[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: By the mid 1980's, it was clear that the transforming activity of oncogenic Src was linked to the activity of its tyrosine kinase domain and attention turned to identifying substrates, the putative next level of control in the pathway to transformation. Among the first to recognize the potential of phosphotyrosine-specific antibodies, Parsons and colleagues launched a risky shotgun-based approach that led ultimately to the cDNA cloning and functional characterization of many of today's best-known Src substrates (for example, p85-Cortactin, p110-AFAP1, p130Cas, p125FAK and p120-catenin). Two decades and over 6000 citations later, the original goals of the project may be seen as secondary to the enormous impact of these protein substrates in many areas of biology. At the request of the editors, this review is not restricted to the current status of the substrates, but reflects also on the anatomy of the project itself and some of the challenges and decisions encountered along the way.Oncogene advance online publication, 14 October 2013; doi:10.1038/onc.2013.416.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A novel structural class of p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase inhibitors consisting of substituted 4-(phenylamino)-pyrrolo[2,1- f][1,2,4]triazines has been discovered. An initial subdeck screen revealed that the oxindole-pyrrolo[2,1- f][1,2,4]triazine lead 2a displayed potent enzyme inhibition (IC 50 60 nM) and was active in a cell-based TNFalpha biosynthesis inhibition assay (IC 50 210 nM). Replacement of the C4 oxindole with 2-methyl-5- N-methoxybenzamide aniline 9 gave a compound with superior p38 kinase inhibition (IC 50 10 nM) and moderately improved functional inhibition in THP-1 cells. Further replacement of the C6 ester of the pyrrolo[2,1- f][1,2,4]triazine with amides afforded compounds with increased potency, excellent oral bioavailability, and robust efficacy in a murine model of acute inflammation (murine LPS-TNFalpha). In rodent disease models of chronic inflammation, multiple compounds demonstrated significant inhibition of disease progression leading to the advancement of 2 compounds 11b and 11j into further preclinical and toxicological studies.
No preview · Article · Feb 2008 · Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Six-transmembrane epithelial antigen of the prostate-1 (STEAP-1) is a novel cell surface protein highly expressed in primary prostate cancer, with restricted expression in normal tissues. In this report, we show STEAP-1 expression in prostate metastases to lymph node and bone and in the majority of human lung and bladder carcinomas. We identify STEAP-1 function in mediating the transfer of small molecules between adjacent cells in culture, indicating its potential role in tumor cell intercellular communication. The successful generation of two monoclonal antibodies (mAb) that bind to cell surface STEAP-1 epitopes provided the tools to study STEAP-1 susceptibility to naked antibody therapy. Both mAbs inhibited STEAP-1-induced intercellular communication in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, both mAbs significantly inhibited tumor growth in mouse models using patient-derived LAPC-9 prostate cancer xenografts and established UM-UC-3 bladder tumors. These studies validate STEAP-1 as an attractive target for antibody therapy in multiple solid tumors and provide a putative mechanism for mAb-induced tumor growth inhibition.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A series of structurally novel aminothiazole based small molecule inhibitors of Itk were prepared to elucidate their structure-activity relationships (SARs), selectivity, and cell activity in inhibiting IL-2 secretion in a Jurkat T-cell assay. Compound 3 is identified as a potent and selective Itk inhibitor which inhibits anti-TCR antibody induced IL-2 production in mice in vivo and was previously reported to reduce lung inflammation in a mouse model of ovalbumin induced allergy/asthma. (c) 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
No preview · Article · Aug 2006 · Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A series of structurally novel aminothiazole based small molecule inhibitors of Itk were prepared to elucidate their structure-activity relationships (SARs), selectivity and cell activity in inhibiting IL-2 secretion in a Jurkat T-cell assay. Compound 2 is identified as a potent and selective Itk inhibitor which inhibits anti-TCR antibody induced IL-2 production in mice in vivo.
