Kelly W Muir

Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, United States

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Publications (50)114.64 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Education about how to administer eye drops may improve a patient's ability to instill his or her eye drops correctly. Our objectives were to (a) document the methods providers use to educate glaucoma patients about eye drop technique; (b) determine whether eye drop technique education varies by provider and patient characteristics; and (c) evaluate whether education predicts improved patient technique. We conducted an 8-month longitudinal study of 279 glaucoma patients and 15 providers in which we recorded on videotape the content of glaucoma office visits at two time points (baseline and 4- to 6-week follow-up) and videotaped patient eye drop technique at three time points (baseline, 4- to 6-week follow-up, and 8-month follow-up). Mann-Whitney rank sum tests were used to determine whether education was associated with improved patient eye drop technique over time. Ninety-four patients (34%) received technique education at either visit; 31% received verbal education and 10% received a technique demonstration. Only 24 patients (47%) who were new to eye drops received technique education at the baseline visit. Patients who were new to drops at baseline (p = .008) and patients who asked a question about drops (p < .001) were more likely to receive technique education. Education was not associated with improved technique. Eye drop technique education occurs infrequently during glaucoma office visits. Future studies should compare the effectiveness of different educational methods, such as patient demonstration versus provider verbal instruction, to determine which method is best at improving patient eye drop technique.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Health Communication

  • No preview · Chapter · Dec 2015
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    ABSTRACT: As they grow older, most children with glaucoma must eventually face the transition to self-administering medications. We previously reported factors associated with better or worse medication adherence in children with glaucoma, using an objective, electronic monitor. Utilizing the same data set, the purpose of the current study was to determine whose report (the caregiver's or the child's) corresponded better with electronically monitored adherence. Of the 46 participants (22 girls), the mean age of children primarily responsible, and caregiver primarily responsible for medication administration was 15±2 and 10±2 years, respectively. For the children whose caregiver regularly administered the eyedrops, the caregiver's assessment of drop adherence was associated with measured adherence (P=0.012), but the child's was not (P=0.476). For the children who self-administered eyedrops, neither the child's (P=0.218) nor the caregiver's (P=0.395) assessment was associated with measured percent adherence. This study highlights potential errors when relying on self-reporting of compliance in patients and caregivers with pediatric glaucoma, particularly when the child is responsible for administering their own eyedrops. Frank discussions about the importance of medication adherence and how to improve compliance may help both the child and caregiver better communicate with the treating provider.
    Preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Clinical Ophthalmology
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    ABSTRACT: RESULTS: In this tertiary care population, 13% (n = 196) of glaucoma patients met criteria for legal blindness, nearly one-half of whom (n = 94) were blind from glaucoma, and another one-third of whom (n = 69) had glaucoma-related blindness. The most common glaucoma diagnosis at all levels of vision was primary open-angle glaucoma. A larger proportion of black patients compared with white patients demonstrated vision loss; the odds ratio (OR) for blindness was 2.25 (95% CI, 1.6-3.2) for black patients compared with white patients. The use of systemic antihypertensive medications was higher among patients who were blind compared with patients who were not blind (OR = 2.1; 95% CI, 1.4-3.1). A subgroup analysis including only patients with primary open-angle glaucoma showed similar results for both black race and use of systemic antihypertensive medications. The relationship between use of systemic antihypertensive medications and blindness was not different between black patients and white patients (interaction P = .268).
