Helen J Ross

Mayo Clinic - Scottsdale, Scottsdale, Arizona, United States

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Publications (41)186.2 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: This analysis was performed to create a scoring system to estimate the survival of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Data from 1274 NSCLC patients were analyzed to create and validate a scoring system. Univariate (UV) and multivariate (MV) Cox models were used to evaluate the prognostic importance of each baseline factor. Prognostic factors that were significant on both UV and MV analyses were used to develop the score. These included quality of life, age, performance status, primary tumor diameter, nodal status, distant metastases, and smoking cessation. The score for each factor was determined by dividing the 5-year survival rate (%) by 10 and summing these scores to form a total score. MV models and the score were validated using bootstrapping with 1000 iterations from the original samples. The score for each prognostic factor ranged from 1 to 7 points with higher scores reflective of better survival. Total scores (sum of the scores from each independent prognostic factor) of 32-37 correlated with a 5-year survival of 8.3% (95% CI = 0-17.1%), 38-43 correlated with a 5-year survival of 20% (95% CI = 13-27%), 44-47 correlated with a 5-year survival of 48.3% (95% CI = 41.5-55.2%), 48-49 correlated to a 5-year survival of 72.1% (95% CI = 65.6-78.6%), and 50-52 correlated to a 5-year survival of 84.7% (95% CI = 79.6-89.8%). The bootstrap method confirmed the reliability of the score. Prognostic factors significantly associated with survival on both UV and MV analyses were used to construct a valid scoring system that can be used to predict survival of NSCLC patients. Optimally, this score could be used when counseling patients, and designing future trials. © 2015 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
    Preview · Article · Jun 2015 · Cancer Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: PRONOUNCE compared the efficacy and safety of pemetrexed+carboplatin followed by pemetrexed (Pem+Cb) with paclitaxel+carboplatin+bevacizumab followed by bevacizumab (Pac+Cb+Bev) in patients with advanced nonsquamous non–small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods: Patients ≥18 years of age with stage IV nonsquamous NSCLC (American Joint Committee on Cancer v7.0), and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status 0/1 were randomized (1:1) to four cycles of induction Pem+Cb (pemetrexed, 500 mg/m2, carboplatin, area under the curve = 6) followed by Pem maintenance or Pac+Cb+Bev (paclitaxel, 200 mg/m2, carboplatin, area under the curve = 6, and bevacizumab, 15 mg/kg) followed by Bev maintenance in the absence of progressive disease or discontinuation. The primary objective was progression-free survival (PFS) without grade 4 toxicity (G4PFS). Secondary end points were PFS, overall survival (OS), overall response rate (ORR), disease control rate (DCR), and safety. Resource utilization was also assessed. Results: Baseline characteristics of the patients randomized to Pem+Cb (N = 182) and Pac+Cb+Bev (N = 179) were well balanced between the arms. Median (months) G4PFS was 3.91 for Pem+Cb and 2.86 for Pac+Cb+Bev (hazard ratio = 0.85, 90% confidence interval, 0.7–1.04; p = 0.176); PFS, OS, ORR, or DCR did not differ significantly between the arms. Significantly more drug-related grade 3/4 anemia (18.7% versus 5.4%) and thrombocytopenia (24.0% versus 9.6%) were reported for Pem+Cb. Significantly more grade 3/4 neutropenia (48.8% versus 24.6%), grade 1/2 alopecia (28.3% versus 8.2%), and grade 1/2 sensory neuropathy were reported for Pac+Cb+Bev. Number of hospitalizations and overall length of stay did not differ significantly between the arms. Conclusions: Pem+Cb did not produce significantly better G4PFS compared with Pac+Cb+Bev. Pem+Cb was not superior in PFS, OS, ORR, or DCR compared with Pac+Cb+Bev. Both regimens were well tolerated, although, toxicity profiles differed.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2014 · Journal of thoracic oncology: official publication of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: This randomized phase II study assessed the efficacy and safety of obatoclax mesylate, a small-molecule Bcl-2 inhibitor, added to carboplatin/etoposide chemotherapy as initial treatment for extensive-stage small-cell lung cancer (ES-SCLC). Materials and methods: Chemotherapy-naïve subjects with ES-SCLC and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (ECOG PS) 0-2 received carboplatin/etoposide with (CbEOb) or without (CbE) obatoclax for up to six cycles. Responders to CbEOb could receive maintenance obatoclax until disease progression. The primary endpoint was objective response rate (ORR). Results: 155 subjects (median age 62, 