[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) is the result of dysregulation of mucosal innate and adaptive immune responses. Factors such as genetic, microbial and environmental are involved in the development of these disorders. Accordingly, animal models that mimic human diseases are tools for the understanding the immunological processes of the IBD as well as to evaluate new therapeutic strategies. Crotoxin (CTX) is the main component of Crotalus durissus terrificus snake venom and has an immunomodulatory effect. Thus, we aimed to evaluate the modulatory effect of CTX in a murine model of colitis induced by 2,4,6- trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS). The CTX was administered intraperitoneally 18 hours after the TNBS intrarectal instillation in BALB/c mice. The CTX administration resulted in decreased weight loss, disease activity index (DAI), macroscopic tissue damage, histopathological score and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity analyzed after 4 days of acute TNBS colitis. Furthermore, the levels of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 were lower in colon tissue homogenates of TNBS-mice that received the CTX when compared with untreated TNBS mice. The analysis of distinct cell populations obtained from the intestinal lamina propria showed that CTX reduced the number of group 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3) and Th17 population; CTX decreased IL-17 secretion but did not alter the frequency of CD4+Tbet+ T cells induced by TNBS instillation in mice. In contrast, increased CD4+FoxP3+ cell population as well as secretion of TGF-β, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and lipoxin A4 (LXA4) was observed in TNBS-colitis mice treated with CTX compared with untreated TNBS-colitis mice. In conclusion, the CTX is able to modulate the intestinal acute inflammatory response induced by TNBS, resulting in the improvement of clinical status of the mice. This effect of CTX is complex and involves the suppression of the pro-inflammatory environment elicited by intrarectal instillation of TNBS due to the induction of a local anti-inflammatory profile in mice.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BCL-X mRNA alternative splicing generates pro-apoptotic BCL-XS or anti-apoptotic BCL-XL gene products and the mechanism that regulates splice shifting is incompletely understood. We identified and characterized
a long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) named INXS, transcribed from the opposite genomic strand of BCL-X, that was 5- to 9-fold less abundant in tumor cell lines from kidney, liver, breast and prostate and in kidney tumor tissues
compared with non-tumors. INXS is an unspliced 1903 nt-long RNA, is transcribed by RNA polymerase II, 5′-capped, nuclear enriched and binds Sam68 splicing-modulator.
Three apoptosis-inducing agents increased INXS lncRNA endogenous expression in the 786-O kidney tumor cell line, increased BCL-XS/BCL-XL mRNA ratio and activated caspases 3, 7 and 9. These effects were abrogated in the presence of INXS knockdown. Similarly, ectopic INXS overexpression caused a shift in splicing toward BCL-XS and activation of caspases, thus leading to apoptosis. BCL-XS protein accumulation was detected upon INXS overexpression. In a mouse xenograft model, intra-tumor injections of an INXS-expressing plasmid caused a marked reduction in tumor weight, and an increase in BCL-XS isoform, as determined in the excised tumors. We revealed an endogenous lncRNA that induces apoptosis, suggesting that INXS is a possible target to be explored in cancer therapies.
Full-text · Article · Jul 2014 · Nucleic Acids Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Components of high molecular-weight (PI) obtained from Ascaris suum extract down-regulate the Th1/Th2-related immune responses induced by ovalbumin (OVA)-immunization in mice. Furthermore, the PI down-modulates the ability of dendritic cells (DCs) to activate T lymphocytes by an IL-10-mediated mechanism. Here, we evaluated the role of toll like receptors 2 and 4 (TLR2 and 4) in the modulatory effect of PI on OVA-specific immune response and the PI interference on DC full activation. An inhibition of OVA-specific cellular and humoral responses were observed in wild type (WT) or in deficient in TLR2 (TLR2(-/-)) or 4 (TLR4(-/-)) mice immunized with OVA plus PI when compared with OVA-immunized mice. Low expression of class II MHC, CD40, CD80 and CD86 molecules was observed in lymph node (LN) cells from WT, TLR2(-/-) or TLR4(-/-) mice immunized with OVA plus PI compared with OVA-primed cells. We also verified that PI was able to modulate the activation of DCs derived from bone marrow of WT, TLR2(-/-) or TLR4(-/-) mice induced in vitro by agonists of TLRs, as observed by a decreased expression of class II MHC and costimulatory molecules and by low secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Its effect was accompanied by IL-10 synthesis. In this sense, the modulatory effect of PI on specific-immune response and DC activation is independent of TLR2 or TLR4.
