Peter Dodek

Saint Paul University, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada

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Publications (222)1257.53 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: To compare outcomes in patients who had severe hypoxemic respiratory failure (PaO2/FiO2< 100) who received early veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VV-ECMO) as an adjunct to mechanical ventilation, to those in patients who received conventional mechanical ventilation alone.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction In a landmark 2013 decision, the Supreme Court of Canada (SCC) ruled that the withdrawal of life support in certain circumstances is a treatment requiring patient or substitute decision maker (SDM) consent. How intensive care unit (ICU) physicians perceive this ruling is unknown. Objectives To determine physician knowledge of and attitudes towards the SCC decision, as well as the self-reported changes in practice attributed to the decision. Methods We surveyed intensivists at university hospitals across Canada. We used a knowledge test and Likert-scale questions to measure respondent knowledge of and attitudes towards the ruling. We used vignettes to assess decision making in cases of intractable physician-SDM conflict over the management of patients with very poor prognoses. We compared management choices pre-SCC decision versus post-SCC decision versus the subjective, respondent-defined most appropriate choice. Responses were compared across predefined subgroups. We performed qualitative analysis on free-text responses. Results We received 82 responses (response rate=42%). Respondents reported providing high levels of self-defined inappropriate treatment. Although most respondents reported no change in practice, there was a significant overall shift towards higher intensity and less subjectively appropriate management after the SCC decision. Attitudes to the SCC decision and approaches to disputes over end-of-life (EoL) care in the ICU were highly variable. There were no significant differences among predefined subgroups. Conclusions Many Canadian ICU physicians report providing a higher intensity of treatment, and less subjectively appropriate treatment, in situations of dispute over EoL care after the Supreme Court of Canada's ruling in Cuthbertson versus Rasouli.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Journal of Medical Ethics
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: To describe the clinical characteristics and in-hospital mortality of chronic dialysis-dependent end-stage kidney disease patients with septic shock in comparison to septic shock patients not receiving chronic dialysis. Methods: Using an international, multicenter database, we conducted a retrospective analysis of data collected from 10,414 patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) with septic shock from 1989 to 2013, of which 800 (7.7 %) were chronic dialysis patients. Data on demographic characteristics, sites of infection, microbial pathogens, antimicrobial usage patterns, and in-hospital mortality were aggregated and compared for chronic dialysis and non-dialysis patients. Multivariate time-varying Cox models with and without propensity score matching were constructed to determine the association between dialysis and in-hospital death. Results: Septic shock secondary to central venous catheter infection, peritonitis, ischemic bowel, and cellulitis was more frequent in chronic dialysis patients. The isolation of resistant organisms (10.7 vs. 7.1 %; p = 0.005) and delays in receiving antimicrobials (6.0 vs. 5.0 h) were more common in chronic dialysis patients than in non-dialysis patients. Delayed appropriate antimicrobial therapy was associated with an increased risk of death in chronic dialysis patients (p < 0.0001). In-hospital death occurred in 54.8 and 49.0 % of chronic dialysis and non-dialysis patients, respectively. After propensity score matching, there was no difference in overall survival between chronic dialysis and non-dialysis patients, but survival in chronic dialysis patients decreased over time compared to non-dialysis patients. Conclusions: The demographic and clinical characteristics of chronic dialysis patients with septic shock differ from those of similar non-dialysis patients. However, there was no significant difference in mortality between the chronic dialysis and non-dialysis patients with septic shock enrolled in this analysis.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Intensive Care Medicine

  • No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Critical care medicine

  • No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Critical care medicine

  • No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Critical care medicine
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    ABSTRACT: Background: In the hospital setting, inadequate engagement between healthcare professionals and seriously ill patients and their families regarding end-of-life decisions is common. This problem may lead to medical orders for life-sustaining treatments that are inconsistent with patient preferences. The prevalence of this patient safety problem has not been previously described. Methods: Using data from a multi-institutional audit, we quantified the mismatch between patients' and family members' expressed preferences for care and orders for life-sustaining treatments. We recruited seriously ill, elderly medical patients and/or their family members to participate in this audit. We considered it a medical error if a patient preferred not to be resuscitated and there were orders to undergo resuscitation (overtreatment), or if a patient preferred resuscitation (cardiopulmonary resuscitation, CPR) and there were orders not to be resuscitated (undertreatment). Results: From 16 hospitals in Canada, 808 patients and 631 family members were included in this study. When comparing expressed preferences and documented orders for use of CPR, 37% of patients experienced a medical error. Very few patients (8, 2%) expressed a preference for CPR and had CPR withheld in their documented medical orders (Undertreatment). Of patients who preferred not to have CPR, 174 (35%) had orders to receive it (Overtreatment). There was considerable variability in overtreatment rates across sites (range: 14-82%). Patients who were frail were less likely to be overtreated; patients who did not have a participating family member were more likely to be overtreated. Conclusions: Medical errors related to the use of life-sustaining treatments are very common in internal medicine wards. Many patients are at risk of receiving inappropriate end-of-life care.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · BMJ quality & safety
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: The optimum duration of antimicrobial treatment for patients with bacteremia is unknown. Our objectives were to determine duration of antimicrobial treatment provided to patients who have bacteremia in ICUs, to assess pathogen/patient factors related to treatment duration, and to assess the relationship between treatment duration and survival. Design: Retrospective cohort study. Settings: Fourteen ICUs across Canada. Patients: Patients with bacteremia and were present in the ICU at the time culture reported positive. Interventions: Duration of antimicrobial treatment for patients who had bacteremia in ICU. Measurements and main results: Among 1,202 ICU patients with bacteremia, the median duration of treatment was 14 days, but with wide variability (interquartile range, 9-17.5). Most patient characteristics were not associated with treatment duration. Coagulase-negative staphylococci were the only pathogens associated with shorter treatment (odds ratio, 2.82; 95% CI, 1.51-5.26). The urinary tract was the only source of infection associated with a trend toward lower likelihood of shorter treatment (odds ratio, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.42-1.08); an unknown source of infection was associated with a greater likelihood of shorter treatment (odds ratio, 2.14; 95% CI, 1.17-3.91). The association of treatment duration and survival was unstable when analyzed based on timing of death. Conclusions: Critically ill patients who have bacteremia typically receive long courses of antimicrobials. Most patient/pathogen characteristics are not associated with treatment duration; survivor bias precludes a valid assessment of the association between treatment duration and survival. A definitive randomized controlled trial is needed to compare shorter versus longer antimicrobial treatment in patients who have bacteremia.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Critical care medicine
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: To determine which demographic characteristics are associated with moral distress in intensive care unit (ICU) professionals. Methods: We distributed a self-administered, validated survey to measure moral distress to all clinical personnel in 13 ICUs in British Columbia, Canada. Each respondent to the survey also reported their age, sex, and years of experience in the ICU where they were working. We used multivariate, hierarchical regression to analyze relationships between demographic characteristics and moral distress scores, and to analyze the relationship between moral distress and tendency to leave the workplace. Results: Response rates to the surveys were the following: nurses-428/870 (49%); other health professionals (not nurses or physicians)-211/452 (47%); physicians-30/68 (44%). Nurses and other health professionals had higher moral distress scores than physicians. Highest ranked items associated with moral distress were related to cost constraints and end-of-life controversies. Multivariate analyses showed that age is inversely associated with moral distress, but only in other health professionals (rate ratio [95% confidence interval]: -7.3 [-13.4, -1.2]); years of experience is directly associated with moral distress, but only in nurses (rate ratio (95% confidence interval):10.8 [2.6, 18.9]). The moral distress score is directly related to the tendency to leave the ICU job, in both the past and present, but only for nurses and other non-physician health professionals. Conclusion: Moral distress is higher in ICU nurses and other non-physician professionals than in physicians, is lower with older age for other non-physician professionals but greater with more years of experience in nurses, and is associated with tendency to leave the job.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Journal of Critical Care
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: To reduce the number of routine chest radiographs (CXRs) done in a tertiary care intensive care unit (ICU). Methods: Using a quality improvement approach, we measured the number of CXRs done per patient-day before (15 June 2010-15 June 2011) and after (15 June 2011-15 June 2012) a multipronged intervention in a 15-bed medical-surgical ICU in a 350-bed tertiary care teaching hospital. We studied a total of 1492 patients who were admitted to this ICU-738 patients during the preintervention period and 754 patients during the postintervention period. Interventions were education for the ICU house staff, developing indications for routine CXRs on the computer order-entry system, and visual posters/signage to remind ICU staff that there were no indications for routine, daily CXRs. The primary outcome was the number of CXRs per patient-day, but we also measured CTs of the chest, mechanical ventilator days, length of ICU stay and ICU and hospital mortality. Results: There were 0.73 CXRs per patient-day done during the preintervention period and 0.54 CXRs per patient-day done during the postintervention period, a 26% reduction. There were no differences between the periods in age, sex or severity of illness (Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score) of the patients, number of chest CTs, mechanical ventilator days, length of ICU stay and ICU or hospital mortality. Conclusions: A quality improvement that includes education, reminders of appropriate indications and computerised decision support can decrease the number of routine CXRs in an ICU.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · BMJ quality & safety