58% male, 10% ECOG PS 2) were treated with CbEOb (n=77) or CbE (n=78); 65% and 59% of subjects, respectively, completed six cycles. ORR was 62% with CbEOb versus 53% with CbE (1-sided p=0.143). Clinical benefit (ORR+ stable disease) trended better with CbEOb (81% versus 68%; p=0.054). Median progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were 5.8 months (95% confidence interval [CI]: 5.3-6.5) and 10.5 months (8.9-13.8) with CbEOb and 5.2 months (95% CI: 4.1-5.7) and 9.8 months (7.2-11.2) with CbE. Median OS was 10.5 months (95% CI: 8.9-13.8) and 9.8 months (7.2-11.2) with a nonsignificant hazard ratio for OS, 0.823; 1-sided p=0.121. Grade 3/4 adverse events (AEs) were primarily hematologic and similar in frequency between treatment arms. Obatoclax-related somnolence and euphoria were grade 1/2, transient, and did not require treatment discontinuation. Conclusion: Obatoclax was well tolerated when added to carboplatin/etoposide in first-line treatment of ES-SCLC, but failed to significantly improve ORR, PFS, or OS.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2014 · Lung Cancer
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    ABSTRACT: Background: We hypothesized that the combination of bevacizumab, carboplatin, and pemetrexed will be an effective first-line regimen in fit, elderly patients with nonsquamous non-small-cell lung cancer. Methods: Treatment-naïve, stage IIIB/IV nonsquamous non-small-cell lung cancer patients more than 70 years old with good performance status (Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status 0-1) and adequate organ function were eligible. Carboplatin area under the curve 6, pemetrexed 500 mg/m, and bevacizumab 15 mg/kg were administered on day 1 of each 21-day cycle (up to six cycles) followed by maintenance pemetrexed and bevacizumab. The primary end point of 6-month progression-free survival rate of at least 70% was assessed using a one-stage binomial design. Quality of life (QOL) questionnaires were administered. Polymorphisms in genes encoding relevant proteins (drug targets, transport, and metabolism proteins) were correlated with treatment outcome. Results: Fifty-seven eligible patients were enrolled. Median age was 74.5 years. Median treatment cycles received was 6. The most common grade 3 or higher non-hematologic adverse events were fatigue (26%) and hypertension (11%); 16% had grade 4 neutropenia and 6.5% had grade 4 thrombocytopenia. Three patients experienced grade 3/4 hemorrhagic events (one pulmonary, two gastrointestinal). Primary end point of PFS6 was 60% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 45.9-73%). Median PFS was 7.0 months (95% CI: 5.9-10.1), median overall survival was 13.7 months (95% CI: 9.4-16.8). Polymorphic KDR and VEGFA variants correlated with survival and toxicity, respectively. There was no significant change in overall QOL scores over time. Conclusion: This regimen is feasible and did not decrease the QOL in this study population. However, it did not meet the primary efficacy end point.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2014 · Journal of thoracic oncology: official publication of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer
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    ABSTRACT: Minimally invasive esophagectomy (MIE) is accepted for resection of early esophageal cancers. The optimal surgical approach for more advanced disease is unknown. An evaluation of MIE in patients with advanced tumors having undergone neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (nCRT) is presented. A retrospective review of patients with esophageal cancer who underwent MIE from November 2006 to November 2011 was performed RESULTS: In total, 96 consecutive patients underwent MIE for malignancy. Median age was 65 years (range 26 to 88), and 86% were male. Adenocarcinoma represented 87% of patients. Eighty-three percent of patients were staged IIa or higher and 62 (65%) patients received neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy. Four (6%) patients additionally received intraoperative electron beam radiotherapy. Twenty-six (27%) patients received postoperative adjuvant therapy with 22 (85%) of these having also received neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy. All cases were completed thoraco-laparoscopically except for 2 conversions to mini-laparotomy. Twelve (12%) cervical anastomoses and 84 (88%) thoracic anastomoses were performed. Median operative time was 326 minutes (range 193 to 567) and did not differ significantly between those with and without nCRT. Complete pathologic response was seen in 21 (34%) of the 62 patients receiving neoadjuvant treatment. Major and minor morbidities were experienced in 28% and 38.5% of patients. There were 2 (2%) in-hospital mortalities; 1 each having received or not received neoadjuvant therapy. At median follow-up 24 months (range 3 to 70 months), overall survival was 58% and 55 (57%) patients were alive without recurrence. Minimally invasive esophagectomy is an acceptable surgical therapy for advanced-stage esophageal malignancies after nCRT without evidence for increased morbidity or mortality.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2013 · The Annals of thoracic surgery