No preview · Article · Nov 2013 · Molecular Immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There is evidence that pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC)-derived peptides other than adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) have a role in adrenal cell proliferation. We compared the activity of synthetic rat N-terminal POMC fragment 1-28 with disulfide bridges (N-POMC(w)) and without disulfide bridges (N-POMC(w/o)), with the activity of fibroblast growth factor (FGF2), a widely studied adrenal growth factor, and ACTH, in well-characterized pure cultures of both isolated adrenal Glomerulosa (G) and Fasciculata/Reticularis (F/R) cells. Three days of FGF2-treatment had a proliferative effect similar to serum, and synthetic peptide N-POMC(w) induced proliferation more efficiently than N-POMC(w/o). Moreover, both induced proliferation via the ERK1/2 pathway. In contrast, sustained ACTH treatment decreased proliferation and viability through apoptosis induction, but not necrosis, and independently of PKA and PKC pathways. Further elucidation of 1-28 POMC signal transduction is of interest, and primary cultures of adrenal cells were found to be useful for examining the trophic activity of this peptide.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2011 · Cell and Tissue Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The leaves of the Cashew plant (Anacardium occidentale L.) are used by the folk medicine in South America and West Africa. This plant is rich in flavonoids, which are polyphenolic compounds widespread in plants, and that have diverse physiological effects. In a sub-acute toxicity assay it was found that an ethanolic extract of Cashew leaves elicited lymphopenia in rats. The extract was also found to be cytotoxic and to induce apoptosis in Jurkat (acute lymphoblastic leukemia) cells. The crude ethanolic extract was fractionated and resolved by HPLC. One of the four fractions obtained led to the isolation of the biflavonoid agasthisflavone. [(3)H]-thymidine incorporation assays and flow cytometry analysis showed that the isolated compound displayed a high anti-proliferative effect in Jurkat cells with an IC(50) of 2.4 μg/ml (4.45 μM). The effect of agathisflavone on the acute promyelocytic leukemia cell line HL60, Burkitt lymphoma Raji cells and Hep-2 laryngeal carcinoma cells was also tested. The two latter ones were only mildly affected by agathisflavone. It is also shown that agathisflavone induces apoptosis in Jurkat cells and it this proposed that this is the likely mechanism of agathisflavone specific cytotoxicity.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2010 · Experimental and toxicologic pathology: official journal of the Gesellschaft fur Toxikologische Pathologie
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Malignant melanoma has increased incidence worldwide and causes most skin cancer-related deaths. A few cell surface antigens that can be targets of antitumor immunotherapy have been characterized in melanoma. This is an expanding field because of the ineffectiveness of conventional cancer therapy for the metastatic form of melanoma. In the present work, antimelanoma monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) were raised against B16F10 cells (subclone Nex4, grown in murine serum), with novel specificities and antitumor effects in vitro and in vivo. MAb A4 (IgG2ak) recognizes a surface antigen on B16F10-Nex2 cells identified as protocadherin beta(13). It is cytotoxic in vitro and in vivo to B16F10-Nex2 cells as well as in vitro to human melanoma cell lines. MAb A4M (IgM) strongly reacted with nuclei of permeabilized murine tumor cells, recognizing histone 1. Although it is not cytotoxic in vitro, similarly with mAb A4, mAb A4M significantly reduced the number of lung nodules in mice challenged intravenously with B16F10-Nex2 cells. The V(H) CDR3 peptide from mAb A4 and V(L) CDR1 and CDR2 from mAb A4M showed significant cytotoxic activities in vitro, leading tumor cells to apoptosis. A cyclic peptide representing A4 CDR H3 competed with mAb A4 for binding to melanoma cells. MAb A4M CDRs L1 and L2 in addition to the antitumor effect also inhibited angiogenesis of human umbilical vein endothelial cells in vitro. As shown in the present work, mAbs A4 and A4M and selected CDR peptides are strong candidates to be developed as drugs for antitumor therapy for invasive melanoma.