[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sweet potato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci biotype Q has been recognized as one of the most destructive insect pests worldwide because of increased resistance to some insecticide groups. To develop an alternative control agent, the effects of different culture conditions such as fermentation methods, culture temperatures, initial inoculum concentrations, substrates and medium supplements on the conidial production of the isolate Isaria javanica Pf04 were assessed. The results demonstrated that conidia of the isolate could be economically produced by single-phase solid state fermentation on barley substrate at 25 °C with 108 conidia/g of initial substrate concentrations. Using optimal conditions, the maximum conidial production obtained was 3.5 × 109 conidia/g dry substrate after 15 d of cultivation. The conidia, which were produced on barley alone and barley with 5% additives of silkworm powder and moth larvae, were virulent against second instar nymphs of whitefly, providing ≥90% mortality.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study was designed to assess sequential association between right ventricular systolic pressure and cardiothoracic (C/T) ratio of chest radiography in systemic sclerosis (SSc) patients and inferred pulmonary arterial hypertension by increased C/T ratio and right ventricular systolic pressure.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The beet armyworm Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is difficult to control using chemical insecticides because of the development of insecticide resistance. Several pest control agents are used to control the beet armyworm. Entomopathogenic fungi are one of the candidates for eco-friendly pest control instead of chemical control agents. In this study, among various entomopathogenic fungal strains isolated from soil two isolates were selected as high virulence pathogens against larva of beet armyworm. Control efficacy of fungal conidia was influenced by conidia concentration, temperature, and relative humidity (RH). The isolates Metarhizium anisopliae FT83 showed 100% cumulative mortality against second instar larvae of S. exigua 3 days after treatment at 1 × 10(7) conidia/mL and Paecilomyces fumosoroseus FG340 caused 100% mortality 6 days after treatment at 1 × 10(4) conidia/mL. Both M. anisopliae FT83 and P. fumosoroseus FG340 effectively controlled the moth at 20~30℃. M. anisopliae FT83 was significantly affected mortality by RH: mortality was 86.7% at 85% RH and 13.4% at 45% RH. P. fumosoroseus FG340 showed high mortality as 90% at 45% RH and 100% at 75% RH 6 days after conidia treatments. These results suggest that P. fumosoroseus FG340 and M. anisopliae FT83 have high potential to develop as a biocontrol agent against the beet armyworm.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recently, the Q biotype of tobacco whitefly has been recognized as the most hazardous strain of Bemisia tabaci worldwide, because of its increased resistance to some insecticide groups. As an alternative control agent, we selected an Isaria javanica isolate as a candidate for the development of a mycopesticide against the Q biotype of sweet potato whitefly. To select optimal mass production media for solid-state fermentation, we compared the production yield and virulence of conidia between 2 substrates (barley and brown rice), and we also compared the effects of various additives on conidia production and virulence. Barley was a better substrate for conidia production, producing 3.43 × 10(10) conidia/g, compared with 3.05 × 10(10) conidia/g for brown rice. The addition of 2% CaCO3 + 2% CaSO4 to barley significantly increased conidia production. Addition of yeast extract, casein, or gluten also improved conidia production on barley. Gluten addition (3% and 1.32%) to brown rice improved conidia production by 14 and 6 times, respectively, relative to brown rice without additives. Conidia cultivated on barley produced a mortality rate of 62% in the sweet potato whitefly after 4-day treatment, compared with 53% for conidia cultivated on brown rice. The amendment of solid substrate cultivation with additives changed the virulence of the conidia produced; the median lethal time (LT50) was shorter for conidia produced on barley and brown rice with added yeast extract (1.32% and 3%, respectively), KNO3 (0.6% and 1%), or gluten (1.32% and 3%) compared with conidia produced on substrates without additives.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to identify the characteristic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus (NPSLE) and to investigate the association between MRI findings and neuropsychiatric manifestations in SLE. Brain MRIs with a diagnosis of SLE from 2002 to 2013 from three tertiary university hospitals were screened. All clinical manifestations evaluated by brain MRI were retrospectively reviewed. If the clinical manifestations were compatible with the 1999 NPSLE American College of Rheumatology (ACR) nomenclature and case definitions, the brain MRIs were assessed for the presence of white matter hyperintensities, gray matter hyperintensities, parenchymal defects, atrophy, enhancement, and abnormalities in diffusion-weighted images (DWI). The number, size, and location of each lesion were evaluated. The neuropsychiatric manifestation of each brain MRI was classified according to the 1999 ACR NPSLE case definitions. The associations between MRI findings and NPSLE manifestations were examined. In total, 219 brain MRIs with a diagnosis of SLE were screened, and 133 brain MRIs met the inclusion criteria for NPSLE. The most common MRI abnormality was white matter hyperintensities, which were observed in 76 MRIs (57.1 %). Gray matter hyperintensities were observed in 41 MRIs (30.8 %). Parenchymal defects were found in 31 MRIs (23.3 %), and atrophy was detected in 20 MRIs (15.0 %). Patients who had seizures were more associated with gray matter hyperintensities than patients with other neuropsychiatric manifestations. Patients with cerebrovascular disease were more associated with gray matter hyperintensity, parenchymal defects, and abnormal DWI than patients with other neuropsychiatric manifestations. In addition to white matter hyperintensities, which were previously known as SLE findings, we also noted the presence of gray matter hyperintensities, parenchymal defects, and abnormal DWI in a substantial portion of SLE patients, particularly in those with cerebrovascular disease or seizures.
