[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Apart from genetic alterations, development and progression of colorectal cancer has been linked to influences from nutritional intake, hyperalimentation, and cellular metabolic changes that may be the basis for new diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. However, in contrast to genomics and proteomics, comprehensive metabolomic investigations of alterations in malignant tumors have rarely been conducted.
In this study we investigated a set of paired samples of normal colon tissue and colorectal cancer tissue with gas-chromatography time-of-flight mass-spectrometry, which resulted in robust detection of a total of 206 metabolites. Metabolic phenotypes of colon cancer and normal tissues were different at a Bonferroni corrected significance level of p=0.00170 and p=0.00005 for the first two components of an unsupervised PCA analysis. Subsequent supervised analysis found 82 metabolites to be significantly different at p<0.01. Metabolites were connected to abnormalities in metabolic pathways by a new approach that calculates the distance of each pair of metabolites in the KEGG database interaction lattice. Intermediates of the TCA cycle and lipids were found down-regulated in cancer, whereas urea cycle metabolites, purines, pyrimidines and amino acids were generally found at higher levels compared to normal colon mucosa.
This study demonstrates that metabolic profiling facilitates biochemical phenotyping of normal and neoplastic colon tissue at high significance levels and points to GC-TOF-based metabolomics as a new method for molecular pathology investigations.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The human nuclear export protein chromosomal region maintenance/exportin 1/Xpo1 (CRM1) mediates the nuclear export of proteins and messenger RNAs and, thus, is an important regulator of subcellular distribution of key molecules. Whereas cell-biologic studies have suggested a fundamental role for CRM1 in the regulation of mitosis, the expression of this protein in human tumor tissue has not been investigated to date.
In this study, the expression of CRM1 was analyzed in a cohort of 88 ovarian tumors and 12 ovarian cell lines for the first time to the authors' knowledge.
Immunohistochemistry revealed increased nuclear (52.7%) and cytoplasmic (56.8%) expression of CRM1 in 74 carcinomas compared with the expression revealed in borderline tumors and benign lesions. Similarly, CRM1 expression was increased in ovarian cancer cell lines compared with human ovarian surface epithelial cells. Cytoplasmic CRM1 expression was related significantly to advanced tumor stage (P= .043), poorly differentiated carcinomas (P= .011), and higher mitotic rate (P= .008). Nuclear CRM1 was associated significantly with cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression (P= .002) and poor overall survival (P= .01). Because it was demonstrated previously that blocking of CRM1 by leptomycin B (LMB) contributes to the inhibition of nuclear export, the authors used a set of mechanistic assays to study the effects of CRM1 inhibition in cancer cells. Treatment of OVCAR-3 cells with LMB revealed a significant reduction of cell proliferation and increased apoptosis as well as suppressed interleukin-1beta-induced COX-2 expression.
The current results indicated that CRM1 is expressed in a subpopulation of ovarian carcinomas with aggressive behavior and is related to poor patient outcome. A correlation also was demonstrated between CRM1 and COX-2 expression in ovarian cancer tissue. Furthermore, the treatment of ovarian cancer cells with LMB revealed a reduction in COX-2 expression. Therefore, the authors suggest that CRM1 may be an interesting biomarker for the assessment of patient prognosis and a molecular target for anticancer treatment.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recently, several studies reported a strong functional link between histone deacetylases (HDAC) and the development of tumors of the large intestine. However, despite the importance of these molecules, comparably little is known on expression patterns and functions of specific HDAC isoforms in colorectal cancer.
We characterized class I HDAC isoform expression patterns in a cohort of 140 colorectal carcinomas by immunohistochemistry. In addition, effects of HDAC inhibition by valproic acid and suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid, and specific HDAC isoform knockdown by short interfering RNA, were investigated in a cell culture model.