    Preview · Article · Oct 2015 · North Carolina medical journal
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: Adherence to glaucoma medications is essential for successful treatment of the disease but is complex and difficult for many of our patients. Health coaching has been used successfully in the treatment of other chronic diseases. This pilot study explores the use of health coaching for glaucoma care. Methods: A mixed methods study design was used to assess the health coaching intervention for glaucoma patients. The health coaching intervention consisted of four to six health coaching sessions with a certified health coach via telephone. Quantitative measures included demographic and health information, adherence to glaucoma medications (using the visual analog adherence scale and medication event monitoring system), and an exit survey rating the experience. Qualitative measures included a precoaching health questionnaire, notes made by the coach during the intervention, and an exit interview with the subjects at the end of the study. Results: Four glaucoma patients participated in the study; all derived benefits from the health coaching. Study subjects demonstrated increased glaucoma drop adherence in response to the coaching intervention, in both visual analog scale and medication event monitoring system. Study subjects' qualitative feedback reflected a perceived improvement in both eye and general health self-care. The subjects stated that they would recommend health coaching to friends or family members. Conclusion: Health coaching was helpful to the glaucoma patients in this study; it has the potential to improve glaucoma care and overall health.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2015 · Clinical Ophthalmology
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    ABSTRACT: Little is known about how ophthalmologist-patient communication over time is associated with glaucoma patient long-term adherence. The purpose of our study was to examine the association between provider use of components of the resources and supports in self-management model when communicating with patients and adherence to glaucoma medications measured electronically over an 8-month period. In this longitudinal prospective cohort study, the main variables studied were ophthalmologist communication-individualized assessment, collaborative goal setting and skills enhancement. Patients with glaucoma who were newly prescribed or on glaucoma medications were recruited from six ophthalmology clinics. Patients' baseline and next follow-up visits were videotape-recorded. Patients were interviewed after their visits. Patients used medication event monitoring systems (MEMS) for 8 months after enrollment into the study, and adherence was measured electronically using MEMS for 240 days after their visits. Two hundred and seventy-nine patients participated. Patient race and regimen complexity were negatively associated with glaucoma medication adherence over an 8-month period. Provider communication behaviors, including providing education and positive reinforcement, can improve patient adherence to glaucoma medications over an 8-month period. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2015 · Health Education Research
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    Jullia A Rosdahl · Kelly W Muir
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: The goal of the study was to determine which glaucoma quiz provides the best information about patient glaucoma knowledge to clinicians in clinical practice settings. Methods: Four glaucoma quizzes were identified from the literature and national eye education programs and were qualitatively analyzed to categorize questions by topic. Quizzes were assessed by 64 glaucoma specialists using an online survey, with descriptive statistics. Comments about the quizzes were analyzed qualitatively using themes and representative quotations. Results: Quizzes covered content that was important for glaucoma diagnosis and management. The National Eye Health Education Program (NEHEP) and Prevent Blindness America quizzes covered primarily diagnosis, screening, and risk factors, and the quizzes from the literature primarily covered causes of glaucoma, vision loss, eye drops, and systemic disease. Overall, the NEHEP quiz was ranked best for clinical practice, ranked first by 38%. Ranked second overall, the Gray quiz was ranked first by 34% and last by 34%. Conclusion: The NEHEP quiz was rated most useful for assessing baseline general glaucoma knowledge for a busy clinical practice. The Gray quiz appears to be more useful as part of a comprehensive education program, perhaps in combination with an ophthalmic educator.
    Preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Clinical Ophthalmology
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to examine the extent to which patient characteristics, eye drop technique self-efficacy, and ophthalmologist-patient communication about eye drop administration are associated with glaucoma patients' ability to instil a single drop, have the drop land in the eye, and avoid touching the applicator tip of the medication bottle to the eye or face while self-administering eye drops. Glaucoma patients (n = 279) were recruited from six ophthalmology clinics. Medical visits were videotape-recorded. Afterwards, patients were interviewed and demonstrated administering an eye drop on a videotaped-recording. Generalized estimating equations were used to analyse the data. Ophthalmologists provided eye drop administration instruction to 40 patients. Patients with more years of education were significantly more likely to both instil a single drop (P = 0.017) and have the drop land in their eye (P = 0.017). Women were significantly more likely to touch the applicator tip to their eyes or face (P = 0.014). Patients with severe glaucoma (P = 0.016), women (P = 0.026), and patients who asked at least one eye drop administration question (P = 0.001) were significantly less likely to instil a single drop. Patients with arthritis were significantly less likely to have the drop land in their eye (P = 0.008). African American patients were significantly less likely to touch the applicator tip to their eyes or face (P = 0.008). Some glaucoma patients have a difficult time self-administering eye drops. As so few patients received eye drop administration instruction from their providers, there is an opportunity for pharmacists to complement care. © 2015 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2015