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: The purpose of this study was to assess the safety and efficacy of gemcitabine and carboplatin with (arm A) or without (arm B) daily oral cediranib as first-line therapy for advanced non-small-cell lung cancer. Methods: A lead-in phase to determine the tolerability of gemcitabine 1000 mg/m on days 1 and 8, and carboplatin on day 1 at area under curve 5 administered every 21 days with cediranib 45 mg once daily was followed by a 2 (A):1 (B) randomized phase II study. The primary end point was confirmed overall response rate (ORR) with 6-month progression-free survival (PFS6) rate in arm A as secondary end point. Polymorphisms in genes encoding cediranib targets and transport were correlated with treatment outcome. Results: On the basis of the safety assessment, cediranib 30 mg daily was used in the phase II portion. A total of 58 and 29 evaluable patients were accrued to arms A and B. Patients in A experienced more grade 3+ nonhematologic adverse events, 71% versus 45% (p = 0.01). The ORR was 19% (A) versus 20% (B) (p = 1.0). PFS6 in A was 48% (95% confidence interval: 35%-62%), thus meeting the protocol-specified threshold of at least 40%. The median overall survival was 12.0 versus 9.9 months (p = 0.10). FGFR1 rs7012413, FGFR2 rs2912791, and VEGFR3 rs11748431 polymorphisms were significantly associated with decreased overall survival (hazard ratio 2.78-5.01, p = 0.0002-0.0095). Conclusions: The trial did not meet its primary end point of ORR but met its secondary end point of PFS6. The combination with cediranib 30 mg daily resulted in increased toxicity. Pharmacogenetic analysis revealed an association of FGFR and VEGFR variants with survival.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2012 · Journal of thoracic oncology: official publication of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer
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    ABSTRACT: Atrial fibrillation (AF) following open esophagectomy has been associated with increased rates of pulmonary and anastomotic complications, and mortality. This study seeks to evaluate effects of AF after minimally invasive esophagectomy (MIE). A retrospective review of patients consecutively treated with MIE for esophageal carcinoma, dysplasia. and benign disease from November 2006 to November 2011 was performed. One hundred twenty-one patients underwent MIE. Median age was 65 years (range 26-88) with 85% being male. Thirty-eight (31.4%) patients developed AF postoperatively. Of these 38 patients, 7 (18.4%) had known AF preoperatively. Patients with postoperative AF were significantly older than those without postoperative AF (68.7 vs. 62.8 years, P = 0.008) and more likely to be male (94.7% vs. 80.7%, P = 0.04). Neoadjuvant chemoradiation showed a trend toward increased risk of AF (73.7% vs 56.6%, P = 0.07). Sixty-day mortality was 2 of 38 (5.3%) in patients with AF and 4 of 83 (6.0%) in the no AF cohort (P = 1.00). The group with AF had increased length of hospitalization (13.4 days vs. 10.6 days P = 0.02). No significant differences in rates of pneumonia (31.6% vs. 21.7% P = 0.24), stricture (13.2% vs. 26.5% P = 0.10), or leak requiring return to operating room (13.2% vs. 8.4% P = 0.51) were noted between groups. We did not find an increased rate of AF in our MIE cohort compared with prior reported rates in open esophagectomy populations. AF did result in an increased length of stay but was not a predictor of other short-term morbidities including anastomotic leak, pulmonary complications, stenosis, or 60-day mortality. © 2015 International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2012 · Journal of the American College of Surgeons
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    ABSTRACT: Background: This pooled analysis evaluated the outcomes of prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) in 739 small-cell lung cancer (SCLC patients with stable disease (SD) or better following chemotherapy ± thoracic radiation therapy (TRT) to examine the potential advantage of PCI in a wider spectrum of patients than generally participate in PCI trials. Patients and methods: Three hundred eighteen patients with extensive SCLC (ESCLC) and 421 patients with limited SCLC (LSCLC) participated in four phase II or III trials. Four hundred fifty-nine patients received PCI (30 Gy/15 or 25 Gy/10) and 280 did not. Survival and adverse events (AEs) were compared. Results: PCI patients survived significantly