Peng Cui

Chinese Academy of Sciences, Peping, Beijing, China

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Publications (132)138.83 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The Ms 8.0 Wenchuan Earthquake has greatly altered the rainfall threshold for debris flows in the affected areas. This study explores the local intensity-duration (I-D) relationship based on 252 post-earthquake debris flows. It was found that I=5.25 D-0.76 accounts for more than 98% of the debris flow occurrences with rainfall duration between 1 and 135h; therefore the curve defines the threshold for debris flows in the study area. This gives much lower thresholds than those proposed by the previous studies, suggesting that the earthquake has greatly decreased the thresholds in the past years. Moreover, the rainfall thresholds appear to increase annually in the period of 2008-2013, and present a logarithmic increasing tendency, indicating that the thresholds will recover in the future decades.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Geomorphology
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    ABSTRACT: Field experiments were conducted under artificial rainfalls to investigate the processes of soil failures on slope. It is found that the failures were temporally discontinuous and spatially discrete, with a wide range of magnitudes, accompanied by variations of soil moisture and pore-water pressure. Specifically, the experiments indicate that soil failures are more likely to occur on slope with high content of fine particles; the pore-pressure varies in response to soil failures in that the failures evidently affect the pore of the underlying soil. Migration of fine particles from upper to lower part of the slope also impacts the pore-water pressure variations in the slope profile. It is concluded that soil heterogeneity has a significant effect on variation in pore-water pressure, and fine particles transportation influences the building of pore-water pressure, as well as the mass depth, initial porosity, which is key to understanding the spatial characteristics of slope failures. © 2016, Science Press, Institute of Mountain Hazards and Environment, CAS and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Journal of Mountain Science
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    ABSTRACT: The Ms 8.0 Wenchuan earthquake greatly altered the threshold for rainfall-triggered debris flows in the affected areas. It is of both scientific and practical significance to determine the rainfall thresholds. This study examines one of the regions most prone to debris flows to analyze the characteristics of rainfall that caused debris flows, and to explore local rainfall thresholds. We applied the relation between rainfall intensity and duration, peak intensity and event amount, and other single factor approaches. Comparison of effectiveness and accuracy indicates that the event rainfall is the most sensitive factor for forecasting. Analysis of the annual rainfall thresholds showed that the rainfall conditions required for debris flows have increased on the continent during the past 6 years. Besides the rainfall fluctuations over the past few years, material changes were the primary reason for threshold variability. Recovery of vegetation plays an important role in reducing potential loose material that supplies volume for debris flows. Natural solidification, decrease of the potential erosion depth, and surface coarsening make it more difficult to initiate a debris flow, and ultimately increased rainfall conditions required. The change in rainfall thresholds can be predicted and verified for the entire earthquake-affected region.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Environmental Earth Sciences
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    ABSTRACT: Dissimilar metal welded joints are used in primary water systems of pressurized water reactor in nuclear power plant. They are mainly used to connect the ferritic steel pipe-nozzles of the pressure vessels such as reactor pressure vessels, steam generators and pressurizers with the austenitic stainless steel safe end. Thus, maintaining integrity of such joints is critical to ensure their safe service. As local wall thinning may probably appear at safe end to due to erosion and corrosion, assessment methods with local wall thinning are urgently needed. In this paper, three-dimensional finite element analysis models with and without considering local wall thinning were built for dissimilar metal welded joints connected the safe end to pipe-nozzle of the reactor pressure vessel. A detailed analysis has been carried out to the limit load research of this structure. Results show that the bending load is the main factor influencing the stress distribution change and limit load. According to finite element results, the depth of local wall thinning should be the most important factor influencing limit load solution, while circumferential local wall thinning shows very small variation. Based on the finite element results prediction equations of limit loads for safe end with local wall thinning have been proposed.
    Preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Procedia Engineering
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    Peng Cui · Yang Jia

    Preview · Article · Oct 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Many glacier dams on major rivers at the southeastern edge of the Tibetan Plateau had been previously determined through remote sensing and glacier terminal position calculation. It was hypothesized that such damming substantially impeded river incision into the plateau interior. Investigation on the large glacial-dammed lake at the entrance of Tsangpo gorge is critical for understanding this hypothesis. So far, the issues, such as age, lake surface elevation, and stages of this dammed lake, are still in debate. Our field survey of lacustrine deposits and loess distribution along the middle Yarlung Tsangpo River and its tributary, Nyang River, suggested that the lake surface elevation was at about 3180masl. The 23 quartz optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and 4 organic AMS 14C ages all fall into the Last Glacial period (~41-13ka). The OSL and 14C ages are in general agreement with each other where applicable. There might be only one long damming event because the ages of lacustrine deposits from 2970 to 3100masl are similar, and every lacustrine section is sustained for a long time. The estimated lake surface area was 1089km2, and the volume was ~170km3, which differ from previous estimations which suggested two-stage (about early Holocene and 1.5ka) lakes, and the largest lake surface elevation reached 3500m.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2015 · Geomorphology
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    ABSTRACT: Landslide dams commonly form when mass earth or rock movements reach a river channel and cause a complete or partial blockage of the channel. Intense rainfalls can induce upstream flows along a sloping channel that significantly affect downstream landslide dams. If a series of landslide dams are collapsed by incoming mountain torrents (induced by intense rainfall), large debris flows can form in a very short period. Furthermore, the failure of these dams can amplify the magnitude and scale of debris flows in the flow direction. The catastrophic debris flows that occurred in Zhouqu County, China on 8 August 2010 were caused by intense rainfall and the upstream cascading failure of landslide dams along the gullies. Incorporating the role of outburst floods associated with the complete or partial failure of landslide dams is an interesting problem usually beyond the scope of analysis because of the inherent modeling complexity. To understand the cascading failure modes of a series of landslide dams, and the dynamic effect these failures have on the enlargement of debris flow scales, experimental tests are conducted in sloping channels mimicking field conditions, with the modeled landslide dams distributed along a sloping channel and crushed by different upstream flows. The failure modes of three different cascades of landslide dams fully or partially blocking a channel river are parametrically studied. This study illustrates that upstream flows can induce a cascading failure of the landslide dams along a channel. Overtopping is the primary failure mechanism, while piping and erosion can also induce failures for different constructed landslide dams. A cascading failure of landslide dams causes a gradually increasing flow velocity and discharge of the front flow, resulting in an increase in both diameter and percentage of the entrained coarse particles. Furthermore, large landslide blockages can act to enhance the efficiency of river incision, or conversely to induce aggradation of fluvial sediments, depending on the blockage factor of the landslide dams and upstream discharge.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · International Journal of Sediment Research
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    ABSTRACT: The 2008 Wenchuan earthquake greatly altered the thresholds for rainfall-triggered debris flows within the affected area. Debris flows were widely and densely distributed, and they exhibited a range of differing local rainfall thresholds. This study looked at 518 debris flow events that occurred post-earthquake in order to analyze their spatial characteristics. The duration D (in h) and the average rainfall intensity I (in mm/h) that triggered the debris flows were determined for 252 of these events in order to analyze the spatial features of rainfall thresholds. Results show that 49 % of debris flows occurred in the highest-intensity seismic zone, 58 % occurred within 10 km of active faults, and 49 % occurred in areas with humid climate. Rainfall thresholds in these three regions were persistently lower than others. Moreover, debris flows were most frequent in watersheds smaller than 5 km2, and rainfall thresholds tended to decrease with a decrease in watershed size. Given the abundant loose materials available throughout the study area, 11 extreme debris flow-prone sub-regions were selected to illustrate the spatial features of rainfall thresholds in relation to local climate conditions. The lowest and highest I–D thresholds in the sub-regions examined were I = 5.94D −0.70 (2 < D < 53) and I = 21.4D −0.58 (3 < D < 50), respectively. The lowest and mean rainfall intensities needed to trigger debris flows were power-related with the local maximum 1- and 24-h rainfall. By normalizing the rainfall intensity (I) by mean annual precipitation (MAP), the I MAP–D thresholds were determined. Normalized results showed that the lowest and highest I MAP–D thresholds were I MAP = 0.0034D −0.55 (2 < D < 53) and I MAP = 0.0090D −0.40 (3 < D < 51), respectively. Such results are useful for debris flow forecasting based on empirical rainfall thresholds and have implications for hazard and risk assessment in this region.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2015 · Landslides