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2010 · Translational oncology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Glycosylation of the Ab molecule is essential for maintaining the functional structure of Fc region and consequently for Ab-mediated effector functions, such as binding to cells or complement system activation. Alterations in the composition of the sugar moiety can dramatically influence Ab activity; however, it is not completely clear how differences in the N-linked oligosaccharide structure impact the biological function of Abs. We have described that murine IgG1 Abs can be separated according to their ability to elicit in vivo anaphylaxis in a fraction of anaphylactic and other of non-anaphylactic molecules. Furthermore, we showed that the N-linked oligosaccharide chain is essential for the structural conformation of the anaphylactic IgG1, the binding to FcgammaRIII on mast cells, and, consequently, for the ability to mediate anaphylactic reactions. In this study, we evaluated the contribution of individual sugar residues to this biological function. Differences in the glycan composition were observed when we analyzed oligosaccharide chains from anaphylactic or non-anaphylactic IgG1, mainly the presence of more sialic acid and fucose residues in anaphylactic molecules. Interestingly, the enzymatic removal of terminal sialic acid residues in anaphylactic IgG1 resulted in loss of the ability to trigger mast cell degranulation and in vivo anaphylactic reaction, similarly to the deglycosylated IgG1 Ab. In contrast, fucose removal did not affect the anaphylactic function. Therefore, we demonstrated that the ability of murine IgG1 Abs to mediate anaphylaxis is directly dependent on the amount of sialic acid residues associated to the oligosaccharide chain attached to the Fc region of these molecules.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2009 · The Journal of Immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: CD95 (Fas/Apo-1)-mediated apoptosis was shown to occur through two distinct pathways. One involves a direct activation of caspase-3 by large amounts of caspase-8 generated at the DISC (Type I cells). The other is related to the cleavage of Bid by low concentration of caspase-8, leading to the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria and the activation of caspase-3 by the cytochrome c/APAF-1/caspase-9 apoptosome (Type II cells). It is also known that the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide (CHX) sensitizes Type I cells to CD95-mediated apoptosis, but it remains contradictory whether this effect also occurs in Type II cells. Here, we show that sub-lethal doses of CHX render both Type I and Type II cells sensitive to the apoptogenic effect of anti-CD95 antibodies but not to chemotherapeutic drugs. Moreover, Bcl-2-positive Type II cells become strongly sensitive to CD95-mediated apoptosis by the addition of CHX to the cell culture. This is not the result of a restraint of the anti-apoptotic effect of Bcl-2 at the mitochondrial level since CHX-treated Type II cells still retain their resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs. Therefore, CHX treatment is granting the CD95-mediated pathway the ability to bypass the mitochondria requirement to apoptosis, much alike to what is observed in Type I cells.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2008 · Experimental Cell Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ultraviolet (UV) light generates two major DNA lesions: cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) and pyrimidine-(6-4)-pyrimidone photoproducts (6-4PPs), but the specific participation of these two lesions in the deleterious effects of UV is a longstanding question. In order to discriminate the precise role of unrepaired CPDs and 6-4PPs in UV-induced responses triggering cell death, human fibroblasts were transduced by recombinant adenoviruses carrying the CPD-photolyase or 6-4PP-photolyase cDNAs. Both photolyases were able to prevent UV-induced apoptosis in cells deficient for nucleotide excision repair (NER) to a similar extent, while in NER-proficient cells UV-induced apoptosis was prevented only by CPD-photolyase, with no effects observed when 6-4PPs were removed by the specific photolyase. These results strongly suggest that both CPDs and 6-4PPs contribute to UV-induced apoptosis in NER-deficient cells, while in NER-proficient cells, CPDs are the only lesions responsible for UV-killing, probably due to the rapid repair of 6-4PPs by NER. As a consequence, the difference in skin photosensitivity, including carcinogenesis, of most of the xeroderma pigmentosum patients and of normal people is probably not only a quantitative aspect, but depends on the type of DNA damage induced by sunlight and its rate of repair.