No preview · Article · Jun 2006 · Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nonreceptor protein tyrosine kinases including Lck, ZAP-70, and Itk play essential roles in T-cell receptor (TCR) signaling. Gene knockout studies have revealed that mice lacking these individual kinases exhibit various degrees of immunodeficiency; however, highly selective small molecule inhibitors of these kinases as potential immunosuppressive agents have not been identified. Here we discovered two novel compounds, BMS-488516 and BMS-509744, that potently and selectively inhibit Itk kinase activity. The compounds reduce TCR-induced functions including PLCgamma1 tyrosine phosphorylation, calcium mobilization, IL-2 secretion, and T-cell proliferation in vitro in both human and mouse cells. The inhibitors suppress the production of IL-2 induced by anti-TCR antibody administered to mice. BMS-509744 also significantly diminishes lung inflammation in a mouse model of ovalbumin-induced allergy/asthma. Our findings represent the first description of selective inhibitors to probe human Itk function and its associated pathway, and support the hypothesis that Itk is a therapeutic target for immunosuppressive and inflammatory diseases.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A series of novel anilino 5-azaimidazoquinoxaline analogues possessing potent in vitro activity against p56Lck and T cell proliferation have been discovered. Subsequent SAR studies led to the identification of compound 4 (BMS-279700) as an orally active lead candidate that blocks the production of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-2 and TNFalpha) in vivo. In addition, an expanded set of imidazoquinoxalines provided several descriptive QSAR models highlighting the influence of significant steric and electronic features. The H-bonding (Met319) contribution to observed binding affinities within a tightly congeneric series was found to be significant.
No preview · Article · Sep 2004 · Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A novel series of 2-amino-5-carboxamidothiazoles were identified as inhibitors of Lck. Structure-activity studies demonstrate the structural requirements for potent Lck activity. Cyclopropylamide 11d is a potent Lck inhibitor having sub-micromolar activity in a PBL proliferation assay.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Tec family non-receptor tyrosine kinase Itk is expressed in T cells, natural killer (NK) cells and mast cells. The role of this multidomain kinase in T cells has been linked to T-cell receptor–CD3 (TCR–CD3) signaling and Itk regulates and amplifies signals through the costimulatory receptors CD28 and CD2. Itk binds a specific subset of membrane inositol phospholipids through its pleckstrin homology (PH) domain; it forms functional molecular complexes with a variety of signaling proteins through its Tec homology (TH), Src homology 3 (SH3) and SH2 domains; and it phosphorylates several protein substrates on tyrosine residues in cells. Among >500 protein kinases expressed in the human proteome, we propose that Itk is a validated T-cell target suitable for pharmaceutical intervention. Targeted disruption of protein–protein interactions between Itk and some of its binding partners, and inhibition of the intrinsic kinase activity of Itk, could provide platforms through which to alter T-cell activation in immunological and inflammatory disorders.
No preview · Article · Jun 2003 · Trends in Immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The linker for activation of T-cells (LAT) is a palmitoylated integral membrane adaptor protein that resides in lipid membrane rafts and contains nine consensus putative tyrosine phosphorylation sites, several of which have been shown to serve as SH2 binding sites. Upon T-cell antigen receptor (TCR/CD3) engagement, LAT is phosphorylated by protein tyrosine kinases (PTK) and binds to the adaptors Gads and Grb2, as well as to phospholipase Cgamma1 (PLCgamma1), thereby facilitating the recruitment of key signal transduction components to drive T-cell activation. The LAT tyrosine residues Y(132), Y(171), Y(191), and Y(226) have been shown previously to be critical for binding to Gads, Grb2, and PLCgamma1. In this report, we show by generation of LAT truncation mutants that the Syk-family kinase ZAP-70 and the Tec-family kinase Itk favor phosphorylation of carboxy-terminal tyrosines in LAT. By direct binding studies using purified recombinant proteins or phosphopeptides and by mutagenesis of individual tyrosines in LAT to phenylalanine residues, we demonstrate that Y(171) and potentially Y(226) are docking sites for the Vav guanine nucleotide exchange factor. Further, overexpression of a kinase-deficient mutant of Itk in T-cells reduced both the tyrosine phosphorylation of endogenous LAT and the recruitment of Vav to LAT complexes. These data indicate that kinases from distinct PTK families are likely responsible for LAT phosphorylation following T-cell activation and that Itk kinase activity promotes recruitment of Vav to LAT.