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    ABSTRACT: The Jiangjia Gully (JJG), Yunnan Province, China, is one of several debris flow gullies that characterize the topography of mountainous areas in China. Rainfall-triggered debris flows are frequent in the JJG. In order to model and predict these debris flow occurrences, we analyzed precipitation parameters (including intensity–duration thresholds and rainfall event–duration thresholds) that triggered past debris flow events in the JJG. Since the JJG is unique, any model used for predicting debris flows in this gully must be developed using data from only this gully. Furthermore, the effects of normalized precipitation and antecedent precipitation on debris flows in the JJG were considered. Debris flow data and precipitation data were compiled from 47 debris flow events in 1993, 1994, 1998-2001, 2004 and 2006 in JJG. All of these debris flows were triggered following a precipitation event with a duration of 6 hours or less, with most of the precipitation events exhibiting a duration of 3 to 6 hours. Only three rainfall events with a duration of less than 1 hour and average intensity between 1.0 and 42.0 mm/h produced debris flows. The 90%, 70% and 50% probability curves for debris flow events were then constructed. Intensity-duration (I-D) and rainfall event-duration (RE-D) thresholds were then used for debris flow modeling based on preliminary tests and comparisons. Antecedent precipitation was found to not be a significant factor in triggering debris flows in the JJG; however, intraday precipitation played a significant role. Normalized precipitation threshold curves from adjacent areas were not well-correlated with the patterns observed in the JJG. Determination of unique thresholds for each gully is necessary for developing an effective prediction system.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2015 · Engineering Geology
  • Peng Cui · Chao Zeng · Yu Lei
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    ABSTRACT: A miniaturized flume experiment was carried out to measure impact forces of viscous debris flow. The flow depth (7.2–11.2 cm), velocity (2.4–5.2 m/s) and impact force were recorded during the experiment. The impact process of debris flow can be divided into three phases by analyzing the variation of impact signals and flow regime. The three phases are the sudden strong impact of the debris flow head, continuous dynamic pressure of the body and slight static pressure of the tail. The variation of impact process is consistent with the change in the flow regime. The head has strong–rapid impact pressure, which is shown as a turbulent-type flow; the body approximated to be a steady laminar flow. Accordingly, the process of debris flows hitting on structures was simplified to a triangle shape, ignoring the pressure of the tail. In order to study the distribution of the debris flow impact force at different depths and the variation of impact process over time, the impact signals of slurry and coarse particles were separated from the original signals with Wavelet analysis. The slurry's dynamic pressure signal appears to be a smooth curve, and the peak pressure is 12–34 kPa when the debris flow head hit the sensors, which is about 1.54 ± 0.36 times the continuous dynamic pressure of debris flow body. The limit application of the empirical parameter α of hydraulic formula was also noted. We introduced the power function relationship of α and the Froude number of debris flows, and proposed a universal model for calculating dynamic pressure. The impact pressure of large particles has the characteristic of randomness. The mean frequency of large particles impacting on the sensor is 210 ± 50–287 ± 29 times per second, and it is 336 ± 114–490 ± 69 times per second for the debris flow head, which is greater than that in the debris flow body. Peak impact pressure of particles at different flow depths is 40–160 kPa, which is 3.2 ± 1.5 times the impact pressure of the slurry at the bottom of flow, 3.1 ± 0.9 times the flow in the middle, and 3.3 ± 0.9 times the flow at the surface. The differences of impact frequency indicate that most of the large particles concentrate in the debris flow head, and the number of particles in the debris flow head increases with height. This research can supports the study of solid–liquid two phase flow mechanisms, and helps engineering design and risk assessment in the debris flow prone area. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2015 · Earth Surface Processes and Landforms
  • Jia-wen Zhou · Peng Cui · Ming-hui Hao