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: High-molecular-weight components (PI) of Ascaris suum suppress both cell-mediated and humoral responses against ovalbumin (OVA) via an IL-4/IL-10-dependent mechanism. The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of PI on the ability of APC to activate T cells and the role of IL-10 in this process. Flow cytometry analyses of MHC class II, CD80, CD86 and CD40 molecules on LN cells from mice immunized with OVA or OVA+PI showed that PI inhibits expression of these molecules on unfractionated cells and on purified CD11c(+) cells. A low proliferative response was obtained when OVA-specific TCR-Tg T cells were incubated with CD11c(+) cells from OVA+PI-immunized mice pulsed with OVA, when compared to those incubated with cells from OVA-immunized mice. Similar results were obtained using as APC CD11c(+) cells from OVA-immunized mice pulsed with OVA+PI, which also expressed less of the four markers. The inhibitory effect of PI on both the expression of costimulatory molecules and the induction of T cell proliferation was abolished in IL-10-deficient mice. Our data indicate that the potent immunosuppressive effect of A. suum extract components on the host immune system is primarily related to their property of down-regulating the Ag-presenting ability of DC via an IL-10-mediated mechanism.
Preview · Article · Jan 2007 · European Journal of Immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) is an autosomal recessive photosensitive disorder with an extremely high incidence of skin cancers. Seven complementation groups, corresponding to seven proteins involved in nucleotide excision repair (NER), are associated with this syndrome. However, in XP variant patients, the disorder is caused by defects in DNA polymerase eta; this error prone polymerase, encoded by POLH, is involved in translesion DNA synthesis (TLS) on DNA templates damaged by ultraviolet light (UV). We constructed a recombinant adenovirus carrying the human POLH cDNA linked to the EGFP reporter gene (AdXPV-EGFP) and infected skin fibroblasts from both XPV and XPA patients. Twenty-four hours after infection, the DNA polymerase eta-EGFP fusion protein was detected by Western blot analysis, demonstrating successful transduction by the adenoviral vector. Protein expression was accompanied by reduction in the high sensitivity of XPV cells to UV, as determined by cell survival and apoptosis-induction assays. Moreover, the pronounced UV-induced inhibition of DNA synthesis in XPV cells and their arrest in S phase were attenuated in AdXPV-EGFP infected cells, confirming that the transduced polymerase was functional. However, over-expression of polymerase eta mediated by AdXPV-EGFP infection did not result in enhancement of cell survival, prevention of apoptosis, or higher rate of nascent DNA strand growth in irradiated XPA cells. These results suggest that TLS by DNA polymerase eta is not a limiting factor for recovery from cellular responses induced by UV in excision-repair deficient fibroblasts.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is the three-phasemyeloproliferative disorder, dependent on the expression of theoncoprotein Bcr-Abl, which is the product of the reciprocaltranslocation between chromosomes 9 and 22, resulting in thePhiladelphia chromosome (Ph). Bcr-Abl protein is the constitutivelyactivated tyrosine kinase responsible for changes in intracellularbiochemical cascades, culminating into hematopoieticic stem cellmalignant transformation. CML leukemic cells present abnormaladhesion to medullar stroma, altered proliferation and an amazingresistance to apoptosis induced by classical chemotherapeuticdrugs. Another therapy used in CML patients