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Publications (68)

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective: Posttraumatic seizures (PTS) are well-recognized acute and chronic complications of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Risk factors have been identified, but considerable variability in who develops PTS remains. Existing PTS prognostic models are not widely adopted for clinical use and do not reflect current trends in injury, diagnosis, or care. We aimed to develop and internally validate preliminary prognostic regression models to predict PTS during acute care hospitalization, and at year 1 and year 2 postinjury. Methods: Prognostic models predicting PTS during acute care hospitalization and year 1 and year 2 post-injury were developed using a recent (2011-2014) cohort from the TBI Model Systems National Database. Potential PTS predictors were selected based on previous literature and biologic plausibility. Bivariable logistic regression identified variables with a p-value < 0.20 that were used to fit initial prognostic models. Multivariable logistic regression modeling with backward-stepwise elimination was used to determine reduced prognostic models and to internally validate using 1,000 bootstrap samples. Fit statistics were calculated, correcting for overfitting (optimism). Results: The prognostic models identified sex, craniotomy, contusion load, and pre-injury limitation in learning/remembering/concentrating as significant PTS predictors during acute hospitalization. Significant predictors of PTS at year 1 were subdural hematoma (SDH), contusion load, craniotomy, craniectomy, seizure during acute hospitalization, duration of posttraumatic amnesia, preinjury mental health treatment/psychiatric hospitalization, and preinjury incarceration. Year 2 significant predictors were similar to those of year 1: SDH, intraparenchymal fragment, craniotomy, craniectomy, seizure during acute hospitalization, and preinjury incarceration. Corrected concordance (C) statistics were 0.599, 0.747, and 0.716 for acute hospitalization, year 1, and year 2 models, respectively. Significance: The prognostic model for PTS during acute hospitalization did not discriminate well. Year 1 and year 2 models showed fair to good predictive validity for PTS. Cranial surgery, although medically necessary, requires ongoing research regarding potential benefits of increased monitoring for signs of epileptogenesis, PTS prophylaxis, and/or rehabilitation/social support. Future studies should externally validate models and determine clinical utility.
    Article · Jul 2016 · Epilepsia
  • Jonathan E. Kurz · Samuel M. Poloyac · Nicholas S. Abend · [...] · Mark S. Wainwright
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES:: Early posttraumatic seizures may contribute to worsened outcomes after traumatic brain injury. Evidence to guide the evaluation and management of early posttraumatic seizures in children is limited. We undertook a survey of current practices of continuous electroencephalographic monitoring, seizure prophylaxis, and the management of early posttraumatic seizures to provide essential information for trial design and the development of posttraumatic seizure management pathways. DESIGN:: Surveys were sent to site principal investigators at all 43 sites participating in the Approaches and Decisions in Acute Pediatric TBI trial at the time of the survey. Surveys consisted of 12 questions addressing strategies to 1) implement continuous electroencephalographic monitoring, 2) posttraumatic seizure prophylaxis, 3) treat acute posttraumatic seizures, 4) treat status epilepticus and refractory status epilepticus, and 5) monitor antiseizure drug levels. SETTING:: Institutions comprised a mixture of free-standing children’s hospitals and university medical centers across the United States and Europe. SUBJECTS:: Site principal investigators of the Approaches and Decisions in Acute Pediatric TBI trial. INTERVENTIONS:: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS:: Continuous electroencephalographic monitoring was available in the PICU in the overwhelming majority of clinical sites (98%); however, the plans to operationalize such monitoring for children varied considerably. A similar majority of sites report that administration of prophylactic antiseizure medications is anticipated in children (93%); yet, a minority reports that a specified protocol for treatment of posttraumatic seizures is in place (43%). Reported medication choices varied substantially between sites, but the majority of sites reported pentobarbital for refractory status epilepticus (81%). The presence of treatment protocols for seizure prophylaxis, early