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    ABSTRACT: The 2000 Yigong landslide was one of the most catastrophic landslides worldwide, resulting in huge casualties and property losses. The dynamic process of the Yigong landslide was very complicated, especially for the initiation and entrainment mechanism during the landslide movement process. The topography, geological condition, traces left by the landslide, and distribution characteristics of the landslide deposits were determined by field investigations, combined with several years of monitoring the temperature and rainfall data in this region. The initiation mechanism of the Yigong landslide is presented. The main reasons for the landslide initiation are as follows: the strength reduction of rock masses (especially for the weak structural surface), the impact from years of freeze-thaw cycles, the superposition of glacier melting and heavy rainfall on the slope, and a slope that was almost at the limit state before the landslide. Laboratory tests and physical modeling experiments were carried out to study the entrainment process of this landslide. Combined with the topographic survey data and theoretical analyses, the entrainment mechanism during the movement process of the Yigong landslide is presented. The old landslide deposits on the lower slope collided with and were scraped by the high-speed debris avalanche, which resulted in the volume amplification of the landslide. The existence of water plays a key role during the landslide initiation and movement processes.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2015 · Landslides
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    ABSTRACT: Over 240 debris flows occurred in hill-slopes, gullies ( indicated those with single-channel) and watersheds (indicated those with tributaries and channels) on July 10th 2013 in the Wenchuan county, and caused 29 casualties and about 633×106 USD losses. This work aimed to analyze characteristics, hazards and causes of these events and explore mitigating measures based on field investigation and remote sensing images interpretation. The debris flows contained clay content of 0.1%∼3.56%, having densities of 1.72∼2.14 t/m3, velocities of 5.0∼12.7 m/s, discharges of 335∼2353 m3/s and sediment yields of 0.10∼1.26×106 m3, and also numerously occurred in large watersheds with the area over 10 km2. Large debris flows formed 3 hazard-chains in slopes, gullies, watersheds and rivers, which all evolved in dammed lakes and outburst flood, and 26 dammed lakes and 10 newly ones were generated along the rivers of Min and Yuzi. The remarkable spatial difference of loose solid materials accumulation and intense rainfall, with the cumulative of about or more than 150 mm and the hourly of over 16mm, caused debris flows in the sections from Yingxiu to Miansi and Gengda. The damages on buildings, reconstructions, highways, factories and hydro power station originated from the impacting, scouring, burying of debris flows, the submerging of dammed lake and the scouring of outburst flood, and the huge losses came from the ruinous destructions of control engineering works of debris flows as well as the irrational location and low-resistant capabilities of reconstructions. For hazards mitigating of debris flows in long term, the feasible measures for short term, including risk-reassessing of foregone and potential hazard sites, regional alarming system establishing and integrated control in disastrous sites, and middle-long term, including improving reconstruction standard, rationally disposing river channel bed rise and selecting appropriate reconstruction time and plans, were strongly suggested.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2015 · Journal of Mountain Science

  • No preview · Article · Jan 2015 · Chinese Journal
  • Jian Li · Chang-Yu Zhou · Peng Cui · Xiao-Hua He
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    ABSTRACT: In present paper, 3D finite element (FE) method is used to determine plastic limit load solutions for pipe bends under combined bending and torsion moment. With a detailed analysis and comparison, a common awareness for loading effect is showing which will raise researchers concern. By the way, past solutions are not appropriate to estimate FE results. In this respect of finite element analysis, overall yielding considering the spread process of yield region from crown to the straight pipe shows these promising finite element results. A wide range of non-dimensional parameters for pipe bends are considered and plastic limit load solutions are suggested. The results show that r/t is the main factor affecting the limit loads. Plastic limit load is independent on the loading path and material constants by normalizing. Results show that the circular interaction rule is a great approximation for pipe bends under combined bending and torsion moment. A series of approaches are confirmed in order to validate our finite element method on plastic limit analysis. Based on the finite element results, approximate plastic limit load solutions are proposed. Present work will further improve the limit load solution for pipe bends under complex loading conditions.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2014 · International Journal of Mechanical Sciences
  • Xiaojun Guo · Peng Cui · Yong Li · Qiang Zou · Yingde Kong