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    ABSTRACT: A centralized eye donation registry for research could help to bridge the gap between patients interested in donating their eyes to science and scientists who conduct research on human eye tissue. Previous research has demonstrated patient and family support for such a registry. In this study, we assessed the views that eye care professionals have toward an eye donation registry for research. Surveys were distributed to all 46 clinical faculty members of the Duke University Eye Center. In addition to collecting demographic information, the surveys assessed clinicians' experience with discussing eye donation with patients, described the proposed eye donation registry for research and asked how the registry would affect the clinicians' practice. A total of 21 eye care professionals returned the survey. Thirty-three percent reported discussing eye donation with patients, and 43% reported that a patient has asked about donating their eyes for research on their disease. Eighty-six percent of eye care professionals reported that a centralized registry would improve the way they work with patients who express a desire to donate their eyes for research. The majority of eye care professionals at our academic institution indicated that an eye donation registry for research would improve how they work with patients who are interested in donating their eyes for research on their disease. Future research should examine how best to communicate this registry to ophthalmic patients.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Current eye research
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    ABSTRACT: Glaucoma medications can improve clinical outcomes when patients adhere to their medication regimen. Providers often ask patients with glaucoma to self-report their adherence, but the accuracy of self-reporting has received little scientific attention. The purpose of this article was to compare a self-reported medication adherence measure with adherence data collected from Medication Event Monitoring Systems (MEMS) electronic monitors. An additional goal was to identify which patient characteristics were associated with overreporting adherence on the self-reported measure.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2015 · Clinical Therapeutics
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    ABSTRACT: We examined whether six patient-provider communication behaviors directly affected the intraocular pressure (IOP) of glaucoma patients or whether patient medication adherence and eye drop technique mediated the relationship between self-efficacy, communication, and IOP. During an 8-month, longitudinal study of 279 glaucoma patients and 15 providers, two office visits were videotape-recorded, transcribed, and coded for six patient-provider communication behaviors. Medication adherence was measured electronically and IOP was extracted from medical records. We ran generalized estimating equations to examine the direct effects of communication on IOP and used bootstrapping to test whether medication adherence and eye drop technique mediated the effect of communication on IOP. Provider education about medication adherence (B=-0.50, p<0.05) and inclusion of patient input into the treatment plan (B=-0.35, p<0.05) predicted improved IOP. There was no evidence of significant mediation. The positive effects of provider education and provider inclusion of patient input in the treatment plan were not mediated by adherence and eye drop technique. Providers should educate glaucoma patients about the importance of medication adherence and include patient input into their treatment plan. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2015 · Patient Education and Counseling
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to examine if patient demographic factors influenced self-reporting of medication side effects, difficulty with drop instillation, and nonadherence to glaucoma therapy. English-speaking adult glaucoma patients (n = 279) from six ophthalmology clinics were enrolled. Patients' medical visits were videotaped and patients were interviewed immediately afterward by research assistants. The videotapes were transcribed verbatim and coded to identify patients who expressed problems with medication side effects, eye drop administration, and nonadherence during the glaucoma office visits. Generalized estimating equations were performed to identify whether patient characteristics were associated with expression of problems with glaucoma medication and medication nonadherence during the office visit. Patients with lower health literacy were significantly less likely to express problems with side effects (odds ratio [OR], 0.47; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.25 to 0.88) and eye drop administration (OR, 0.26; 95% CI, 0.11 to 0.63) during the visit. Patients who reported eye drop administration and side effect problems during the interview were significantly more likely to express these problems to their ophthalmologist (OR, 3.13; 95% CI, 1.82 to 5.37 and OR, 1.86; 95% CI, 1.12 to 3.08, respectively). Patients who expressed a problem with eye drop administration and with side effects were significantly more likely to express medication nonadherence to their ophthalmologist (OR, 2.89; 95% CI, 1.44 to 5.80 and OR, 2.03; 95% CI, 1.16 to 3.54, respectively). Patients who reported greater than 80% medication adherence during the interview were significantly less likely to express nonadherence to their ophthalmologist (OR, 0.22; 95% CI, 0.12 to 0.40). Eye care providers should be aware that glaucoma patients with lower health literacy are less likely to express problems with side effects and eye drop administration. Providers should work with patients to assess medication-related problems to mitigate potential barriers to medication adherence because patients who expressed medication problems were also more likely to express nonadherence.