We found class I HDACs highly expressed in a subset of colorectal carcinomas with positivity for HDAC1 in 36.4%, HDAC2 in 57.9%, and HDAC3 in 72.9% of cases. Expression was significantly enhanced in strongly proliferating (P = 0.002), dedifferentiated (P = 0.022) tumors. High HDAC expression levels implicated significantly reduced patient survival (P = 0.001), with HDAC2 expression being an independent survival prognosticator (hazard ratio, 2.6; P = 0.03). Short interfering RNA-based inhibition of HDAC1 and HDAC2 but not HDAC3 suppressed growth of colon cancer cells in vitro, although to a lesser extent than chemical HDAC inhibitors did.
The strong prognostic impact of HDAC isoforms in colorectal cancer, the interactions of HDACs with tumor cell proliferation and differentiation in vivo, and our finding that HDACs are differentially expressed in colorectal tumors suggest that the evaluation of HDAC expression in clinical trials for HDAC inhibitors might help to identify a patient subgroup who will exceptionally profit from such a treatment.
No preview · Article · Apr 2008 · Clinical Cancer Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: High activity of histone deacetylases (HDACs) causes epigenetic alterations associated with malignant cell behaviour. Consequently, HDAC inhibitors have entered late-phase clinical trials as new antineoplastic drugs. However, little is known about expression and function of specific HDAC isoforms in human tumours including prostate cancer. We investigated the expression of class I HDACs in 192 prostate carcinomas by immunohistochemistry and correlated our findings to clinicopathological parameters including follow-up data. Class I HDAC isoforms were strongly expressed in the majority of the cases (HDAC1: 69.8%, HDAC2: 74%, HDAC3: 94.8%). High rates of HDAC1 and HDAC2 expression were significantly associated with tumour dedifferentiation. Strong expression of all HDACs was accompanied by enhanced tumour cell proliferation. In addition, HDAC2 was an independent prognostic marker in our prostate cancer cohort. In conclusion, we showed that the known effects of HDACs on differentiation and proliferation of cancer cells observed in vitro can also be confirmed in vivo. The class I HDAC isoforms 1, 2 and 3 are differentially expressed in prostate cancer, which might be important for upcoming studies on HDAC inhibitors in this tumour entity. Also, the highly significant prognostic value of HDAC2 clearly deserves further study.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2008 · British Journal of Cancer
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The human ELAV-like protein HuR is involved in the stabilization of the mRNAs of a group of genes implicated in the regulation of cellular growth, angiogenesis and rapid inflammatory response. HuR is a nuclear shuttling protein, translocating bound mRNAs from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. We have previously observed an increased expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in prostate cancer while cell culture studies have shown that HuR stabilizes the mRNA of COX-2. Based on these mechanistic data, we aimed to investigate the role of HuR in prostate cancer by a tissue-based analysis combined with functional evaluation using a cell culture approach. Investigating 104 primary prostate carcinomas by immunohistochemistry, we found HuR expression to be shifted from a nuclear staining in normal prostate glands to a cytoplasmic staining in carcinoma tissue (p<0.0001). Cytoplasmic HuR expression was significantly correlated with COX-2 expression (p=0.005). Loss of nuclear HuR expression was an indicator of earlier PSA-relapse both in univariate (p=0.04) and multivariate survival analysis (p=0.04). HuR inhibition by Leptomycin B reduced the inducibility of COX-2 in PC-3 prostate cancer cells. We found that the subcellular localization of HuR is deregulated in a subset of prostate carcinomas, and that this deregulation is linked to an altered expression of the tumorigenic COX-2 protein as well as to an adverse patient prognosis. Our results point to a potential prognostic role of HuR expression in prostate cancer diagnostics and propose HuR as a future therapeutic target in prostate cancer therapy.