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    ABSTRACT: The Wenchuan earthquake has caused abundance of loose materials supplies for debris flows. Many debris flows have occurred in watersheds in area beyond 20 km2, presenting characteristics differing from those in small watersheds. The debris flows yearly frequency decreases exponentially, and the average debris flow magnitude increases linearly with watershed size. The rainfall thresholds for debris flows in large watersheds were expressed as I = 14.7 D −0.79 (2 h < D < 56 h), which is considerably higher than those in small watersheds as I = 4.4 D −0.70 (2 h < D < 37 h). A case study is conducted in Ergou, 39.4 km2 in area, to illustrate the formation and development processes of debris flows in large watersheds. A debris flow develops in a large watershed only when the rainfall was high enough to trigger the wide-spread failures and erosions on slope and realize the confluence in the watershed. The debris flow was supplied by the widely distributed failures dominated by rill erosions (14 in 22 sources in this case). The intermittent supplying increased the size and duration of debris flow. While the landslide dam failures provided most amounts for debris flows (57 % of the total amount), and amplified the discharge suddenly. During these processes, the debris flow velocity and density increased as well. The similar processes were observed in other large watersheds, indicating this case is representative.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2014 · Landslides
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    ABSTRACT: A worldwide decline of mountain glaciers is occurring due to the impacts from climate warming. The retreat of mountain glaciers often leads to different kinds of geo-hazards. Serious surges triggered by glacier avalanches often pose a potential threat to the stability of dams. In this article, four different types of blocks with a constant density of about 900 kg/m3 were used to simulate the glacier avalanches in natural conditions. By considering the raw material properties of the plate and blocks themselves, the plunging velocity of a block was calculated by a theoretical method instead of by video cameras. The effect of the slope angle, distance between the sliding block and the water surface, initial water depth, slide Froude number, geometry, and distance between the plunging point of the sliding blocks and the downstream dam was considered to study the characteristics of the pressure loads acting on the moraine dam. In addition, an empirical equation was obtained to predict the maximum pressure load acting on the dam. Pressure load on the glacier dam is only one of the crucial factors for dam safety analyses. The failure process of a moraine dam, the probable maximum discharge of outburst floods, and the transportation of sediments along the downstream valley should also be considered in future studies.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2014 · Landslides
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    ABSTRACT: Debris flows are typically caused by natural terrain landslides triggered by intense rainfalls. If an incoming mountain torrent flows along sloping channels at high velocity, huge amounts of sediment (from landslide dams and eroded channel beds) will be entrained into the flows to form debris flows. It is likely that large debris flows are due to the failure of many landslide dams of different scales (due to bank slides or collapses), bed erosion, and solid transport. The catastrophic debris flows that occurred in Wenjia Gully (Wenchuan Earthquake Area), China on August 13, 2010 (two years after the mega earthquake), were caused by intense rainfall and the serious erosion of sloping channels. In the wake of the incident, experimental tests were conducted to better understand the process of sediment erosion and entrainment on the channel bed and the formation of debris flows. The results show that the bed erosion, bank collapses and channel widening caused by erosion accounted for the triggering and scale amplification of downstream debris flows in the Wenjia Gully event. This study illustrates how the hazardous process of natural debris flows can begin several kilometers upstream, and how such a complex cascade of geomorphic events (failure of landslide dams and erosion of the sloping bed) can lead to catastrophic discharges. Neglecting recognition of these hazardous geomorphic and hydrodynamic processes may result in high cost.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2014 · Engineering Geology
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    ABSTRACT: Avalanches and landslides caused by the Wenchuan earthquake in the Longmen Mountains area provide abundant loose solids for debris flows, and a large number of debris flows have occurred during the period 2008–2012. The engineering measures in certain gullies failed, causing serious damage and loss of life. Judging from the debris flow characteristics in the Wenchuan earthquake area, engineering measures should be better constructed after the active period of debris flows in severely affected areas. To reduce debris flow disasters, this paper proposes a mitigation method and design principle based on the transport capacity of the main river. A series of check dams with various opening sizes was designed by investigating and analyzing existing cases. Furthermore, a new type of drainage channel with prefabricated reinforced concrete boxes is proposed. Finally, a case study of the Xiaogangjian Gully, which is a typical debris flow gully in the Wenchuan earthquake area, is presented. This system of engineering measures is based on the main river's transport capacity and consists of five check dams with various opening sizes, a drainage channel with sidewalls constructed of prefabricated reinforced concrete boxes, and a debris flow basin at the base of the main gully. The debris flow mitigation measures constructed in the Xiaogangjian Gully effectively resisted a debris flow with a 50-year return period that was triggered by rainfall on July 26, 2012. Specifically, these measures effectively protected a highway and minimized debris flow damage. Thus, the layout and engineered structures involved in this new engineering technique can provide a reference design for debris flow hazard mitigation.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2014 · Engineering Geology
