[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of star fruit juice supplementation on tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-23 (IL-23) and interleukin-2 (IL-2), nitric oxide (NO), and 6 min walking distance (6MWD) in a group of elderly individuals.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Theacrine is a purine alkaloid found primarily in the leaves of the Camellia Kucha plant and is now included within dietary supplements. To compare the effects of a theacrine-containing dietary supplement with caffeine and placebo on energy and mood, as well as objective measures of cognitive performance, heart rate, and blood pressure, 10 healthy men (20.8 ± 0.7 years) and 10 healthy women (22.2 ± 1.1 years) ingested the dietary supplement TheaTrim (Purus Labs; containing a branded form of theacrine (Teacrine™) and caffeine (150 mg)), caffeine only (150 mg), or a placebo on three different days, separated by approximately one week. Before, and for up to 4 h following, ingestion of the assigned condition, subjects completed a subjective assessment of energy and mood, as well as tests of cognitive performance (trail making test (TMT), digit symbol substitution test (DSST)), and reaction time. Heart rate and blood pressure were measured. No condition or interaction effects were noted for TMT, DSST, or reaction time, despite a trend for improvement in selected variables with both TheaTrim and caffeine treatment. Condition effects or trends were noted for subjective feelings, with values for attentive, alert, focused, and energetic higher for TheaTrim than for placebo and caffeine, while values for lethargic and groggy were lower for TheaTrim than for placebo and caffeine. Heart rate and blood pressure were largely unaffected by treatment. These data indicate that TheaTrim treatment does not result in a statistically significant improvement in cognitive performance but may favorably impact multiple subjective feelings related to energy and mood.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to compare knee and hip joint kinematics previously associated with anterior knee pain and metabolic cost among treadmill running (TM), standard elliptical (SE), and lateral elliptical (LE) in healthy runners. Joint kinematics and metabolic parameters of sixteen runners were collected during all three modalities using motion capture and a metabolic system, respectively. Sagittal knee range of motion (ROM) was greater in LE (p < 0.001) and SE (p < 0.001) compared to TM. Frontal and transverse plane hip ROM were greater in LE compared to SE (p < 0.001) and TM (p < 0.001). Contralateral pelvic drop ROM was smaller in SE compared to TM (p = 0.002) and LE (p = 0.005). Similar oxygen consumption was found during LE and TM (p = 0.39) but LE (p < 0.001) and TM (p < 0.001) required greater oxygen consumption than SE. Although LE yields similar metabolic cost to TM and produces hip kinematics that may help strengthen hip abductors, greater knee flexion and abduction during LE may increase symptoms in runners with anterior knee pain. The findings suggest that research on the implications of elliptical exercise for injured runners is needed.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Perhaps the most ubiquitous example of energy shots is the product known as 5-Hour ENERGY. With caffeine being the primary ingredient, it has been hypothesized that the claimed effects of this product are due in most part to the caffeine content, estimated to be ∼200 mg. Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the effects of 5-Hour ENERGY to caffeine only, as well as to a placebo, on subjective feelings of energy and mood, objective measures of cognitive performance, heart rate, and blood pressure in men and women. Methods: Ten healthy men (Mage=22.7±1.1 years) and 10 healthy women (Mage=22.1±0.4 years) ingested either 5-Hour ENERGY, caffeine only (200 mg), or a placebo on three different days, separated by ∼1 week using a randomized design. Before and at 1, 3, and 5 h following ingestion of the assigned condition, subjects completed a subjective assessment of energy and mood, as well as tests of cognitive performance (Trail Making Test, Digit Symbol Substitution Test). Heart rate and blood pressure were measured. Results: Neither caffeine nor 5-Hour ENERGY resulted in an improvement in subjective feelings or in objective cognitive performance. Heart rate was not impacted by treatment, but blood pressure (diastolic in particular) was elevated (∼4–10 mmHg) with caffeine and 5-Hour ENERGY. Conclusion: These data indicate that in a controlled laboratory environment, subjective feelings and cognitive performance are not impacted by caffeine or 5-Hour ENERGY. Heart rate is unaffected by treatment, and blood pressure increases in a minor and similar manner with both 5-Hour ENERGY and caffeine.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Standard elliptical devices are a popular cross-training modality as they have similar metabolic cost as running with minimal lower extremity impact. A modified elliptical device produces lateral movement of the lower extremities and yields knee and hip joint motion that may have positive clinical implications for injured runners. Purpose Compare acute differences in joint kinematics and metabolic cost between treadmill running (TR), standard elliptical (SE), and lateral elliptical (LE) in runners. Methods 16 non-injured runners (8 men) completed ten minutes of randomized exercise on TR, SE and LE on separate days. 3D knee and hip joint kinematics for the right limb were collected using a motion capture system (Qualisys). Oxygen consumption (VO2; ml/kg/min) was collected using a metabolic system (Parvo Medics). Motion