Conversely, most youth who met symptom cut-off were impaired. Symptom cut-off evidenced greater convergence with impairment cut-off than combined symptom + impairment cut-offs. Severity of impairment was moderately to highly correlated with number and severity of symptoms. Parents' and teachers' ratings indicated little disorder-specific agreement about youth who met impairment cut-off, symptom cut-off, or combined symptom + impairment cut-off. Therefore, sole reliance on one informant greatly underestimates the pervasiveness of impairment. Conclusion: Findings are consistent with the notion that each illness parameter represents a unique conceptual construct, which has important clinical and research implications.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2013 · Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry
  • Kenneth D Gadow
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This study examines relations between the severity of specific symptoms of schizophrenia spectrum disorder (SSD) and severity of the three defining symptom domains of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in children with ASD (N=147) and child psychiatry outpatient referrals (Controls; N=339). Participants were subdivided into four groups depending on ASD status (±) and whether they met symptom criteria for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (±ADHD). Their mothers and teachers evaluated them with a DSM-IV-referenced rating scale. Correlations between schizoid personality symptoms and ASD social skills deficits were moderate to large, and this was true for children with ASD and Controls, regardless of ADHD status, and for mother's and teachers' ratings. Conversely, severity of hallucinations, delusions, and disorganized thinking were minimally correlated with ASD severity with the exception of Controls with ADHD. The disorganized behavior and negative symptoms of schizophrenia evidenced the strongest pattern of associations with ASD symptoms, and this was particularly true for children with co-morbid ADHD (±ASD, all three ASD symptom dimensions), and for teachers' ratings of all four groups. Nevertheless, there was considerable variability in relations for specific symptoms across informants and groups. Correlations between SSD symptom severity and IQ were generally low, particularly among the ASD Only group and for all teacher-rated symptoms. Associations between ASD and SSD symptoms were often dimension-specific, and this was particularly evident in children without ADHD (±ASD; mothers' ratings). Findings were interpreted as supporting the deconstruction of complex clinical phenotypes as a means of better understanding interrelations among psychiatric syndromes.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2013 · Research in developmental disabilities
  • Lucinda B.C. Pouw · Carolien Rieffe · Lex Stockmann · Kenneth D. Gadow
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: PurposeSymptoms of depression are common in children and adolescents with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD), but information about underlying developmental factors is limited. Depression is often linked to aspects of emotional functioning such as coping strategies, but in children with ASD difficulties with social interactions are also a likely contributor to depressive symptoms.MethodologyWe examined several aspects of emotional coping (approach, avoidant, maladaptive) and social functioning (victimization, negative friendship interactions) and their relation to depression symptoms in children with ASD (N = 63) and typically developing (TD) peers (N = 57). Children completed a battery of self-report questionnaires.ResultsLess approach and avoidant, but more maladaptive coping strategies, and poor social functioning were uniquely associated with more symptoms of depression in children with ASD. Only less approach and more maladaptive coping were uniquely associated with depression severity in TD boys.Conclusions Unlike TD boys, boys with ASD who report using avoidant strategies to deal with stressful situations report fewer symptoms of depression, suggesting that this may be an adaptive emotion regulation strategy. However, understanding the role of over-arousal in this process, inferences about long-term effects of this strategy, its causality and direction of effects will require additional research.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2013 · Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This study explores the manifestation and measurement of anxiety symptoms in 415 children with ASDs on a 20-item, parent-rated, DSM-IV referenced anxiety scale. In both high and low-functioning children (IQ above vs. below 70), commonly endorsed items assessed restlessness, tension and sleep difficulties. Items requiring verbal expression of worry by the child were rarely endorsed. Higher anxiety was associated with functional language, IQ above 70 and higher scores on several other behavioral measures. Four underlying factors emerged: Generalized Anxiety, Separation Anxiety, Social Anxiety and Over-arousal. Our findings extend our understanding of anxiety across IQ in ASD and provide guidance for improving anxiety outcome measurement.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2013 · Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objective: To compare the results of categorically based versus dimensionally based scoring algorithms for a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; DSM-IV)-referenced teacher rating scale for assessing ADHD and commonly co-occurring conditions and to determine their relative agreement with ratings of symptom-induced impairment. Method: Teachers completed Child and Adolescent Symptom Inventory-4R (CASI-4R) ratings for 1,092 youth (ages 6-18 years) referred to a child and adolescent psychiatry outpatient service. Caseness was determined according to DSM-IV symptom count (categorical model) and T-score (dimensional model) criteria. Results: Agreement between symptom count and T-score cutoffs was generally good (kappa ≥ 0.61) for ADHD-Inattentive, ADHD-Hyperactive-Impulsive, ADHD-Combined (except adolescent females), Oppositional Defiant Disorder, and Conduct Disorder, but this was not the case for anxiety and depressive disorders where only 15% of kappas were good. Agreement of impairment cutoff with T-score and symptom count cutoffs ranged from poor to good. Conclusion: In general, although in many cases CASI-4R categorical and dimensional scoring algorithms generated similar results, there was considerable variability across disorders, age groups, scoring method, and in some cases, gender. Moreover, symptom counts and T-scores are not a proxy for assessing impairment suggesting that each scoring strategy likely provides unique information for clinical decision-making. (J. of Att. Dis. 2013; XX(X) 1-XX).
    No preview · Article · Feb 2013 · Journal of Attention Disorders
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background: The aims of the present study were to examine the association between a common serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4) polymorphism 5-HTTLPR/rs25531 with severity of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptoms. Methods: Mothers and teachers completed a validated DSM-IV-referenced rating scale for ADHD and ASD symptoms in 118 children with ASD. Results: Analyses indicated that children with at least one copy of the S or L(G) allele obtained significantly more severe maternal ratings of hyperactivity (p=0.001; ηp(2)=0.097) and impulsivity (p=0.027; ηp(2)=0.044) but not inattention (p=0.061; ηp(2)=0.032), controlling for ASD severity, than children homozygous for the L(A) allele. Conversely, mothers' ratings indicated that children with L(A)/L(A) genotype had more severe ASD social deficits than S or L(G) allele carriers (p=0.003; ηp(2)=0.081), controlling for ADHD symptom severity. Teachers' ratings though consistent with mothers' ratings of hyperactivity and social deficits were marginally significant (p=0.07/p=0.09). There was some evidence that the magnitude of parent-teacher agreement regarding symptom severity varied as a function of the child's genotype. Conclusion: The 5-HTTLPR/rs25531 polymorphism or its correlates may modulate severity of ADHD and ASD symptoms in children with ASD, but in different ways. These tentative, hypothesis-generating findings require replication with larger independent samples.
    Preview · Article · Oct 2012 · Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry

Publication Stats

5k Citations
589.09 Total Impact Points


  • 1980-2015
    • Stony Brook University
      • • Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Science
      • • Department of Neurology
      스토니브룩, New York, United States
  • 2012
    • St. Jude Children's Research Hospital
      • Department of Infectious Diseases
      Memphis, Tennessee, United States
  • 2005-2012
    • Stony Brook University Hospital
      Stony Brook, New York, United States
  • 1987-2012
    • State University of New York
      New York, New York, United States
  • 2010
    • Tulane University
      New Orleans, Louisiana, United States
  • 2006-2007
    • Temple University
      • Department of Psychology
      Philadelphia, PA, United States
  • 1999
    • Lehigh University
      Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, United States