longer than non-PCI patients {hazard ratio [HR] = 0.61 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.52-0.72]; P < 0.0001}. The 1- and 3-year survival rates were 56% and 18% for PCI patients versus 32% and 5% for non-PCI patients. PCI was still significant after adjusting for age, performance status, gender, stage, complete response, and number of metastatic sites (HR = 0.82, P = 0.04). PCI patients had significantly more grade 3+ AEs (64%) compared with non-PCI patients (50%) (P = 0.0004). AEs associated with PCI included alopecia and lethargy. Dose fractionation could be compared only for LSCLC patients and 25 Gy/10 was associated with significantly better survival compared with 30 Gy/15 (HR = 0.67, P = 0.018). Conclusions: PCI was associated with a significant survival benefit for both ESCLC and LSCLC patients who had SD or a better response to chemotherapy ± TRT. Dose fractionation appears important. PCI was associated with an increase in overall and specific grade 3+ AE rates.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2012 · Annals of Oncology
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives Concurrent combined modality therapy is optimal treatment for patients with stage III non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and is given with curative intent. However, elderly patients (≥ 75) are often undertreated, despite good performance status (PS). This study evaluated the treatment, outcomes and survival in elderly patients with stage III NSCLC versus patients < 75 years old.Materials and MethodsA retrospective review of data from the Lung Cancer Registry at Mayo Clinic Arizona (MCA) was conducted. Patients with newly diagnosed stage III NSCLC from 1998 to 2006 were analyzed for type of therapy and outcomes.ResultsThree hundred and eighty-nine patients with newly diagnosed stage III NSCLC were identified from 1998 to 2006. Two hundred and forty-three (62%) patients were < 75 years old, and 146 patients (38%) were ≥ 75 years old. Among 374 eligible patients, 45% of patients < 75 years old received combined chemoradiation therapy vs. only 21% of patients ≥ 75 years old (p < 0.0001). The median survival in the < 75 age group was 14.5 months vs. 10.1 months in the ≥ 75 age group (p = 0.0014). In the < 75 age group, median survival was 15.0 months in patients who received combined modality treatment vs. 14.1 months in the other treatments group (p = 0.02). In the elderly group, median survival was 19.9 months in the combined modality group vs. 7.8 months in the other treatments group (p = 0.0048).Conclusion Our results confirm that older patients are less likely to receive optimal therapy, regardless of functional status. Prospective studies are desperately needed to help improve management of the burgeoning geriatric oncology population.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2012 · Journal of Geriatric Oncology
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    ABSTRACT: Bcl-2 family genes are frequently amplified in small cell lung cancer (SCLC). A phase I trial was conducted to evaluate the safety of obatoclax, a Bcl-2 family inhibitor, given in combination with standard chemotherapy. Eligible patients (3-6 per cohort) had extensive-stage SCLC, measurable disease, ≤ 1 before therapy, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status 0 or 1, and adequate organ function. Patients were treated with escalating doses of obatoclax, either as a 3- or 24-h infusion, on days 1-3 of a 21-day cycle, in combination with carboplatin (area under the curve 5, day 1 only) and etoposide (100 mg m(-2), days 1-3). The primary endpoint was to determine the maximum tolerated dose of obatoclax. Twenty-five patients (56% male; median age 66 years) were enrolled in three dose cohorts for each schedule. Maximum tolerated dose was established with the 3-h infusion at 30 mg per day and was not reached with the 24-h infusion. Compared with the 24-h cohorts, the 3-h cohorts had higher incidence of central nervous system (CNS) adverse events (AEs); dose-limiting toxicities were somnolence, euphoria, and disorientation. These CNS AEs were transient, resolving shortly after the end of infusion, and without sequelae. The response rate was 81% in the 3-h and 44% in the 24-h infusion cohorts. Although associated with a higher incidence of transient CNS AEs than the 24-h infusion, 3-h obatoclax infusion combined with carboplatin-etoposide was generally well tolerated at doses of 30 mg per day. Though patient numbers were small, there was a suggestion of improved efficacy in the 3-h infusion group. Obatoclax 30 mg infused intravenously over 3 h on 3 consecutive days will be utilised in future SCLC studies.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2012 · British Journal of Cancer