data were analyzed using Visual3D (C-Motion). One-way repeated measures ANOVA to assess exercise type main effects (p<0.05) and cohen’s d effect sizes (ES) to assess mean differences were used. Results The knee ROM were different in LE (69.2±9.4°; extension) compared to SE (32.4±6.5°; ES=4.70; extension) and TR (-17.9±3.2°; ES=12.81; flexion) and, different between SE and TR (ES=10.14). The transverse plane hip ROM were different in LE (-8.9±8.1°; ES=2.94; external rotation) and TR (-3.3±4.9°; ES=3.07; external rotation) compared to SE (8.0±2.2°; internal rotation) and different between LE and SE (ES=0.86). Frontal plane hip ROM were different in LE (-16.4±5.5°; ES=5.32; abduction) and SE (2.7±1.9°; ES=1.27; adduction) compared to TR (5.3±2.3°; adduction) and, different between LE and SE (ES=4.79). Contralateral pelvic drop ROM were greater in LE (-5.3±4.8°; ES=0.83) and TR (-5.7±1.9°; ES=1.71) compared to SE (-2.3±2.2°). Finally, VO2 were greater in both TR (36.9±4.4; ES=2.65) and LE (36.8±8.3; ES=1.70) compared to SE (26.1±4.0). Conclusions The LE yields joint motions that could have strengthening effects to help prevent knee and hip joint running injuries. However, greater pelvis drop in LE may have injurious consequences. The greater VO2 during LE suggests that LE may be more comparable to TR for metabolic activity than SE. The greater VO2 in LE may be due to greater frontal plane muscle control. Studies on chronic elliptical training effects are warranted in healthy and injured runners.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: D-aspartic acid (DAA), nitrate, and vitamin D3 have received considerable attention in recent years for their potential health-enhancing properties. Using an open-label design, we evaluated the impact of a DAA/sodium nitrate/ vitamin D3 dietary supplement on blood testosterone and nitrate/nitrite, as well as subjective indicators of health, in middle-aged men.Methods: 10 overweight or obese men (mean age: 42 years) were assigned to ingest a DAA/sodium nitrate/ vitamin D3supplement (either one or two servings per day) for 28 days. Blood total and free testosterone and nitrate/nitrite was measured before and after 14 and 28 days of supplementation. Subjective assessment of to health indicators (e.g., energy level, libido) was included at each collection time.Results: Total and free testosterone increased on average 5-10%, which was not of statistical significance (p>0.05). The response was highly variable; some men failed to respond to treatment, while men with relatively low basal testosterone values experienced increases exceeding 20%. Plasma nitrate/nitrite was increased approximately 6-10 fold after treatment with the supplement, with a trend noted for a time effect (p=0.07). Men reported a significantly better feeling following supplement use, as evidenced by a time effect for both vitality (p=0.02) and libido (p=0.04), with a trend noted for increased energy level (p=0.08) and mental outlook and mood (p=0.10).Conclusion: Twenty-eight days of treatment with a DAA/sodium nitrate/ vitamin D3 dietary supplement increased blood nitrate/nitrite and improved subjective feelings of vitality and libido in middle-aged men. In selected men with low basal testosterone values, the supplement increased circulating levels of this hormone.
No preview · Article · Mar 2015 · The Open Nutraceuticals Journal
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This paper provides an overview of the current literature and scientific evidence surrounding inorganic nitrate (NO3-) supplementation and its potential for improving human health and physical performance. As indicative of the ever-expanding organic and natural food consumer market, athletes and health enthusiasts alike are constantly searching for ingredient-specific "super foods" and dietary supplements capable of eliciting health and performance benefits. Evidence suggests that NO3- is the viable active component within beetroot juice (BRJ) and other vegetables, responsible for health-promoting and ergogenic effects. Indeed, multiple studies support NO3- supplementation as an effective method to improve exercise performance. NO3- supplementation (either as BRJ or sodium nitrate [NaNO3-]) has also demonstrated modest benefits pertaining to cardiovascular health, such as reducing blood pressure (BP), enhancing blood flow, and elevating the driving pressure of O2 in the microcirculation to areas of hypoxia or exercising tissue. These findings are important to cardiovascular medicine/exercise physiology and suggest a possible role for NO3- supplementation: (1) as a low-cost prevention and treatment intervention for patients suffering from blood flow disorders; and (2) an effective, natural ergogenic aid for athletes. Benefits have been noted following a single bolus, as well as daily supplementation of NO3-. While results are promising, additional research is needed to determine the impact of NO3- supplementation on anaerobic exercise performance, to identify principle relationships between isolated nitrate and other ingredients found in nitrate-rich vegetables (e.g., vitamin C, polyphenols, fatty acids, thiocyanate), to explore the specific dose-response relationships needed to elicit health and ergogenic benefits, to prolong the supplementation period beyond a relatively short period (i.e., >15 days), to determine if more robust effects can be observed with longer-term treatment, and to fully examine the safety of chronic NO3- supplementation, as this continues to be a concern of some.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction
Aerobic exercise can reduce postprandial lipemia, and possibly oxidative stress, when performed prior to a lipid-rich meal.