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: The purpose of the study is to reduce unnecessary ordering of routine-priority blood tests. Methods: In this before-after study, we studied all patients admitted to a 15-bed tertiary intensive care unit (ICU) from July 1, 2011, to June 27, 2013. Based on input from intensivists, acceptable indications for ordering routine-priority complete blood counts (CBCs) and electrolyte/renal panels were developed. Sequential interventions were (1) education sessions for ICU housestaff about the lack of evidence for routine-priority blood tests; (2) an item on the ICU rounds checklist to ask if routine-priority blood tests were indicated; (3) a rubber stamp, "routine bloodwork NOT indicated for tomorrow," was used in the chart; (4) a prompt in the electronic ordering system to allow only accepted indications; and (5) a second educational session for ICU housestaff. We measured numbers of tests done before and after these interventions. Results: After introduction of interventions, there were 0.14 fewer routine-priority CBCs and 0.13 fewer routine-priority electrolyte/renal panels done per patient-day. Nonroutine CBCs and nonroutine electrolyte/renal panels increased by 0.03 and 0.02 tests per patient-day, respectively. This overall reduction in tests equates to an adjusted savings of $11200.24 over 1 year in 1 ICU. There were no differences in demographics, severity of illness, length of stay, or number of red cell transfusions between the 2 periods. Conclusion: Sequential interventions to discourage the ordering of routine-priority blood tests in an ICU were associated with a significant decrease in the number of tests ordered.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2015 · Journal of critical care
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: The purpose was to describe characteristics and outcomes of restrained and nonrestrained patients enrolled in a randomized trial of protocolized sedation compared with protocolized sedation plus daily sedation interruption and to identify patient and treatment factors associated with physical restraint. Methods: This was a post hoc secondary analysis using Cox proportional hazards modeling adjusted for center- and time-varying covariates to evaluate predictors of restraint use. Results: A total of 328 (76%) of 430 patients were restrained for a median of 4 days. Restrained patients received higher daily doses of benzodiazepines (105 vs 41 mg midazolam equivalent, P < .0001) and opioids (1524 vs 919 μg fentanyl equivalents, P < .0001), more days of infusions (benzodiazepines 6 vs 4, P < .0001; opioids 7 vs 5, P = .02), and more daily benzodiazepine boluses (0.2 vs 0.1, P < .0001). More restrained patients received haloperidol (23% vs 12%, P = .02) and atypical antipsychotics (17% vs 4%, P = .003). More restrained patients experienced unintentional device removal (26% vs 3%, P < .001) and required reintubation (8% vs 1%, P = .01). In the multivariable analysis, alcohol use was associated with decreased risk of restraint (hazard ratio, 0.22; 95% confidence interval, 0.08-0.58). Conclusions: Physical restraint was common in mechanically ventilated adults managed with a sedation protocol. Restrained patients received more opioids and benzodiazepines. Except for alcohol use, patient characteristics and treatment factors did not predict restraint use.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Journal of critical care
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    ABSTRACT: Increasingly, very old patients are admitted to Intensive Care Units (ICUs). The objective of this study was to describe 12-month outcomes of these patients and determine which characteristics are associated with a return to baseline physical function 1 year later. In this prospective cohort study in 22 Canadian hospitals, we recruited 610 patients aged 80 years or older who were admitted to ICU for at least 24 h. At baseline, we completed a comprehensive geriatric assessment and followed patients to determine 12-month survival and physical function. Our primary outcome was physical recovery from critical illness at 12 months, defined as being alive with Short Form-36 physical function score of at least 10 points, and not 10 or more points below baseline. We used regression analysis to examine factors associated with physical recovery. Patients were on average 84 years old (range 80-99). Mortality was 14 % in ICU, 26 % in hospital and 44 % at 12 months after admission. Of 505 patients evaluable at 12 months, 26 % achieved physical recovery. In the multivariable model, physical recovery was significantly associated with younger age, lower APACHE II score, lower Charlson comorbidity score, lower frailty index, lower baseline physical function score, and specific admission diagnoses. One-quarter of patients aged 80 years or older who are admitted to ICU survived and returned to baseline levels of physical function at 1 year. Routine assessment of baseline physical function and frailty status could aid in prognostication and informed decision-making for very old critically ill patients. ( number NCT01293708).