Preview · Article · Mar 2008 · International Journal of Oncology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The homeobox containing gene HOP (Homeodomain Only Protein) was identified in the developing heart and lung where it functions downstream of Nkx2.5 and Nkx2.1 to modulate cardiac and lung gene expression. Previously, we found that HOP was downregulated in lung cancer. In this study, we constructed an expression vector containing the full-length cDNA of HOP and transfected it into a lung cancer cell line H2170. Stable transfection led to an increased expression of HOP confirmed by Northern blot analysis. HOP positive transfectants remarkably reduced the growth rate and the ability of anchorage-independent growth in soft agar, and moreover suppressed the tumor formation in nude mice compared to controls. Transient transfection of Nkx2.1 into H2170 resulted in the overexpression of HOP, and correspondingly, siRNA silencing of Nkx2.1 reduced the expression of HOP in lung cancer cells. Treatment with a differentiation modulating agent 5-bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) led to restoration of HOP expression in a small cell lung cancer cell line H526. In 29 paired primary lung tumor samples, loss of heterozygosity (LOH) analysis was performed by using the 3 microsatellite markers D4S189, D4S231 and D4S392 around the region of chromosome 4q12 where HOP locates. LOH was only found in 4 out 23 cases (17.4%) indicating that allelic loss is a rare genetic event not responsible for the downregulation of HOP in lung cancer. Taken together, our data suggest that HOP is a potential tumor suppressor possibly involved in lung cancer differentiation, and functions downstream of Nkx2.1.
Preview · Article · Sep 2007 · International Journal of Cancer
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Activation of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) signaling was observed in pancreatic adenocarcinoma cell lines and tumours. However, information on the expression of RelA/p65, the major transcription activating NF-kappaB subunit, in these carcinomas and possible correlations thereof with NF-kappaB activation and patient survival is not available. To provide this missing translational link, we analysed expression of RelA/p65 in 82 pancreatic adenocarcinomas by immunohistochemistry. Moreover, we measured activation of the NF-kappaB pathway in 11 tumours by quantitative PCR for NF-kappaB target genes. We observed strong cytoplasmic or nuclear expression of RelA/p65 in 42 and 37 carcinomas, respectively. High cytoplasmic and nuclear expression of RelA/p65 had negative prognostic impact with 2-year survival rates for patients without cytoplasmic or nuclear RelA/p65 positivity of 41 and 40% and rates for patients with strong cytoplasmic or nuclear RelA/p65 expression of 22 and 20%, respectively. High RelA/p65 expression was correlated to increased expression of NF-kappaB target genes. The observation that high expression of RelA/p65 is correlated to an activation of the NF-kappaB pathway and indicates poor patient survival identifies a patient subgroup that might particularly benefit from NF-kappaB-inhibiting agents in the treatment of pancreatic cancer. Based on our findings, this subgroup could be identified by applying simple immunohistochemical techniques.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2007 · British Journal of Cancer
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Metabolites are the end products of cellular regulatory processes, and their levels can be regarded as the ultimate response of biological systems to genetic or environmental changes. We have used a metabolite profiling approach to test the hypothesis that quantitative signatures of primary metabolites can be used to characterize molecular changes in human colon cancer in comparison with normal colon mucosa.
27 colon carcinomas and 18 samples from normal colon mucosa were analyzed by gas chromatography-time of flight mass spectrometry with automated mass spectral deconvolution. A total of 206 metabolites were detected. Carcinoma samples were compared to normal tissue samples using Welch’s t-test to assess the deregulation of each measured metabolite. At Bonferroni threshold (p<0.00024) we detected n=27 deregulated metabolites. With a less stringent threshold (p<0.01) we generated a list of n=61 metabolites. By a permutation procedure the rates of false discoveries among the latter list was estimated as FDR = 2.8%. Supervised clustering with respect to the top 61 deregulated metabolites led to a nearly perfect split between carcinomas and normal tissues, with only a single misclassification observed. Overall, with respect to the detected metabolites, the group of normal tissues exhibited a stronger homogeneity than the group of carcinomas. 11 amino acids were contained in our list of the top 27 metabolites, and 16 in our list of the top 61 metabolites.