is imatinib mesylate(Gleevecâ), which has shown remarkable clinical activity in thesepatients. However, this drug does not completely eradicate BCRABL-expressing cells from the body, and recently some patientsshowed resistance to imatinib. The observation that production ofBcr-Abl is the initiating event in CML drew attention to the survivalsignals triggered by this oncogene. The number of altered signaltransducers and transcription factors has been associated withthe anti-apoptotic phenotype of CML cells, and some of them leadto the expression and/or activation of apoptosis modulators fromBcl-2 family, such as Bcl-xL, Bcl-2, Bax and Bad. In this article wereview some recent data on the understanding of Bcr-Abloncoprotein expression effect in the apoptosis machinery in CML.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The extract from Ascaris suum worms (Asc) impairs Th1 and Th2 responses to a non-related antigen, i.e. ovalbumin (OVA). Its suppressive capacity is due to high molecular weight components present in a gel filtration fraction (PI). This fraction is able to elicit IL-4 and IL-10 secretion. Interestingly enough, it induces anti-PI non-anaphylactic IgG1 synthesis through the action of IL-12/IFN-gamma. Here, we investigated the down-regulation of the immune response to OVA by PI in IL-12, IFN-gamma, IL-4 or IL-10 C57BL/6 knockout mice immunized with OVA+PI in adjuvant. OVA-induced delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) reactions, secretion of IL-2 and IFN-gamma, and IgG1, IgG2c and IgE antibody production were suppressed by PI in wild-type mice, as well as in IL-12- or IFN-gamma-deficient mice. In contrast, PI had no effect on anti-OVA IgE production and DTH, and induced only a partial suppression of IgG1 and IFN-gamma in IL-10(-/-) mice. The experiments also showed that IL-4 was involved in the PI-induced suppression of IgG2c antibodies and IL-2 secretion. Finally, down-regulation of IFN-gamma was not seen in mice lacking both IL-4 and IL-10, i.e. IL-4(-/-) mice treated with anti-IL-10 antibodies before immunization. These results exclude the participation of IL-12 and IFN-gamma in PI-induced immunosuppression, and highlight the essential role of IL-10 in the suppression of OVA-specific Th2-related parameters, as well as the cooperation between IL-10 and IL-4 in the suppression of Th1-related parameters.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The pure delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction obtained in 4-day ovalbumin-sensitized mice after antigen challenge in the footpad was abrogated by transfer of in vitro expanded, antigen-specific lymphoblasts derived from ovalbumin-hyperimmunized donors (high antibody producers), 12 h before immunization. This effect was specific inasmuch as Trypanosoma cruzi-specific blasts derived from Tc-Ag-hyperimmunized mice did not inhibit delayed-type hypersensitivity in ovalbumin-immunized recipients. The ovalbumin-specific blasts displayed a Th2 cytokine profile, secreting IL-4 and IL-10 upon restimulation in vitro with ovalbumin, but not IFN-gamma or IL-2. In addition, recipients of such cells produced much more IgG1 and IgE antibodies. When the frequency of T-cell blasts was enriched among these cells, transfer of four million cells was enough to prevent the induction of delayed-type hypersensitivity. Neutralization of IL-4 alone just before cell transfer not only restored the delayed-type hyper-sensitivity reaction, but also maintained it in a plateau for at least 72 h after challenge. Recipients treated in this way also showed a shift back towards a Th1 phenotype, indicated by the increase in IL-2, IFN-gamma and IL-12 synthesis. No synergistic action was observed when IL-4 and IL-10 were concomitantly neutralized. These results indicate that activation of Ag-specific Th2 cells early in the course of the immune response to a protein antigen provides an immunological environment rich in IL-4, thus leading to the inhibition of cell-mediated immunity.