To compare the impact of acute exercise on postprandial oxidative stress.
We compared aerobic and anaerobic exercise bouts of different intensities and durations on postprandial blood triglycerides (TAG), oxidative stress biomarkers (malondialdehyde, hydrogen peroxide, advanced oxidation protein products), and antioxidant status (trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase). Twelve trained men (21–35 years) underwent four conditions: (1) No exercise rest; (2) 60-min aerobic exercise at 70 % heart rate reserve; (3) five 60-s sprints at 100 % max capacity; and (4) ten 15-s sprints at 200 % max capacity. All exercise bouts were performed on a cycle ergometer. A high-fat meal was consumed 1 h after exercise cessation. Blood samples were collected pre-meal and 2 and 4 h post-meal and analyzed for TAG, oxidative stress biomarkers, and antioxidant status.
No significant interaction or condition effects were noted for any variable (p > 0.05), with acute exercise having little to no effect on the magnitude of postprandial oxidative stress.
In a sample of healthy, well-trained men, neither aerobic nor anaerobic exercise attenuates postprandial oxidative stress in response to a high-fat meal.
No preview · Article · Jun 2014 · Arbeitsphysiologie
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Carnitine is a natural component of mammalian tissue and possesses multiple physiological roles. In relation to physical exercise, these include, but are not limited to, providing antioxidant protection, increasing nitric oxide production and/or maintaining circulating nitric oxide, and working to enhance energy production (e.g., fatty acid oxidation). These outcomes may be directly or indirectly related to improved exercise performance or recovery from strenuous exercise. While some studies have noted favorable outcomes with regards to exercise performance or related measures (e.g., reduction in muscle damage or soreness) following carnitine supplementation, others have failed to demonstrate an ergogenic effect, in particular when carnitine is used by healthy, exercise-trained subjects. The type and dosage of carnitine used varies considerably across studies, and few direct comparisons have been made between carnitine forms. This chapter provides a brief overview of the work in this area.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Women have enhanced triglyceride (TAG) removal from the circulation following consumption of high-fat loads, potentially leading to decreased reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS) generation. This may have implications related to long-term health outcomes. We examined the oxidative stress response to high-fat feeding between men and women to determine if women are less prone to postprandial oxidative stress as compared to men.
A total of 49 women (mean age: 31 ± 12 yrs) and 49 men (mean age: 27 ± 9 yrs) consumed a high-fat meal in the morning hours following a 10–12 hour overnight fast. Blood samples were collected before and at 2 and 4 hours after the meal. Samples were analyzed for TAG, various markers of oxidative stress (malondialdehyde [MDA], hydrogen peroxide [H2O2], Advanced Oxidation Protein Products [AOPP], nitrate/nitrite [NOx]), and Trolox-Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity (TEAC). Area under the curve (AUC) was calculated for each variable. Effect size calculations were performed using Cohen’s d. Data from the total sample of 98 subjects were collected as a part of six previously conducted studies in our lab focused on postprandial oxidative stress, between 2007 and 2012.
AUC was higher for men compared to women for TAG (249.0 ± 21.5 vs. 145.0 ± 9.8 mg·dL-1·4 hr-1; p
In the context of the current design, women experienced lower postprandial oxidative stress compared to men. Future work is needed to determine the potential health implications of lower postprandial oxidative stress in women.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Higenamine, also known as norcoclaurine, is an herbal constituent thought to act as a beta-2 adrenergic receptor agonist---possibly stimulating lipolysis. It was the purpose of this study to determine the impact of a higenamine-based dietary supplement on plasma free fatty acids and energy expenditure following acute oral ingestion.