Predictive models (NMC, LDA, SVM) were fitted by a combination of feature selection and machine learning. Full Leave-one-out cross-validation gave 0-3 misclassifications out of 45 samples, e.g. prediction accuracies between 93% and 100%.
Our study shows that large scale metabolic profiling using GC-TOF mass spectrometry is suitable for analysis of human tumor tissue and that there is a consistent and significant change in primary metabolism of malignant colorectal tumors compared to normal tissue which can be detected using multivariate statistical approaches. Therefore metabolomics is a promising high-throughput, automated approach in addition to functional genomics and proteomics for analyses of molecular changes in malignant tumors.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cyclooxygenases (COX) as well as Polo-like kinases (PLK) are involved in proliferation and cell cycle regulation and have been suggested for preventive and therapeutic approaches in prostate carcinoma.
In this study, we studied expression and prognostic impact of COX-2 in invasive prostate carcinoma, prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN), atrophic glands, and normal prostatic glands, and investigated the association between COX-2 and PLK-1.
We observed a positivity for COX-2 in 72.1% of PIN and in 44.7% of prostate carcinomas with an overexpression of COX-2 in prostate cancer and PIN compared to benign prostatic tissue (P < 0.0005). Furthermore, we observed a strong correlation between expression of PLK-1 and COX-2 (P < 0.0005).
To our knowledge, this is the first report of a correlation between COX-2 and PLK-1 in a malignant tumor. COX-2 and PLK-1 may be interesting targets for new molecular therapies in prostate cancer.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The protein kinase AKT is involved in several signaling pathways that are important for tumor development and progression, suggesting that AKT might be an interesting target for a molecular tumor therapy. In this study, we investigated the AKT expression in ovarian carcinomas and the role of the AKT isoforms to ovarian cancer cell proliferation. We observed an increased AKT expression in 58% of the primary ovarian carcinomas as compared to normal ovaries by immunohistochemistry. AKT expression was significantly associated with positive lymph node status (P=0.002) and advanced FIGO stage (P=0.009). In western blot analysis, total AKT was expressed in all ovarian cancer cell lines and HOSE cells, while phosphorylated AKT was only observed in OVCAR-3 and SKOV-3 cells. The isoforms AKT1 and AKT2 were expressed at the mRNA level in all cell lines, while no relevant AKT3 mRNA levels were detected by conventional and quantitative RT-PCR. To determine the effects on cell proliferation, we used the unselective PI3K-inhibitor LY294002 as well as RNA interference to selectively inhibit the AKT isoforms. Treatment with LY294002 and the AKT2 siRNA reduced proliferation of OVCAR-3 cells. Our results show that AKT is expressed in a subpopulation of advanced ovarian carcinomas suggesting a role for this protein in the progression of this entity. Deactivation of AKT, especially AKT2 can result in reduction of cell growth. Accordingly, AKT is an interesting target for therapeutic intervention in ovarian cancer.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: NF-kappaB has been demonstrated to activate proliferative, inflammatory, and angiogenic processes in ovarian cancer cells in vitro. To add translational information on the situation in vivo, we determined the expression pattern of p65, an important subunit of the classic NF-kappaB pathway, in ovarian carcinoma tissue, and investigated in vivo and in vitro whether this pathway is implicated in the known overexpression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2).
p65 siRNA, chemiluminescent NF-kappaB transcription factor assay, Taqman PCR, as well as immunoblotting were performed with OVCAR-3 ovarian cancer cells. 83 primary ovarian cancinomas as well as 17 cases of benign ovarian tissue were analyzed by p65 and COX-2 immunohistochemistry using a tissue microarray.
DNA-binding avtivity as well as COX-2 mRNA and protein expression were strongly inducible by IL-1beta treatment in OVCAR-3 cells, while p65 siRNA inhibited IL-1beta-dependent p65 activity (p = 0.037) as well as COX-2 expression on the mRNA (p < 0.03) and on the protein level. In human tumor tissue, p65 protein expression was significantly associated with COX-2 expression (p = 0.002) as well as tumor grading (p = 0.005). Furthermore, p65 expression was a significant prognostic indicator of a reduced patient survival both in univariate (p = 0.038) and in multivariate analysis (p = 0.014).