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2004 · Immunology and Cell Biology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Interleukin-12 (IL-12) is essential to resistance to Trypanosoma cruzi infection because it stimulates the synthesis of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) that activates macrophages to a parasiticidal effect. Investigation of mice deprived of IL-12 genes (IL-12 knockout mice) has confirmed the important role of IL-12 and IFN-gamma in controlling parasitism in T. cruzi infection. However, it has not yet been addressed whether a shift towards a T helper type 2 (Th2) pattern of cytokine response occurred in these mice that might have contributed to the aggravation of the infection caused by IL-12 deprivation. We examined the course of T. cruzi (Y strain) infection and the regulation of cytokine responses and nitric oxide production in C57BL/6 IL-12 p40-knockout mice. The mutant mice were extremely susceptible to the infection as evidenced by increased parasitaemia, tissue parasitism and mortality in comparison with the control C57BL/6 mouse strain (wild-type) that is resistant to T. cruzi. A severe depletion of parasite-antigen-specific IFN-gamma response, without an increase in IL-4 or IL-10 production, accompanied by reduced levels of nitric oxide production was observed in IL-12 knockout mice. We found no evidence of a shift towards a Th2-type cytokine response. In IL-12 knockout mice, the residual IFN-gamma production is down-regulated by IL-10 but not by IL-4 and nitric oxide production is stimulated by tumour necrosis factor-alpha. Parasite-specific immunoglobulin G1 antibody levels were similar in IL-12 knockout and wild-type mice, whereas IL-12 knockout mice had much higher levels of immunoglobulin G2b.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have previously shown that murine IgG1 antibodies comprise two functionally distinct types regarding their ability to induce mast cell degranulation. In this work, we identified two IgG1-producing hybridomas, both with the same antigenic specificity (anti-DNP), but different in vivo anaphylactic activities. Whereas one of them secretes the anaphylactic IgG1 antibody, as assessed by passive cutaneous anaphylaxis, the other produces the non-anaphylactic IgG1 molecule. The evaluation of the ability of both types of IgG1 to bind to and activate a mouse mast cell line revealed that the anaphylactic IgG1 has a higher binding capacity and releases more beta-hexosaminidase from mast cells than the non-anaphylactic IgG1. Aglycosylated IgG1 obtained by treatment of the anaphylactic IgG1-producing hybridoma line with an inhibitor of N-glycosylation failed to elicit anaphylaxis. In addition, a goat anti-mouse IgG1 antibody reacted less with this aglycosylated IgG1 than with the glycosylated form. These results suggest that the anaphylactic activity of IgG1 antibodies is closely related to their structural conformation and the proper N-glycosylation of these molecules. Finally, the difference in the anaphylactic property between the two types of IgG1 seems to be primarily due to binding to the mast cell surface.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is the three-phase myeloproliferative disorder, dependent on the expression of the oncoprotein Bcr-Abl, which is the product of the reciprocal translocation between chromosomes 9 and 22, resulting in the Philadelphia chromosome (Ph). Bcr-Abl protein is the constitutively activated tyrosine kinase responsible for changes in intracellular biochemical cascades, culminating into hematopoieticic stem cell malignant transformation. CML leukemic cells present abnormal adhesion to medullar stroma, altered proliferation and an amazing resistance to apoptosis induced by classical chemotherapeutic drugs. Another therapy used in CML patients is imatinib mesylate (Gleevecâ), which has shown remarkable clinical activity in these patients. However, this drug does not completely eradicate BCR- ABL-expressing cells from the body, and recently some patients showed resistance to imatinib. The observation that production of Bcr-Abl is the initiating event in CML drew attention to the survival signals triggered by this oncogene. The number of altered signal transducers and transcription factors has been associated with the anti-apoptotic phenotype of CML cells, and some of them lead to the expression and/or activation of apoptosis modulators from Bcl-2 family, such as Bcl-xL, Bcl-2, Bax and Bad. In this article we review some recent data on the understanding of Bcr-Abl oncoprotein expression effect in the apoptosis machinery in CML.