    No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Intensive Care Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: To 1) describe factual, emotional, and delusional memories of ICU stay for patients enrolled in the SLEAP (Daily sedation interruption in mechanically ventilated critically ill patients cared for with a sedation protocol) trial; 2) compare characteristics of patients with and without ICU recall, and patients with and without delusional memories; and 3) determine factors associated with delusional memories 28 days after ICU discharge. Prospective cohort. Sixteen North American medical and surgical ICUs. Critically ill, mechanically ventilated adults randomized in the SLEAP trial. Post-ICU interviews on days 3, 28, and 90 using the validated ICU Memory Tool. Overall, 289 of 297 ICU survivors (97%) (146 protocolized sedation and 143 protocolized sedation plus daily interruption patients) were interviewed at least once. Because there were no differences in recall status or types of memories between the two sedation groups, we present the findings for all patients rather than by study group. On days 3, 28, and 90, 28%, 26%, and 36% of patients, respectively, reported no recall of being in the ICU (overall perception, self-reported) (p = 0.75). Mean daily doses of benzodiazepines and opioids were lower in patients with no ICU recall than those with recall (p < 0.0001 for both). Despite one third of patients reporting no recall of ICU stay on day 3, 97% and 90% reported at least one factual and one emotional memory from ICU, respectively. Emotional memories declined with time after ICU discharge, particularly panic and confusion. Delusional memories 28 days after discharge were common (70%) yet unrelated to delirium (p = 0.84), recall status (p = 0.15), total dose of benzodiazepine (p = 0.78), or opioid (p = 0.21). Delusional memories were less likely with longer duration of mechanical ventilation (odds ratio, 0.955; 95% CI, 0.91-1.00; p = 0.04). Recall of ICU stay and types of memories reported were not influenced by the trial sedation strategy. Lack of ICU recall and delusional memories were common after ICU discharge despite the use of sedation strategies that promoted wakefulness.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2015 · Critical care medicine
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: The transfer of patient care between the intensive care unit (ICU) and the hospital ward is associated with increased risk of medical error and adverse events. This study will describe patient transfer from ICU to hospital ward by documenting (1) patient, family and provider experiences related to ICU transfer, (2) communication between stakeholders involved in ICU transfer, (3) adverse events that follow ICU transfer and (4) opportunities to improve ICU to hospital ward transfer. Methods: This is a mixed methods prospective observational study of ICU to hospital ward transfer practices in 10 ICUs across Canada. We will recruit 50 patients at each site (n=500) who are transferred from ICU to hospital ward, and distribute surveys to enrolled patients, family members, and healthcare providers (ICU and ward physicians and nurses) after patient transfer. A random sample of 6 consenting study participants (patients, family members, healthcare providers) from each study site (n=60) will be offered an opportunity to participate in interviews to further describe stakeholders' experience with ICU to hospital ward transfer. We will abstract information from patient health records to identify clinical data and use of transfer tools, and identify adverse events that are related to the transfer. Ethics and dissemination: Research ethics board approval has been obtained at the coordinating study centre (UofC REB13-0021) and 5 study sites (UofA Pro00050646; UBC-PHC H14-01667; Sunnybrook 336-2014; QCH 14-07; Sherbrooke 14-172). Dissemination of the findings will provide a comprehensive description of transfer from ICU to hospital ward in Canada including the uptake of validated or local transfer tools, a conceptual framework of the experiences and needs of stakeholders in the ICU transfer process, a summary of adverse events experienced by patients after transfer from ICU to hospital ward, and opportunities to guide quality improvement efforts.