Our study indicates a deregulation of the classical NF-kappaB pathway in ovarian cancer, which results in the overexpression of the NF-kappaB target gene COX-2. Components of this pathway might constitute novel attractive targets for a specific therapy of advanced ovarian cancer.
No preview · Article · Jan 2007 · Verhandlungen der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Pathologie
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Metabolites are the end products of cellular regulatory processes, and their levels can be regarded as the ultimate response of biological systems to genetic or environmental changes. We have used a metabolite profiling approach to test the hypothesis that quantitative signatures of primary metabolites can be used to characterize molecular changes in ovarian tumor tissues. Sixty-six invasive ovarian carcinomas and nine borderline tumors of the ovary were analyzed by gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF MS) using a novel contamination-free injector system. After automated mass spectral deconvolution, 291 metabolites were detected, of which 114 (39.1%) were annotated as known compounds. By t test statistics with P < 0.01, 51 metabolites were significantly different between borderline tumors and carcinomas, with a false discovery rate of 7.8%, estimated with repeated permutation analysis. Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed four principal components that were significantly different between both groups, with the highest significance found for the second component (P = 0.00000009). PCA as well as additional supervised predictive models allowed a separation of 88% of the borderline tumors from the carcinomas. Our study shows for the first time that large-scale metabolic profiling using GC-TOF MS is suitable for analysis of fresh frozen human tumor samples, and that there is a consistent and significant change in primary metabolism of ovarian tumors, which can be detected using multivariate statistical approaches. We conclude that metabolomics is a promising high-throughput, automated approach in addition to functional genomics and proteomics for analyses of molecular changes in malignant tumors.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There is growing body of evidence that post-translational events contribute-in addition to genetic changes-to the progression of malignant tumors. These post-translational alterations may provide targets for new therapeutic approaches. The ELAV-like protein HuR stabilizes a group of cellular mRNAs which contain AU-rich elements in their 3' untranslated region. To investigate a possible contribution of post-translational changes to the progression of colon cancer and to overexpression of COX-2, we studied expression of HuR and COX-2 a cohort of colorectal adenocarcinomas and in colon cancer cell lines. All cell lines showed an expression of HuR mRNA and protein. In tumor tissue of colon carcinomas we observed two different staining patterns of HuR: A nuclear expression in 98% as well as an additional cytoplasmic expression in 53% of cases. COX-2 was expressed in 63% of carcinomas. Cytoplasmic expression of HuR was significantly associated with increased COX-2 expression as well as with high tumor stage. In univariate Kaplan-Meier analysis, grading, tumor stage and nodal status but not HuR or COX-2 expression were prognostic factors for overall survival. Our results suggest that the overexpression of HuR in colon cancer may be part of a regulatory pathway that controls the mRNA stability of cyclooxygenase-2 and provides an interesting example for a contribution of a dysregulation of mRNA stability to the progression of colorectal cancer. Based on our results, further studies are necessary to investigate whether HuR might be a potential target for a molecular tumor therapy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1) is centrally involved in the regulation of mitosis in normal and malignant cells. It is known that inhibition of PLK1 expression in vitro and in vivo leads to mitotic arrest, induction of apoptosis and suppression of tumor growth. In the present study, expression of PLK1 was investigated in paraffin tissue of 135 cases of gastric adenocarcinoma and in 46 corresponding lymph node metastases by immunohistochemistry. Expression data were correlated with clinicopathological parameters and patient survival. Seventy-three (54.1%) of 135 carcinomas showed an overexpression of PLK1 compared to normal gastric mucosa. Overexpression of PLK1 correlated positively with tumor stage, nodal status and diffuse growth pattern. PLK1 expression in the primary tumor did not differ from PLK1 expression in the corresponding lymph node metastases. PLK1 expression was a significant prognostic factor in univariate but not in multivariate survival analysis. As a conclusion, upregulated PLK1 expression in gastric cancer correlates with a malignant tumor phenotype and has impact on patient prognosis. These data underscore the importance of PLK1 in gastric carcinogenesis and present a translational link for functional data into potential clinical use by defining PLK1 as an attractive protein for novel targeted chemotherapeutic approaches in gastric cancer.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We describe a case of a 41-year-old female patient who was admitted with typical signs of thrombotic-thrombocytopenic purpura. Markers of myocardial ischemia (Troponin T, CK, CK-MB) were even present at admission without symptoms of angina pectoris. Only a few hours after admission the patient developed all signs of cardiogenic shock with subsequently cardiac arrest. Postmortal coronary angiographies showed occlusions in all coronary arteries with significant myocardial necrosis. We are unaware of any report that describes macrovascular occlusions in thrombotic-thrombocytopenic purpura.