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    ABSTRACT: Minimally invasive esophagectomy (MIE) has been performed using a variety of techniques evolving during the past decade. We present our initial experience and outcomes of patients undergoing transthoracic MIE using a circular end-to-side anastomosis created with the transorally directed EEA circular stapler OrVil (Covidien, New Haven, CT). Complications, including anastomotic leak and stricture occurrence, are reviewed. A retrospective review evaluated consecutive patients undergoing MIE for esophageal cancer or related disease with intrathoracic end-to-side anastomoses using the transorally directed EEA circular stapler from December 2007 to May 2010. Medical records were reviewed for demographics, staging, neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy, comorbidities, adjuvant therapy, complications, and survival. During this period, 51 consecutive patients (84% male; mean age, 65 years) underwent MIE. Neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy was performed in 32 patients, and 4 had intraoperative radiotherapy. Mean operative time was 338 minutes (range, 211 to 565 minutes), including the 4 patients with intraoperative radiotherapy. Operative time improved with experience (excluding intraoperative radiotherapy) from a mean of 378 minutes (patients 1 to 14) to 300 minutes (patients 37 to 51). Median hospital stay was 11 days (range, 6 to 48 days). Anastomotic leaks occurred in 5 patients (9.8%). Postoperative deaths included 1 in-hospital (2.0%) and 2 (3.9%) after discharge. Stricture was diagnosed and treated in 7 patients (13.7%). Follow-up was a median of 12 months (range, 1 to 31 months). Transthoracic MIE using an end-to-side anastomosis with the transorally directed EEA circular stapler resulted in acceptable stricture and leak rates with good outcomes comparable to published outcomes for open surgical resections.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2011 · The Annals of thoracic surgery
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    Full-text · Article · Nov 2010 · Fuel and Energy Abstracts

  • No preview · Article · Sep 2010 · Journal of the American College of Surgeons
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    ABSTRACT: A 77-year-old male with a history of Agent Orange and asbestos exposure and a 22 pack/year history of smoking presented with progressive proximal muscle weakness 8 days after diagnosis of malignant mesothelioma with sarcomatoid features. The clinical diagnosis of paraneoplastic polymyositis was made, and the patient responded to treatment with steroids. Review of the literature shows no previously described association between polymyositis and mesothelioma. We present a discussion of the association of malignancy and inflammatory myopathies, the paraneoplastic syndromes associated with mesothelioma, and the postulated pathophysiology of paraneoplastic inflammatory myopathy.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2010 · Community Oncology
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    ABSTRACT: This randomized phase II study was initially designed to test the activity of two dose schedules of lapatinib (GW572016H), an oral, reversible, dual tyrosine kinase inhibitor of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and human EGFR-2 (HER2/neu; HER2), in chemotherapy-naive patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC); it was later amended to target patients with bronchioloalveolar carcinoma or no smoking history. Patients with good performance status and recurrent or metastatic NSCLC were randomized to lapatinib (orally, 1,500 mg once daily or 500 mg twice daily) until progression or intolerance. Patients could have had a maximum of one prior systemic therapy (chemotherapy or biological therapy) for NSCLC. Safety and activity were assessed every 4 and 8 weeks, respectively. Tumors were analyzed for EGFR and HER2 mutations and/or amplifications. Of 75 patients in the nontargeted population, 1 (1.3%) had partial response and 16 (21%) had stable disease of >or=24 weeks. No complete or partial responses were observed in 56 patients in the targeted population; 14 (25%) had stable disease of >or=24 weeks. No responses were seen in three patients with EGFR mutations and five with EGFR gene amplification. No mutations in HER2 were found. One of two patients with HER2 amplification had a 51% decrease in tumor size; however, this response was unconfirmed. The most common adverse events were grade 1 or 2 diarrhea, rash, fatigue, nausea, and anorexia. Adverse events were similar across dosing regimens. Lapatinib was well tolerated, with no notable difference in toxicity between treatment groups. Lapatinib monotherapy did not induce a significant number of tumor regressions in NSCLC. Further studies may be warranted to determine whether lapatinib is active in combination with other agents in the treatment of NSCLC.