    Preview · Article · Jul 2015 · BMJ Open
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: To compare the effect of intensive versus conventional blood glucose control in patients with traumatic brain injury. Methods: In a large international randomized trial patients were randomly assigned to a target blood glucose (BG) range of either 4.5-6.0 mmol/L (intensive control) or <10 mmol/L (conventional control). Patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) were identified at randomization and data were collected to examine the extended Glasgow outcome score (includes mortality) at 24 months. Results: Of the 6104 randomized patients, 391 satisfied diagnostic criteria for TBI; 203 (51.9%) were assigned to intensive and 188 (48.1%) to conventional control; the primary outcome was available for 166 (81.8%) and 149 (79.3%) patients, respectively. The two groups had similar baseline characteristics. At 2 years 98 (58.7%) patients in the intensive group and 79 (53.0%) in the conventional group had a favorable neurological outcome (odds ratio [OR] 1.26, 95% CI 0.81-1.97; P = 0.3); 35 patients (20.9%) in the intensive group and 34 (22.8%) in the conventional group had died (OR 0.90, 95% CI 0.53-1.53; P = 0.7); moderate hypoglycemia (BG 2.3-3.9 mmol/L; 41-70 mg/dL) occurred in 160/202 (79.2%) and 17/188 (9.0%), respectively (OR 38.3, 95% CI 21.0-70.1; P < 0.0001); severe hypoglycemia (BG ≤ 2.2 mmol/L; ≤40 mg/dL) in 10 (4.9%) and 0 (0.0%), respectively (OR 20.5 95% CI 1.2-351.6, P = 0.003). Conclusion: Although patients with traumatic brain injury randomly assigned to intensive compared to conventional glucose control experienced moderate and severe hypoglycemia more frequently, we found no significant difference in clinically important outcomes.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2015 · Intensive Care Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: Very elderly persons admitted to ICUs are at high risk of death. To document life-sustaining interventions (mechanical ventilation, vasopressors, renal replacement therapy) provided in the ICU and outcomes of care. Multicenter, prospective cohort study. ICUs of 24 Canadian hospitals. Patients 80 years old or older admitted to the ICU. None. One thousand six hundred seventy-one patients were included. The average age of the cohort was 85 years (range, 80-100 yr). Median total length of stay in ICU was 4 days (interquartile range, 2-8 d) and in hospital was 17 days (interquartile range, 8-33 d). Of all patients included, 502 (30%) stayed in ICU for 7 days or more and 344 (21%) received some form of life-sustaining treatment for at least 7 days. ICU and hospital mortality were 22% and 35%, respectively. For nonsurvivors, the median time from ICU admission to death was 10 days (interquartile range, 3-20 d). Of those who died (n = 5 85), 289 (49%) died while receiving mechanical ventilation, vasopressors, or dialysis. The presence of frailty or advance directives had little impact on limiting use of life-sustaining treatments or shortening the time from admission to death. In this multicenter study, one third of very elderly ICU patients died in hospital, many after a prolonged ICU stay while continuing to receive aggressive life-sustaining interventions. These findings raise questions about the use of critical care at the end of life for the very elderly.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2015 · Critical care medicine
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    ABSTRACT: Bacteremia is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity in critically ill adults. No previous randomized controlled trials have directly compared shorter versus longer durations of antimicrobial treatment in these patients. This is a multicenter pilot randomized controlled trial in critically ill patients with bacteremia. Eligible patients will be adults with a positive blood culture with pathogenic bacteria identified while in the intensive care unit. Eligible, consented patients will be randomized to either 7 days or 14 days of adequate antimicrobial treatment for the causative pathogen(s) detected on blood cultures. The diversity of pathogens and treatment regimens precludes blinding of patient and clinicians, but allocation concealment will be extended to day 7 and outcome adjudicators will be blinded. The primary outcome for the main trial will be 90-day mortality. The primary outcome for the pilot trial is feasibility defined by (i) rate of recruitment exceeding 1 patient per site per month and (ii) adherence to treatment duration protocol ≥ 90%. Secondary outcomes include intensive care unit, hospital and 90-day mortality rates, relapse rates of bacteremia, antibiotic-related side effects and adverse events, rates of Clostridium difficile infection, rates of secondary infection or colonization with antimicrobial resistant organisms, ICU and hospital lengths of stay, mechanical ventilation and vasopressor duration in intensive care unit, and procalcitonin levels on the day of randomization, and day 7, 10 and 14 after the index blood culture. The BALANCE pilot trial will inform the design and execution of the subsequent BALANCE main trial, which will evaluate shorter versus longer duration treatment for bacteremia in critically ill patients, and thereby provide an evidence basis for treatment duration decisions for these infections. The Pilot Trial was registered on 26 September 2014. NCT02261506 .