Sixteen healthy subjects (8 men; 26.1 +/- 2.5 yrs; 8 women 22.4 +/- 3.1 yrs) ingested a dietary supplement containing a combination of higenamine, caffeine (270 mg), and yohimbe bark extract or a placebo, on two separate occasions in a double-blind, randomized, cross-over design, separated by 6--8 days. Blood samples were collected immediately before ingestion, and at 30, 60, 120, and 180 minutes post ingestion, and analyzed for plasma free fatty acids (FFA) and glycerol. Breath samples were collected at the same times for a measure of kilocalorie expenditure and respiratory exchange ratio (RER) using indirect calorimetry. Heart rate and blood pressure were recorded at all times. Data collection occurred in the morning following a 10 hour overnight fast.
A condition effect was noted for both FFA (p < 0.0001) and kilocalorie expenditure (p = 0.001), with values higher for supplement compared to placebo at 60, 120, and 180 minutes post ingestion. No statistically significant effects were noted for glycerol or RER (p > 0.05). A condition effect was noted for heart rate (p = 0.03) and systolic blood pressure (p < 0.0001), with values higher for supplement compared to placebo.
Ingestion of a higenamine-based dietary supplement stimulates lipolysis and energy expenditure, as evidenced by a significant increase in circulating FFA and kilocalorie expenditure. The same supplement results in a moderate increase in heart rate (~3 bpm) and systolic blood pressure (~12 mmHg), which is consistent with previous studies evaluating moderate doses of caffeine and yohimbine, suggesting that higenamine contributes little to the increase in these hemodynamic variables. These findings are in reference to young, healthy and active men and women.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2013 · Lipids in Health and Disease
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: 1,3-dimethylamylamine (DMAA) has been a component of dietary supplements and is also used within "party pills," often in conjunction with alcohol and other drugs. Ingestion of higher than recommended doses results in untoward effects including cerebral hemorrhage. To our knowledge, no studies have been conducted to determine both the pharmacokinetic profile and physiologic responses of DMAA.
Eight men reported to the lab in the morning following an overnight fast and received a single 25 mg oral dose of DMAA. Blood samples were collected before and through 24 hours post-DMAA ingestion and analyzed for plasma DMAA concentration using high-performance liquid chromatography--mass spectrometry. Resting heart rate, blood pressure, and body temperature was also measured.
One subject was excluded from the data analysis due to abnormal DMAA levels. Analysis of the remaining seven participants showed DMAA had an oral clearance of 20.02 +/- 5 L[bullet operator]hr-1, an oral volume of distribution of 236 +/- 38 L, and terminal half-life of 8.45 +/- 1.9 hr. Lag time, the delay in appearance of DMAA in the circulation following extravascular administration, varied among participants but averaged approximately 8 minutes (0.14 +/- 0.13 hr). The peak DMAA concentration for all subjects was observed within 3--5 hours following ingestion and was very similar across subjects, with a mean of ~70 ng[bullet operator]mL-1. Heart rate, blood pressure, and body temperature were largely unaffected by DMAA treatment.
These are the first data to characterize the oral pharmacokinetic profile of DMAA. These findings indicate a consistent pattern of increase across subjects with regards to peak DMAA concentration, with peak values approximately 15--30 times lower than those reported in case studies linking DMAA intake with adverse events. Finally, a single 25 mg dose of DMAA does not meaningfully impact resting heart rate, blood pressure, or body temperature.Trial registration: NCT01765933.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Strenuous, high-volume exercise is often associated with inflammation and joint pain. Cissus quadrangularis (CQ) has been reported to have anti-inflammatory activity. The purpose of our study was to determine the therapeutic effects of CQ supplementation in healthy, exercise-trained men with joint-specific pain.
Twenty-nine men between the ages of 20 and 46 years, who reportedly experienced chronic joint pain as a result of strenuous exercise, participated in our pilot study. All men received CQ 3200 mg daily for 8 weeks. Before and after the 8-week intervention period, subjects completed a questionnaire to determine their degree of joint pain (Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Index of Osteoarthritis [WOMAC]). Clinical measures (eg, heart rate, blood pressure, blood biomarkers) were also collected for each subject pre- (baseline) and post-intervention.
Subject ratings for multiple variables within the WOMAC Index improved (decreased) significantly (P < 0.05), with the subject mean total WOMAC score decreasing from 25.4 ± 2.4 to 17.4 ± 2.1 (~31%), pre- to post-intervention. No clinical measure was significantly impacted by use of CQ supplementation.
An 8-week course of supplementation with CQ reduced joint pain in a sample of 29 young, otherwise healthy, exercise-trained men. Additional study is needed to extend these findings, including comparison with a placebo-controlled cohort, and possibly, examining effects of CQ use in women and older adult subjects.
No preview · Article · Sep 2013 · The Physician and sportsmedicine