No preview · Article · Oct 2014 · Rheumatology International
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We aimed to evaluate whether methotrexate (MTX) in vitro induces apoptosis in synoviocytes obtained from rheumatoid arthritis patients and whether the apoptosis inducing effect of MTX to synoviocytes is correlated with the clinical responsiveness to MTX in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We evaluated 18 patients with RA taking MTX 15-20 mg/week as the subject group (nine responders and nine non-responders) and ten patients with osteoarthritis (OA) and nine patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) as the control group. Synoviocytes, cultured from the synovial fluid of the knee joint of each subject, were used for experiments between passages 4 and 6, and were treated with MTX. The induction of apoptosis was determined by the quantification of DNA hypoploidy by flow cytometry, nuclear morphology, caspases activation, DNA electrophoresis, and mitochondrial membrane potential measurements. The viability of synoviocytes treated with MTX was different between the MTX responders and nonresponders. MTX induced apoptosis in cultured synoviocytes by mitochondria- and caspase-dependent manners in the MTX responders but did not in the MTX non-responder, OA, and AS patients. The apoptotic responsiveness of the synoviocytes to MTX predicts the sensitivity to MTX treatment and provides a method determine the early application of an anti-tumor necrosis factor-α agent in RA treatment.
No preview · Article · Mar 2014 · Archives of Pharmacal Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rituximab is a chimeric murine-human monoclonal antibody that is directed against the specific B-cell CD20 antigen, which has recently been successfully used in active or refractory systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) manifestations, such as nephritis, thrombocytopenia, and vasculitis. We report a case of a 25-year-old woman diagnosed with diffuse alveolar hemorrhage of SLE refractory to steroid pulse therapy. The patient was treated successfully with rituximab as a part of the immunosuppressive regimen.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Anogenital infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections worldwide. The majority of HPV infections are transient and subclinical, with subsequent clearance by the immune system. However, in some individuals, especially those with impaired immunity, HPV infection may persist and result in condyloma acuminatum, pre-cancerous cervical abnormalities, as well as cervical cancer. Because of the intrinsic immunological aberrations and immunosuppressive treatment, patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) have higher prevalence of anogenital HPV infection, and SLE itself appears to be a major risk factor for HPV infection. HPV infection is sexually transmitted via genital contact; autogenesis of condyloma acuminatum without sexual contact is rare. In this case, a 27-year old virgin female with SLE was admitted to our clinic, presenting anogenital condyloma acuminata. It report that SLE patient can have a disease of anogenital HPV infection, despite the lack of sexual contact. Therefore, we recommend that patients with SLE have regular gynecological evaluations, in addition to prophylactic HPV vaccinations.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Leflunomide, a disease-modifying antirheumatic drug, is effective for rheumatoid arthritis as monotherapy or combination therapy with methotrexate. The most common adverse effects are diarrhea, dyspepsia, nausea, abdominal pain, oral ulcer, hepatotoxicity, skin rash, hypertension, weight loss, and interstitial lung disease. The occurrence of pulmonary cryptococcosis in leflunomide treatment has not been reported in Korea. A 74-year-old woman was admitted to hospital due to asymptomatic pulmonary nodule. She was diagnosed rheumatoid arthritis and treated with leflunomide 5 months ago due to treatment failure with methotrexate, hydroxychloroquine, and sulfasalazine. Chest radiograph and computed tomography showed solitary pulmonary nodule in her right lower lung. Pulmonary cryptococcosis was confirmed by needle biopsy of lung stained with Gomori methenamine silver and mucicarmine. The lesion was improved after antifungal therapy for 3 months.