No preview · Article · Feb 2006 · International Journal of Cardiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To clarify the expression patterns and prognostic implications of the mitotic regulator Polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1) in colon cancer.
Expression of PLK1 was investigated by immunohistochemistry (158 cases) and immunoblotting in tissue of colon adenomas and adenocarcinomas. PLK1 expression patterns were correlated with clinicopathological parameters and patient prognosis. In addition, expression of PLK1 was evaluated by immunoblot and PCR in colon carcinoma cell lines, and coexpression of PLK1 with the proliferation marker Ki-67 was investigated.
Weak PLK1 expression was observed in normal colon mucosa and adenomas. In contrast, 66.7% of carcinomas showed strong expression of PLK1. Overexpression of PLK1 correlated positively with Dukes stage (P<0.001), tumor stage (P = 0.001) and nodal status (P<0.05). Additionally, PLK1 expression was a prognostic marker in univariate survival analysis (P<0.01) and had independent prognostic significance (RR = 3.3, P = 0.02) in patients with locoregional disease. Expression of PLK1 mRNA and protein was detected in all cell lines investigated. Coexpression of PLK1 and Ki-67 was observed in the majority of colon cancer cells, but a considerable proportion of cells showed PLK1 positivity without Ki-67 expression.
PLK1 is a new prognostic marker for colon carcinoma patients and may be involved in tumorigenesis and progression of colon cancer. Strategies focusing on PLK1 inhibition in vivo might therefore represent a promising new therapeutic approach for this tumor entity.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2005 · World Journal of Gastroenterology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase beta (LPAAT-beta) is an enzyme involved in lipid biosynthesis whose role in tumour progression has been of emerging interest in the last few years. We investigated the expression of LPAAT-beta by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry in 10 ovarian cell lines as well as in a cohort of 106 ovarian tumours and normal ovaries. Lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase beta mRNA was found in all cell lines and ovarian tumours examined. Expression of LPAAT-beta protein was significantly increased in ovarian carcinomas compared to benign ovarian tissue (chi2 test P-value=0.001, Kruskal-Wallis test P-value <0.0001). Furthermore, LPAAT-beta expression was positively associated with higher tumour grade (P=0.044), higher mitotic index (P<0.0001) and tumour stage (P=0.032). Expression of LPAAT-beta was significantly linked to reduced overall survival time (P=0.024) as well as to shorter progression-free survival time (P=0.012) in patients younger than 60 years. Our study shows that LPAAT-beta is upregulated in ovarian cancer and is more prevalent in poorly differentiated tumours. In addition, LPAAT-beta expression is a predictor of a worse prognosis in patients younger than 60 years. Further studies are needed to investigate if LPAAT-beta may serve as a therapeutic target for certain subgroups of patients.