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report a physical and functional association between the Tec-family tyrosine kinase Itk (Emt/Tsk) and the nuclear import chaperone karyopherin alpha (Rch1alpha) in human T cells. The Itk-SH3 domain and the Rch1alpha proline-rich (PR) motif were crucial for the Itk/Rch1alpha constitutive interaction as demonstrated by directed mutagenesis of the Rch1alpha PR motif (proline 242 to alanine, P242A). TCR-CD3 stimulation of Jurkat T cells resulted in increased Itk/Rch1alpha complex formation, recruitment of karyopherin beta to the protein complex and Rch1alpha tyrosine phosphorylation. Analysis of in vitro kinase reactions with a panel of recombinant glutathione-S-transferase (GST) fusion tyrosine kinases (Itk, Lck, ZAP-70 and Jak3) revealed that only GST-Itk efficiently phosphorylated a recombinant GST-Rch1alpha fusion. We observed constitutive nuclear localization of Itk that was up-regulated following either TCR-CD3 stimulation or over-expression of wild-type Rch1alpha in T cells. Further, nuclear localization of Itk and TCR-CD3-mediated IL-2 production were significantly down-regulated following expression of the Rch1alpha-P242A mutant, implicating a role for Rch1alpha in the nuclear translocation of Itk.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2001 · International Immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although beta1 integrin-dependent T cell migration is required for immune function, little is known of the signaling pathways regulating this migration. We now show that the cytoplasmic tyrosine kinase, focal adhesion kinase (FAK) plays an essential role in the beta1 integrin-stimulated migration of T cells through regulation of the unique Crk-associated substrate (Cas) family docking protein, human enhancer of filamentation 1 (HEF1) and effects on "outside-in" beta1 integrin signaling. Overexpression of wild-type FAK promoted beta1 integrin-dependent Jurkat T cell migration, whereas FAK mutated in either its autophosphorylation site or proline rich region 1 (PR1)/HEF1 SH3 domain-binding site had a dominant negative effect on migration. In contrast, neither wild-type nor mutant FAK affected Jurkat cell adhesion to fibronectin, a beta1 integrin ligand. The migration of FAK-overexpressing cells directly correlated with the beta1 integrin-inducible tyrosine phosphorylation of endogenous plus wild-type exogenous FAK, and not with phosphorylation of the FAK-related kinase, Pyk2. FAK was also found to regulate both HEF1-promoted migration, and HEF1 tyrosine phosphorylation in beta1 integrin-stimulated cells, in a manner dependent upon the FAK autophosphorylation and PR1 sites, and HEF1 SH3 domain. Together, our results indicate that beta1 integrin-stimulated T cell migration requires a linear beta1 integrin-FAK-HEF1 effector pathway.
No preview · Article · Jun 2001 · European Journal of Immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: One mechanism for transducing signals downstream of lymphocyte receptor activation involves the stable association between signaling proteins. To identify protein ligands of the signal activator phospholipase Cgamma1 (PLCgamma1), we screened T cell cDNA libraries with the PLCgamma1-SH3 domain by the yeast two-hybrid assay. We observed association between the PLCgamma1-SH3 domain and the human Ras guanine nucleotide exchange factor son-of-sevenless-2 (hSos2) through a proline-rich domain interaction. Stable and abundant hSos2 / PLCgamma1 and hSos1 / PLCgamma1 complexes were observed in unstimulated T cells. The interaction between these enzymes was augmented following engagement of the T cell antigen receptor (TCR / CD3). The kinetics of protein complex enhancement correlated with TCR / CD3-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of PLCgamma1; however, those PLCgamma1 molecules in complex with hSos2 were non-phosphorylated after TCR / CD3 stimulation, in contrast to the phosphorylated PLCgamma1 associated with the linker for activation of T cells, LAT. The Grb2 adapter protein was detected in complex with hSos / PLCgamma1, suggesting a regulatory role for Grb2. SH3 domains from both Grb2 and PLCgamma1, but not RasGAP, bound directly to hSos homologues. The SH2 domain from Grb2 formed an association with the hSos / PLCgamma1 complex, which was enhanced following TCR / CD3 ligation. Together, the data suggest a mechanism for the son-of-sevenless and PLCgamma1 signal transducing enzymes in recruitment to protein complexes with potentially differential signaling consequences in T lymphocytes.