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bacillus amyloliquefaciens M27 was selected as a control agent for the biological control of cucumber powdery mildew. The new mixture of B.amyloliquefaciens M27 and plant (Eucalytus) extract was developed to improve the control activity of B.amyloliquefaciens M27 against cucumber powdery mildew. The mixed formulation showed the high preventive and curative control effect against cucumber powdery mildew when it was diluted at 500 times and foliar-sprayed. Its control effect was higher in preventive spraying than curative spraying. When 500-fold diluted solution of the formulation was sprayed preventively four times at five-day intervals, three times at seven-day intervals and twice at ten-day intervals, the diseased leaf area was shown to be 4.4%, 8.0%, 27.9%, respectively; Whereas the diseased leaf area in the control plot was 45.4%. When the 500-fold diluted formulation was sprayed curatively four times at five-day intervals, three times at seven-day intervals and twice at ten-day intervals after occurred cucumber powdery mildew, the diseases leaf area was 11.5%, 25.2%, 51.8%, respectively; whereas in the control plot, the diseases leaf area was 64.3%. When the 500-fold diluted formulation was treated four times at five-day intervals in the plastic house, its control effect was higher than that treated three times at seven-day intervals and twice at ten-day intervals. As the results, the mixed formulation of B.amyloliquefaciens M27 and plant extract could be a promising candidate of bio-fungicides for the environment-friendly control of powdery mildew of cucumber.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An isolate of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum CC110 was selected as an effective antagonist for biological control of cucumber downy mildew caused by Pseudoperonospora cubensis. Temperature range for growth of CC110 isolate was , and its optimal temperature at . pH range for growth of CC110 isolate was 4.5~9.5, and its optimal pH at 7.0. In this study, the most effective sources of carbon and nitrogen for growth of CC110 isolate were fructose and yeast extract, respectively. The volatile of CC110 isolate was found to be effective to control downy mildew on cucumber showing no diseased area whereas that of control was 13.2% using the I plate bioassay. The culture broth and cells of isolate CC110 cultured in TSB media for 48 hours at inhibited occurrence of cucumber downy mildew. The cells and culture broth were transformed into sporangia of P. cubensis by in observation under light microscope and scanning electron microscope.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In order to select antagonists for biological control of downy mildew of cucumber, 126 bacteria were isolated from cucumber plants collected from several locations in Korea. Among them, Five isolates were selected as potential biocontrol agents of cucumber downy mildew using a leaf disc bioassay method. In preventive and curative effect tests, the isolate CC110 was found to be effective to control downy mildew on cucumber showing diseased area by 0% whereas that of control was 15.0~18.0%. A bacterium isolate CC110 was identified as Bacillus amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum based on phylogenetic analysis using gyrB gene sequence. The culture liquid of isolate CC110 in TSB media were more effective for the control of the disease than those cultured in LB, NB, and KB media in leaf disk bioassay. when undiluted liquid, two-fold, five-fold diluted culture broth, and undiluted liquid, two-fold, five-fold diluted filtrate of isolate CC110 in TSB media were treated, diseased area of cucumber powdery mildew were 0%, 3.0%, 8.0%, 0%, 4.0% and 7.0%, respectively, whereas diseased area in the control was 21.0%. In the cucumber seedling tests, when the culture broth of isolate CC110 in TSB media was treated, diseased area were 35.0%, whereas that of control was 82.0%. When B. amyloliquefaciens CC110 was treated four times at five-day interval in the vinylhouse test, the control effect of cucumber downy mildew was higher than that treated three at seven-day interval.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bacillus amyloliquefaciens M27 was isolated from the cotton-waste compost for cultivation of oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus). B. amyloliquefaciens M27 is a biocontrol agent with antagonistic activities against a wide range of fungal pathogens. The aim of this work was to evaluate the possibility of exploiting antagonistic bacteria, B. amyloliquefaciens M27, in the biological control of the cucumber powdery mildew fungus, Podosphaera fusca. In greenhouse tests, the isolate was found to be very effective to control powdery mildew on cucumber leaves showing 4.0% diseased area, whereas diseased area in the control was 80.5%. The filtrate of the isolate cultured on MH and LB media were more effective for control of the disease than those cultured on TSB, NB, and KB media. When two, five, ten, 20, 50 and 100-fold diluted culture broth of isolate on LB media were treated, disease areas were 0%, 0%, 0%, 1.3%, 3.1% and 5.0%, respectively, whereas diseased area in the control was 60.0%. The filtrate of the isolate cultured on LB media was treated to cucumber plants on July, October and December just before the outbreak of the powdery mildew occurred. When 10-fold diluted filtrate of the isolate was treated, control efficacy was 88.9~98.9% in the treated seasons. The results showed that the culture filtrate of B. amyloliquefaciens M27 was very effective to control powdery mildew of cucumber.