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    ABSTRACT: The formation of landslide dams is often induced by earthquakes in mountainous areas. The failure of a landslide dam typically results in catastrophic flash floods or debris flows downstream. Significant attention has been given to the processes and mechanisms involved in the failure of individual landslide dams. However, the processes leading to domino failures of multiple landslide dams remain unclear. In this study, experimental tests were carried out to investigate the domino failure of landslide dams and the consequent enlargement of downstream debris flows. Different blockage conditions were considered, including complete blockage, partial blockage and erodible bed (no blockage). The mean velocity of the flow front was estimated by videos. Total stress transducers (TSTs) and Laser range finders (LRFs) were employed to measure the total stress and the depth of the flow front, respectively. Under a complete blockage pattern, a portion of the debris flow was trapped in front of each retained landslide dam before the latter collapsed completely. This was accompanied by a dramatic decrease in the mean velocity of the flow front. Conversely, under both partial blockage and erodible bed conditions, the mean velocity of the flow front increased gradually downward along the sloping channel. Domino failures of the landslide dams were triggered when a series of dams (complete blockage and partial blockage) were distributed along the flume. However, not all of these domino failures led to enlarged debris flows. The modes of dam failures have significant impacts on the enlargement of debris flows. Therefore, further research is necessary to understand the mechanisms of domino failures of landslide dams and their effects on the enlargement of debris flows.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2014 · International Journal of Sediment Research
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    ABSTRACT: An Ms7.0 earthquake, focal depth 13 km, struck Lushan on April 20, 2013, caused 196 deaths and 21 missing, 13,484 injuries, and affected more than two million people. A field investigation was taken immediately after the quake, and the induced hazards were analyzed in comparison with the Wenchuan earthquake. We have identified 1,460 landslides and avalanches and four dammed lakes, which were generally small and concentrated on high elevation. Avalanches and rockfalls developed in cliffs and steep slopes of hard rocks, including Jinjixia of Baosheng Town and Dayanxia of Shuangshi Town, Lushan, and the K317 section the Xiaoguanzi section north to Lingguan Town along the provincial highway S210. Landslides were relatively less, mainly in moderate and small scales, developing in sandstone, shale, and loose colluviums. Only one single large landslide was observed to turn into debris slide-flow. Dammed lakes were formed by avalanches and landslides, all in small size and of low danger degree. The earthquake-induced hazards distributed in belt on the hanging wall along the faults, and their major controlling factors include tectonics, lithology, structure surface, and landform. More than 99 % landslides were within 30 km to the epicenter, and 678 within 10 km, accounting for 46 % of the total; about 50 % landslides were distributed on slopes between 35° and 55°, and 11 % on slope exceeding 75°; 60 % on slopes at the altitudes between 1,000 and 1,500 m, 77 % on slopes between 900 and 1,500 m; and 24 and 62 % in hard rocks and section between hard and soft rocks, respectively. Compared with the case of Wenchuan earthquake, both the number and extension of landslides and avalanches in Lushan earthquake-affected area are much smaller, only 5.53 % in number and 0.57 % in area. The earthquake has increased the instability of slope and potentiality of landslide and debris flow. Accordingly, the active period is expected to be relatively short comparing with that in Wenchuan earthquake-hit area. However, the insidious and concealed hazards bring difficulty for risk investigation.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2014 · Natural Hazards

Publication Stats

927 Citations
138.83 Total Impact Points


  • 2003-2016
    • Chinese Academy of Sciences
      • • Institute of Mountain Hazards and Environment
      • • Graduate School
      • • Institute of Zoology
      Peping, Beijing, China
  • 2014-2015
    • Nanjing University of Technology
      Nan-ching, Jiangsu, China
  • 2009-2013
    • North China University of Water Conservancy and Electric Power
      Cheng, Henan Sheng, China
  • 2008-2013
    • National Space Science
      Peping, Beijing, China