posttraumatic seizures, posttraumatic status epilepticus, and refractory status epilepticus was associated with decreased reported medications (all p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS:: This study reports the current management practices for early posttraumatic seizures in select academic centers after pediatric severe traumatic brain injury. The substantial variation in continuous electroencephalographic monitoring implementation, choice of seizure prophylaxis medications, and management of early posttraumatic seizures across institutions was reported, signifying the areas of clinical uncertainty that will help provide focused design of clinical trials. Although sites with treatment protocols reported a decreased number of medications for the scenarios described, completion of the Approaches and Decisions in Acute Pediatric TBI trial will be able to determine if these protocols lead to decreased variability in medication administration in children at the clinical sites. ©2016The Society of Critical Care Medicine and the World Federation of Pediatric Intensive and Critical Care Societies
    Article · May 2016 · Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
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    Jonathan Elmer · John J. Gianakas · Jon C. Rittenberger · [...] · Anthony Fabio
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Existing studies of quantitative electroencephalography (qEEG) as a prognostic tool after cardiac arrest (CA) use methods that ignore the longitudinal pattern of qEEG data, resulting in significant information loss and precluding analysis of clinically important temporal trends. We tested the utility of group-based trajectory modeling (GBTM) for qEEG classification, focusing on the specific example of suppression ratio (SR). Methods: We included comatose CA patients hospitalized from April 2010 to October 2014, excluding CA from trauma or neurological catastrophe. We used Persyst(®)v12 to generate SR trends and used semi-quantitative methods to choose appropriate sampling and averaging strategies. We used GBTM to partition SR data into different trajectories and regression associate trajectories with outcome. We derived a multivariate logistic model using clinical variables without qEEG to predict survival, then added trajectories and/or non-longitudinal SR estimates, and assessed changes in model performance. Results: Overall, 289 CA patients had ≥36 h of EEG yielding 10,404 h of data (mean age 57 years, 81 % arrested out-of-hospital, 33 % shockable rhythms, 31 % overall survival, 17 % discharged to home or acute rehabilitation). We identified 4 distinct SR trajectories associated with survival (62, 26, 12, and 0 %, P < 0.0001 across groups) and CPC (35, 10, 4, and 0 %, P < 0.0001 across groups). Adding trajectories significantly improved model performance compared to adding non-longitudinal data. Conclusions: Longitudinal analysis of continuous qEEG data using GBTM provides more predictive information than analysis of qEEG at single time-points after CA.
    Full-text Article · Mar 2016 · Neurocritical Care
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    Hellina Birru · Toni M. Rudisill · Anthony Fabio · Motao Zhu
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose: Seat belts are known to effectively prevent death and serious injury among motorists involved in vehicular collisions. Limited research exists regarding seat belt usage in Appalachia. This study compares self-reported seat belt use in the Appalachian and non-Appalachian counties of the United States. Methods: Data from 2012 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System were used to calculate nationally representative estimates of consistent seat belt usage in each region. These estimates were stratified by age, sex, and rurality. Total and potential lives saved by seat belts were calculated for each region using 2012 Fatality Analysis Reporting System data. Results: Of the 345,513 respondents (unweighted), Appalachians were 6% less likely than non-Appalachians to always wear a seat belt (relative risk = 0.94, 95% confidence interval, 0.93-0.95). Seat belt usage was consistently lower among Appalachians regardless of sex, age, or rurality. Only 68.1% of rural, Appalachian youth reported always wearing a seat belt. Seat belt usage was highest among non-Appalachian females residing in urban areas (92.5%). With 100% belt compliance, an additional 360 and 1712 potential lives could have been saved in Appalachia and non-Appalachia, respectively. Conclusions: Regional differences possibly influence seat belt usage. Therefore, public health interventions to increase seat belt usage in Appalachia are likely warranted.