    Preview · Article · Mar 2010 · Clinical Cancer Research
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    ABSTRACT: Southwest Oncology Group 9504 demonstrated the feasibility and potential benefit of docetaxel consolidation after etoposide, cisplatin, and radiotherapy in patients with locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer. Our study assessed consolidation with either gemcitabine alone or with docetaxel after identical chemoradiation as used in Southwest Oncology Group 9504. Patients with stage III non-small cell lung cancer and good performance status were included. Treatment consisted of concurrent cisplatin 50 mg/m on days 1 and 8 plus etoposide 50 mg/m on days 1 to 5 for two 28-day cycles plus radiotherapy (62 Gy, 2 Gy daily in 31 fractions over 7 weeks), followed by randomization to either gemcitabine 1000 mg/m on days 1 and 8 (G) or gemcitabine 1000 mg/m on days 1 and 8 plus docetaxel 75 mg/m on day 1 (GD) every 21 days for three cycles. Eighty-three patients were entered, 81 received induction therapy, and 64 were randomized (32 in each arm). Grade 3 or four events, including neutropenia (56.3% vs. 28.1%, p = 0.03), anemia (18.8% vs. 3.1%, p = 0.05), and fatigue (15.6% vs. 6.3%, p = NS), were more frequent with GD compared with G. Among all patients, median survival from registration was 20.8 months (95% confidence interval: 16.4-33.8), and 2-year survival was 46.7% (95% confidence interval: 35.6-57.1). From randomization, median progression-free survival was 5.4 months for G and 13.4 months for GD, and median survival was 16.1 months for G and 29.5 months for GD. Two-year survival rates were 40.6% for G and 55.7% for GD. The doublet, as expected, resulted in more toxicity, particularly myelosuppression and fatigue. Survival associated with the GD treatment arm of this trial exceeds that of previously reported trials.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2010 · Journal of thoracic oncology: official publication of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer
  • Steven E Schild · Helen J Ross
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    ABSTRACT: Radiotherapy (RT) has been used to treat cancers for 110 years. Today, megavoltage RT is delivered with very precise linear accelerators. Computed tomography and/or positron-emission tomography are used to define both tumor and normal tissue volumes. Powerful computers analyze these volumes in 3D space and design complex treatment plans. Over time, the ratio of dose administered to tumor compared with dose administered to the normal structures has increased, resulting in a better therapeutic index and improved survival. In the 1970s and 1980s, the five-year survival rate of unresectable non-small-cell lung carcinoma was 5% with standard RT alone. Adding chemotherapy before or after radiation improved the five-year survival to about 15%. More recently, concurrent chemotherapy and RT has achieved five-year survival rates of up to 29%. Pilot trials employing chemotherapy and higher-dose RT have resulted in still better local control and survival. A phase III trial of chemotherapy plus either standard-dose RT (60Gy/30) or high-dose RT (74Gy/37) is ongoing. New technology is providing ways to improve the therapeutic ratio and administer greater RT doses more safely.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2010
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    ABSTRACT: Data from two randomized phase III trials were analyzed to evaluate prognostic factors and treatment selection in the first-line management of advanced non-small cell lung cancer patients with performance status (PS) 2. Patients randomized to combination chemotherapy (carboplatin and paclitaxel) in one trial and single-agent therapy (gemcitabine or vinorelbine) in the second were included in these analyses. Both studies had identical eligibility criteria and were conducted simultaneously. Comparison of efficacy and safety was performed between the two cohorts. A regression analysis identified prognostic factors and subgroups of patients that may benefit from combination or single-agent therapy. Two hundred one patients were treated with combination and 190 with single-agent