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study was conducted to test effect of fungicides on the spore germination and mycelial growth of BotaniGard(Beauveria bassiana GHA). Eight fungicides, which are using for plant disease control in cucumber cultivation, with different concentration were mixed with conidia of GHA isolate for 0.5, 2, and 4 hours. The fungicides trifluminazol, fenarimol, ethaboxam, copper hydroxide and tetraconazol did significantly not inhibit on spore germination and mycelial growth. The trifluminazol, propineb and tetraconazol on high concentrations inhibited the mycelial growth of GHA. However, mixing time of fungicide with conidia of GHA did not affect in spore germination and mycelial growth. These results suggest that fungicide effect needed be checked before mycopesticide is applied in the field.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pseudo-pseudo Meigs' syndrome or Tjalma syndrome is a rare manifestation of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus defined by the presence of ascites, pleural effusions, and an elevated cancer antigen 125 level. In this case, we described a patient with lupus who presented with sudden impaired renal function and subsequent development of massive ascites with marked high serum ferritin. Hyperferritinemia is one of the abnormal laboratory findings in severe inflammation with ferritin functioning as an inflammatory marker. However, its correlation with lupus activity remains unclear. Therefore, a review of the literature regarding pseudo-pseudo Meigs' syndrome associated with lupus and high ferritin level in this disease was carried out.
No preview · Article · Aug 2013 · Clinical Rheumatology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an idiopathic inflammatory demyelinating disease, characterized by optic neuritis and myelitis. NMO is a very uncommon and serious neurologic manifestation of Sjögren's syndrome. We report on a 32-year-old female with NMO as central nerve system involvement of Sjögren's syndrome. She had a transverse myelitis ten years ago and did not have symptoms for a long period of time. She visited the emergency center because of worsening weakness of both limbs. She had an appendectomy three days ago before hospitalization. Cervical spinal magnetic resonance imaging showed increased signal intensity in T2-weighted images from the cervical (C2) to the upper thoracic (T4) spinal cord. As serum NMO-IgG was positive, we diagnosed neuromyelitis optica and treated with high dose steroid, but failed. Therefore, we treated with plasmapheresis and the patient was discharged without any neurological deficits.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A 30 year-old woman with a history of Behcet's disease was admitted to our clinic because of a paroxysmal attack of palpitations, headache, and ocular pain. Initially, we did not suspect a pheochromocytoma. We evaluated Behcet's disease activity because the cardiovascular and neurological symptoms mimicked those of Behcet's disease. Pheochromocytoma is often overlooked and can be fatal if not recognized and treated appropriately. In the present case, abdominal computerized tomography incidentally revealed a mass confirmed to be a pheochromocytoma in the left adrenal gland, and the tumor was successfully removed. This is the first Korean report of a pheochromocytoma in a patient with Behcet's disease. We suggest that pheochromocytoma should be included in the differential diagnosis of Behcet's disease if a patient presents with cardiovascular or neurological symptoms.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A mycoparasite, Paraconiothyrium minitans CM2 was selected for biological control of sclerotinia rot of lettuce caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. The experiment was carried out in a lettuce greenhouse in Yangpyeong from March to April.. When lettuce sclerotinia rot showed in the early stage of occurrence, Conidial suspension of the mycoparasite was weekly treated once to three times onto soil surface around lettuce plants. Incidence of sclerotinia rot in the once-application plot of the mycoparasite ( spores/) and in the benomyl(WP)-treated plot was 11.0% and 2.7%, respectively, whereas that of control was 31.0%. Incidence of twice- and three-application plots of the isolate was 7.9% and 12.8%, respectively. For increasing the effect of the mycoparasite, the experiment for the timing of application of P. minitans CM2 was carried out in a lettuce greenhouse in Yangpyeong and Suwon. Control efficacy against lettuce sclerotinia rot in the soil-drenching plots of P. minitans CM2 ( spores/) in the planting was 75.3~84.7%, and control effect by treatment of the isolate at the pot drenching+the soil-drenching plots in the early stage of disease occurrence was 63.8~58.0%. As the results, P. minitans CM2 could be a prospective biofungicide for biological control of sclerotinia rot of lettuce.