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2015 · Optometry and vision science: official publication of the American Academy of Optometry
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    ABSTRACT: To examine the associations of provider-patient communication, glaucoma medication adherence self-efficacy, and outcome expectations with glaucoma medication adherence. Prospective, observational cohort study. Two hundred seventy-nine patients with glaucoma who were newly prescribed or taking glaucoma medications were recruited at 6 ophthalmology clinics. Patients' visits were video recorded and communication variables were coded using a detailed coding tool developed by the authors. Adherence was measured using Medication Event Monitoring Systems for 60 days after their visits. The following adherence variables were measured for the 60-day period after their visits: whether the patient took 80% or more of the prescribed doses, percentage of the correct number of prescribed doses taken each day, and percentage of the prescribed doses taken on time. Higher glaucoma medication adherence self-efficacy was associated positively with better adherence with all 3 measures. Black race was associated negatively with percentage of the correct number of doses taken each day (β = -0.16; P < 0.05) and whether the patient took 80% or more of the prescribed doses (odds ratio, 0.37; 95% confidence interval, 0.16-0.86). Physician education about how to administer drops was associated positively with percentage of the correct number of doses taken each day (β = 0.18; P < 0.01) and percentage of the prescribed doses taken on time (β = 0.15; P < 0.05). These findings indicate that provider education about how to administer glaucoma drops and patient glaucoma medication adherence self-efficacy are associated positively with adherence. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2014 · Ophthalmology

  • No preview · Article · Sep 2014 · Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy
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    ABSTRACT: We applied the ecologic model of communication in medical consultations to examine how patient, physician, and situational/contextual factors are associated with whether patients ask one or more questions about glaucoma and glaucoma medications during visits to ophthalmologists. Patients with glaucoma who were newly prescribed or already on glaucoma medications were recruited at six ophthalmology clinics. Patients' visits with their doctors were video-recorded and patients were interviewed after visits. Generalized estimating equations were used to analyze the data. Two hundred and seventy-nine patients participated. Patients asked one or more questions about glaucoma during 59% of visits and about glaucoma medications during 48% of visits. Patients who were newly prescribed glaucoma medications were significantly more likely to ask one or more questions about glaucoma and glaucoma medications. Whether providers asked patients if they had questions was not significantly associated with patient question-asking. Patients were significantly more likely to ask older providers questions about glaucoma medications and female providers questions about glaucoma. Eye care providers should encourage glaucoma patients to ask questions during their medical visits.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2014 · Health Communication
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to identify risk factors for exposure of glaucoma drainage devices (GDD). This retrospective, observational study was conducted in the eye clinic of an academic medical centre. Participants included 1073 consecutive adults who underwent GDD surgery between 1 January 2005 and 1 January 2011. Participants were included if chart review indicated GDD surgery during the study period and excluded if at least 12 months of clinical follow-up was not available in the medical record. The primary outcome measure was exposure of the GDD occurring at least 1 month after implant surgery. The characteristics of participants who experienced exposure of the implant were compared to the characteristics of participants who did not experience exposure. Of the 1073 participants having undergone GDD surgery, 67 experienced exposure of the device. Neither the type of GDD, type of patch graft (eye bank sclera, Tutoplast sclera and Tutoplast pericardium), surgeon, location of GDD, number of GDD previously implanted into the eye, nor history of diabetes or uveitis were associated with likelihood of exposure. Women were more likely than men to experience exposure of the GDD (OR 2.004 (95% CI1.170 to 3.431)) in both univariable (p=0.011) and multivariable (p=0.013) analyses. In survival analysis, exposure of the GDD occurred earlier for women than for men (58 vs 61 months; p=0.024).White race (vs black) was also associated with increased risk of GDD exposure (OR 1.693 (95% CI 1.011 to 2.833)) in univariable (p=0.044) and multivariable (p=0.046) analyses. Women are two times more likely to experience GDD exposure than men, independent of age. White race is also a risk factor for exposure.