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2015 · Trials
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    ABSTRACT: Intensive Care Units (ICUs) provide life-supporting treatment; however, resources are limited, so demand may exceed supply in the event of pandemics, environmental disasters, or in the context of an aging population. We hypothesized that comprehensive national data on ICU resources would permit a better understanding of regional differences in system capacity. After the 2009-2010 Influenza A (H1N1) pandemic, the Canadian Critical Care Trials Group surveyed all acute care hospitals in Canada to assess ICU capacity. Using a structured survey tool administered to physicians, respiratory therapists and nurses, we determined the number of ICU beds, ventilators, and the ability to provide specialized support for respiratory failure. We identified 286 hospitals with 3170 ICU beds and 4982 mechanical ventilators for critically ill patients. Twenty-two hospitals had an ICU that routinely cared for children; 15 had dedicated pediatric ICUs. Per 100,000 population, there was substantial variability in provincial capacity, with a mean of 0.9 hospitals with ICUs (provincial range 0.4-2.8), 10 ICU beds capable of providing mechanical ventilation (provincial range 6-19), and 15 invasive mechanical ventilators (provincial range 10-24). There was only moderate correlation between ventilation capacity and population size (coefficient of determination (R(2)) = 0.771). ICU resources vary widely across Canadian provinces, and during times of increased demand, may result in geographic differences in the ability to care for critically ill patients. These results highlight the need to evolve inter-jurisdictional resource sharing during periods of substantial increase in demand, and provide background data for the development of appropriate critical care capacity benchmarks.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2015 · Critical care (London, England)
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    ABSTRACT: Little is known about the perspectives and experiences of family members of very elderly patients who are admitted to the intensive care unit. To describe family members' perspectives about care provided to very elderly critically ill patients. Multicenter, prospective, cohort study. In total, 535 family members of patients aged 80 years or older admitted to 22 intensive care units for more than 24 h. Family members reported that the "patient be comfortable and suffer as little as possible" was their most important value and "the belief that life should be preserved at all costs" was their least important value considered in making treatment decisions. Most family members (57.9%) preferred that life support be used for their family member, whereas 24.1% preferred comfort measures only, and 14.4% were unsure of their treatment preferences. Only 57.3% reported that a doctor had talked to them about treatment options for the patient. Overall, 29.7% of patients received life-sustaining treatments for more than 7 days and 50.3% of these died in hospital. Families were most satisfied with the skill and competency of nurses and least satisfied with being included and supported in the decision-making process and with their sense of control over the patient's care. There is incongruity between family values and preferences for end-of-life care and actual care received for very elderly patients who are admitted to the intensive care unit. Deficiencies in communication and decision-making may be associated with prolonged use of life-sustaining treatments in very elderly critically ill patients, many of whom ultimately die. © The Author(s) 2015.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2015 · Palliative Medicine

Publication Stats

9k Citations
1,257.53 Total Impact Points


  • 2015
    • Saint Paul University
      Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
  • 1989-2015
    • St. Paul's Hospital
      Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada
  • 1988-2015
    • University of British Columbia - Vancouver
      • • Department of Medicine
      • • Centre for Health Evaluation & Outcome Sciences
      • • Division of Critical Care Medicine
      Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
  • 2008-2014
    • Providence Health Care
      Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
  • 2012
    • University of Toronto
      • Division of Critical Care Medicine
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada
  • 2004-2011
    • Dalhousie University
      • Department of Medicine
      Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada
  • 2009
    • University of Sydney
      Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
  • 2007
    • UBC - Universidade BRAZ CUBAS
  • 2006
    • Oregon Health and Science University
      Portland, Oregon, United States
    • McMaster University
      Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
  • 2002-2003
    • Kingston General Hospital
      Kingston, Ontario, Canada
    • Queen's University
      • Department of Medicine
      Kingston, Ontario, Canada
  • 2001
    • Box Hill Institute
      Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
  • 1999
    • University of Oxford
      Oxford, England, United Kingdom