Full-text · Article · May 2005 · British Journal of Cancer
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Polo-like kinase (PLK) family members are known to be functionally involved in mitotic signaling and in cytoskeletal reorganization in both normal and malignant cells. In this study, expression of PLK1 and PLK3 was determined immunohistochemically in tissue specimens of 135 breast carcinomas, and expression was correlated with clinicopathological parameters and patient prognosis. Strong PLK isoform overexpression was observed in 42.2% (PLK1) and 47.4% (PLK3) of breast carcinomas when compared with non-transformed breast tissue. A positive correlation of PLK isoform expression with tumor grade, vascular invasion, erbB2/HER-2 expression and markers of proliferative activity was evident. Additionally, an inverse correlation of PLK isoform expression and estrogen receptor status was observed. Overexpression of PLK3 but not of PLK1 was significantly linked to reduced median overall (P<0.001) and relapse-free (P=0.021) survival time. PLK3 expression remained an independent prognostic factor for overall (RR=3.2, P=0.002) and relapse-free (RR=2.9, P=0.049) survival in multivariate survival analysis. These results suggest PLK3 as a novel independent prognostic marker in breast cancer and hint toward a role for PLK isoform overexpression in disease progression. Therefore, in vivo inhibition of PLK family members might represent a rewarding approach in the development of new anticancer drugs for this tumor entity.
No preview · Article · Apr 2005 · Archiv für Pathologische Anatomie und Physiologie und für Klinische Medicin
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The distribution of gene variants of the antigen processing proteins transporter associated with antigen processing type 1 (TAP1) and proteasome subunit beta type 9 (PSMB9) and of their shared bidirectional promoter was assessed in children with either mild or severe malaria. The genetic study was performed on samples collected during a longitudinal study on malariometric indices in an area hyperendemic for Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Gabon. The allele frequencies of the genes did not differ between the mild and the severe malaria groups. The distributions of alleles among children with distinct phenotypes of severe malaria were similar. A negative association of hypoglycaemia with the PSMB9 promoter variant PSMB9-R was found (odds ratio 0.01; chi2=12.1; P<0.0005; Pc<0.03). The promoter allele TAP1-446G was associated with hyperparasitaemia and absence of hypoglycaemia. TAP1, PSMB9, and TAP1/PSMB9 promoter alleles were in strong linkage disequilibrium. DNA sequencing of the TAP1/PSMB9 promoter region revealed a previously unrecognized single nucleotide polymorphism 455 bp upstream of the TAP1 transcription start site.
No preview · Article · Mar 2005 · International Journal of Immunogenetics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The human ELAV (embryonic lethal abnormal vision)-like protein HuR stabilizes a certain group of cellular mRNAs that contain AU-rich elements in their 3'-untranslated region. Cell culture studies have shown that the mRNA of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 can be stabilized by HuR.
To investigate a possible contribution of dysregulation of mRNA stability to the progression of cancer and to overexpression of COX-2, we studied expression of HuR in 208 primary breast carcinomas by immunohistochemistry.
There were two different staining patterns of HuR in tumor tissue of breast carcinomas: nuclear expression was seen in 61% of cases; and an additional cytoplasmic expression was seen in 30% of cases. Expression of HuR was significantly associated with increased COX-2 expression; this association was particularly significant for cytoplasmic HuR expression (P < 0.0005). We further observed a significant association of cytoplasmic (P = 0.002) or nuclear HuR (P = 0.027) expression with increased tumor grade. Only 13% of the grade 1 carcinomas showed cytoplasmic expression of HuR, compared with 46% of the grade 3 carcinomas. There was no significant correlation between HuR expression and other clinicopathological parameters such as histological type, tumor size, or nodal status as well as patient survival.
Our results suggest that overexpression of HuR in tumor tissue may be part of a regulatory pathway that controls the mRNA stability of several important targets in tumor biology, such as COX-2. Based on our results, additional studies are necessary to investigate whether HuR might be a potential target for molecular tumor therapy.
Preview · Article · Sep 2004 · Clinical Cancer Research