    Full-text · Article · May 2014 · BMJ Open
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    Full-text · Article · May 2014 · Value in Health
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    ABSTRACT: The learning preferences of ophthalmology patients were examined. Results from a voluntary survey of ophthalmology patients were analyzed for education preferences and for correlation with race, age, and ophthalmic topic. To learn about eye disease, patients preferred one-on-one sessions with providers as well as printed materials and websites recommended by providers. Patients currently learning from the provider were older (average age 59 years), and patients learning from the Internet (average age 49 years) and family and friends (average age 51 years) were younger. Patients interested in cataracts, glaucoma, macular degeneration, and dry eye were older; patients interested in double vision and glasses were younger. There were racial differences regarding topic preferences, with Black patients most interested in glaucoma (46%), diabetic retinopathy (31%), and cataracts (28%) and White patients most interested in cataracts (22%), glaucoma (22%), and macular degeneration (19%). MOST OPHTHALMOLOGY PATIENTS PREFERRED PERSONALIZED EDUCATION: one-on-one with their provider or a health educator and materials (printed and electronic) recommended by their provider. Age-related topics were more popular with older patients, and diseases with racial risk factors were more popular with high risk racial groups.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2014 · Patient Preference and Adherence
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    ABSTRACT: Objective. The purpose of this study was to examine how patient, physician, and situational factors are associated with the extent to which providers educate patients about glaucoma and glaucoma medications, and which patient and provider characteristics are associated with whether providers educate patients about glaucoma and glaucoma medications. Methods. Patients with glaucoma who were newly prescribed or on glaucoma medications were recruited and a cross-sectional study was conducted at six ophthalmology clinics. Patients' visits were videotape recorded and patients were interviewed after visits. Generalized estimating equations were used to analyze the data. Results. Two hundred and seventy-nine patients participated. Providers were significantly more likely to educate patients about glaucoma and glaucoma medications if they were newly prescribed glaucoma medications. Providers were significantly less likely to educate African American patients about glaucoma. Providers were significantly less likely to educate patients of lower health literacy about glaucoma medications. Conclusion. Eye care providers did not always educate patients about glaucoma or glaucoma medications. Practice Implications. Providers should consider educating more patients about what glaucoma is and how it is treated so that glaucoma patients can better understand their disease. Even if a patient has already been educated once, it is important to reinforce what has been taught before.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2014 · Journal of Ophthalmology
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this preliminary study was to describe the extent to which providers used collaborative goal setting and individualized assessment with patients who were newly prescribed glaucoma medications. English-speaking glaucoma suspect patients from six ophthalmology clinics who were newly prescribed glaucoma medications had their medical visits videotaped and were interviewed after the visits. The videotapes were transcribed and coded to examine provider use of collaborative goal setting and individualized assessment. Fifty-one patients seeing 12 ophthalmologists participated. Providers gave patients glaucoma treatment options during 37% of the visits; only five providers gave patients treatment options Providers asked for patient treatment preferences in less than 20% of the visits; only two providers asked for patient treatment preferences. Providers were significantly more likely to ask African American patients for their preferences or ideas concerning treatment than non-African American patients (Pearson χ = 4.1, p = 0.04). Providers were also significantly more likely to ask African American patients about their confidence in using glaucoma medication regularly than non-African American patients (Pearson χ = 8.2, p = 0.004). Providers asked about patient views about glaucoma in less than 20% of the visits; five providers asked patients their views on glaucoma and its treatment. Providers were significantly more likely to ask African American patients about their views on glaucoma than non-African American patients (Pearson χ = 5.62, p = 0.02). Eye care providers often did not use collaborative goal setting or conduct individualized assessments of patient views on glaucoma when prescribing treatment for the first time.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2014 · Optometry and vision science: official publication of the American Academy of Optometry