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2000 · European Journal of Immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Emt/Itk/Tsk tyrosine kinase is involved in intracellular signaling events induced by several lymphocyte surface receptors. Modulation of TCR/CD3-induced phospholipase-C gamma 1 (PLC gamma 1) activity by the tyrosine kinase Emt/Itk/Tsk has been demonstrated based on studies of Itk-deficient murine T lymphocytes. Here we report a TCR/CD3-regulated association between Emt and PLC gamma 1 in both normal and leukemic T cells. In addition, this association was enhanced following independent ligation of the CD2, CD4, or CD28 costimulatory molecules, but not of CD5 or CD6 surface receptors, correlating to the induced tyrosine phosphorylation of Emt. Before Ab-induced T cell activation, we found that the Emt-SH3 domain was crucial for the constitutive Emt/PLC gamma 1 association; however, upon TCR/CD3 engagement, the Emt-SH2 domain was more efficient in mediating the enhanced Emt/PLC gamma 1 interaction. Furthermore, the PLC gamma 1-SH3 domain, but not the two PLC gamma 1-SH2 domains, contributed to formation of the protein complex. Thus, we describe a regulated interaction between Emt and PLC gamma 1, and based on our studies with individual Emt and PLC gamma 1 SH2/SH3 domains, we propose a mechanism for this association.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2000 · The Journal of Immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The negative regulation of T- or B-cell antigen receptor signaling by CD5 was proposed based on studies of thymocytes and peritoneal B-1a cells from CD5-deficient mice. Here, we show that CD5 is constitutively associated with phosphotyrosine phosphatase activity in Jurkat T cells. CD5 was found associated with the Src homology 2 (SH2) domain containing hematopoietic phosphotyrosine phosphatase SHP-1 in both Jurkat cells and normal phytohemagglutinin-expanded T lymphoblasts. This interaction was increased upon T-cell receptor (TCR)-CD3 cell stimulation. CD5 co-cross-linking with the TCR-CD3 complex down-regulated the TCR-CD3-increased Ca
mobilization in Jurkat cells. In addition, stimulation of Jurkat cells or normal phytohemagglutinin-expanded T lymphoblasts through TCR-CD3 induced rapid tyrosine phosphorylation of several protein substrates, which was substantially diminished after CD5 cross-linking. The CD5-regulated substrates included CD3ζ, ZAP-70, Syk, and phospholipase Cγl but not the Src family tyrosine kinase p56
. By mutation of all four CD5 intracellular tyrosine residues to phenylalanine, we found the membrane-proximal tyrosine at position 378, which is located in an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory (ITIM)-like motif, crucial for SHP-1 association. The F378 point mutation ablated both SHP-1 binding and the down-regulating activity of CD5 during TCR-CD3 stimulation. These results suggest a critical role of the CD5 ITIM-like motif, which by binding to SHP-1 mediates the down-regulatory activity of this receptor.
Full-text · Article · May 1999 · Molecular and Cellular Biology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To establish the relationship between T cell responses to integrin coreceptor stimulation and B cell hyperreactivity as measured by pathologic autoantibody production.
Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 42 patients with SLE according to the American Rheumatism Association criteria were examined for their ability to adhere to plate-immobilised fibronectin. Co-stimulation assays were performed on the same cells using anti-CD3 antibody alone or co-immobilised with an anti-beta1-integrin antibody. Proliferative responses were measured by 3[H]thymidine pulsing on day 3 and activation was determined using a commercial protein kinase C assay, the protocol being established by our group in association with Promega. Beta-integrin expression was established by FACS analysis.
An impaired PKC response to integrin-mediated activation was found in T-lymphocytes from 6/21 (29%) SLE patients, which correlated significantly with an absence of anti-dsDNA antibody in patient sera, irrespective of prednisolone treatment. Integrin co-stimulation of TcR/CD3-induced proliferation and T cell adhesion to fibronectin were also impaired among 5/21 (24%) and 6/15 (40%) patients studied, respectively.
We hypothesise that the integrity of beta1-integrin signalling pathways may influence pathological antibody production in SLE by affecting T-lymphocyte activation and interactions between T- and B-lymphocytes.