therapy. Objective responses were 37 and 15%, respectively. Median time to progression was 4.6 months in the combination arm and 3.5 months in the single-agent arm (p < 0.001). Median survival times were 8.0 and 6.6 months, and 1-year survival rates were 31 and 26%, respectively. Albumin <3.5 g, extrathoracic metastases, lactate dehydrogenase >or=200 IU, and 2 comorbid conditions predicted outcome. Patients with 0-2 risk factors had similar outcomes independent of treatment, whereas patients with 3-4 factors had a nonsignificant improvement in median survival with combination chemotherapy. Our results show that PS2 non-small cell lung cancer patients are a heterogeneous group who have significantly different outcomes. Patients treated with first-line combination chemotherapy had a higher response and longer time to progression, whereas overall survival did not appear significantly different. A prognostic model may be helpful in selecting PS 2 patients for either treatment strategy.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2009 · Journal of thoracic oncology: official publication of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer
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    ABSTRACT: The standard of care for resectable gastric or gastroesophageal (GE) junction cancer for patients who can tolerate a surgical procedure is surgical resection, but surgery alone is not optimal treatment for patients at high risk for relapse. For patients with lower-risk lesions (confined to gastric wall, nodes negative; T1-2N0M0), local-regional relapse risks are low, and adjuvant radiotherapy is usually not recommended, except in select instances. Since both local-regional and systemic relapses are common after resection of high-risk gastric or GE junction cancers (beyond wall, nodes positive, or both; T3-4N0, TanyN+), adjuvant treatment is indicated for these patients. The results of phase III trials that demonstrate a survival benefit for adjuvant preoperative radiotherapy, postoperative chemoradiation, or preoperative chemoradiation vs. surgery alone will be presented and compared with the results of adjuvant perioperative chemotherapy. Results of Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) analyses and meta-analyses that support the role of adjuvant radiotherapy or chemoradiation will be summarized.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2009 · Gastrointestinal cancer research: GCR
  • Patrick H Archie · Mary Beth Beasley · Helen J Ross
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    ABSTRACT: We describe the clinical and pathologic findings of a young man with a heterogeneous mediastinal tumor metastatic to both lungs, and containing a predominant pattern of classic biphasic pulmonary blastoma with elements of immature teratoma, seminoma, and embryonal carcinoma. Beta-human chorionic gonadotropin and alpha-fetoprotein were elevated at presentation and responded to four cycles of bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin although the tumor did not regress. The patient ultimately progressed through paclitaxel, ifosfamide, and cisplatin and tandem autologous bone marrow transplants. Classic biphasic pulmonary blastoma is a rare tumor of young adults. Surgery is the primary treatment, but prognosis is poor and chemotherapy and radiation have been used for unresectable disease. A discussion of pulmonary blastoma and extragonadal germ cell tumors is presented.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2008 · Journal of thoracic oncology: official publication of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer

Publication Stats

1k Citations
186.20 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2008-2015
    • Mayo Clinic - Scottsdale
      Scottsdale, Arizona, United States
  • 2012
    • Roswell Park Cancer Institute
      • Department of Medicine
      Buffalo, New York, United States
  • 2006
    • St. James's Hospital
      Dublin, Leinster, Ireland
  • 2005
    • Providence Portland Medical Center
      Portland, Oregon, United States
    • The Portland Clinic
      Portland, Oregon, United States
    • Johns Hopkins Medicine
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States