    Full-text Article · Mar 2016 · Annals of epidemiology
  • Gitte Y. Larsen · Michelle Schober · Anthony Fabio · [...] · Michael J. Bell
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is an important worldwide cause of death and disability for children. The Approaches and Decisions for Acute Pediatric TBI (ADAPT) Trial is an observational, cohort study to compare the effectiveness of six aspects of TBI care. Understanding the differences between clinical sites-including their structure, clinical processes, and culture differences-will be necessary to assess differences in outcome from the study and can inform the overall community regarding differences across academic centers. Methods: We developed a survey and queried ADAPT site principal investigators with a focus on six domains: (i) hospital, (ii) pediatric intensive care unit (PICU), (iii) medical staff characteristics, (iv) quality of care, (v) medication safety, and (vi) safety culture. Summary statistics were used to describe differences between centers. Results: ADAPT clinical sites that enrolled a subject within the first year (32 US-based, 11 international) were studied. A wide variation in site characteristics was observed in hospital and ICU characteristics, including an almost sevenfold range in ICU size (8-55 beds) and more than fivefold range of overall ICU admissions (537-2623). Nursing staffing (predominantly 1:1 or 1:2) and the presence of pharmacists within the ICU (79 %) were less variable, and most sites "strongly agreed" or "agreed" that Neurosurgery and Critical Care teams worked well together (81.4 %). However, a minority of sites (46 %) used an explicit protocol for treatment of children with severe TBI care. Conclusions: We found a variety of inter-center structure, process, and culture differences. These intrinsic differences between sites may begin to explain why interventional studies have failed to prove efficacy of experimental therapies. Understanding these differences may be an important factor in analyzing future ADAPT trial results and in determining best practices for pediatric severe TBI.
    Article · Dec 2015 · Neurocritical Care
  • Gitte Y. Larsen · Michelle Schober · Anthony Fabio · [...] · Michael J. Bell
    Dataset · Dec 2015
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Binge drinking is associated with numerous negative consequences. The prevalence and intensity of binge drinking is highest among young adults. This randomized trial tested the efficacy of a 12-week interactive text message intervention to reduce binge drinking up to 6 months after intervention completion among young adults. Methods and findings: Young adult participants (18-25 y; n = 765) drinking above the low-risk limits (AUDIT-C score >3/4 women/men), but not seeking alcohol treatment, were enrolled from 4 Emergency Departments (EDs) in Pittsburgh, PA. Participants were randomized to one of three conditions in a 2:1:1 allocation ratio: SMS Assessments + Feedback (SA+F), SMS Assessments (SA), or control. For 12 weeks, SA+F participants received texts each Thursday querying weekend drinking plans and prompting drinking limit goal commitment and each Sunday querying weekend drinking quantity. SA+F participants received tailored feedback based on their text responses. To contrast the effects of SA+F with self-monitoring, SA participants received texts on Sundays querying drinking quantity, but did not receive alcohol-specific feedback. The control arm received standard care. Follow-up outcome data collected through web-based surveys were provided by 78% of participants at 3- months, 63% at 6-months and 55% at 9-months. Multiple imputation-derived, intent-to-treat models were used for primary analysis. At 9-months, participants in the SA+F group reported greater reductions in the number of binge drinking days than participants in the control group (incident rate ratio [IRR] 0.69; 95% CI .59 to.79), lower binge drinking prevalence (odds ratio [OR] 0.52; 95% CI 0.26 to 0.98]), less drinks per drinking day (beta -.62; 95% CI -1.10 to -0.15) and lower alcohol-related injury prevalence (OR 0.42; 95% CI 0.21 to 0.88). Participants in the SA group did not reduce drinking or alcohol-related injury relative to controls. Findings were similar using complete case analyses. Conclusions: An interactive text-message intervention was more effective than self-monitoring or controls in reducing alcohol consumption and alcohol-related injury prevalence up to 6 months after intervention completion. These findings, if replicated, suggest a scalable approach to help achieve sustained reductions in binge drinking and accompanying injuries among young adults. Trial registration: NCT01688245.
    Full-text Article · Nov 2015 · PLoS ONE
  • Ericka Fink · Anthony Fabio · Ashok Panigrahy · [...] · Patrick Kochanek
    Article · Nov 2015 · Critical care medicine
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    Matthew D Weaver · P Daniel Patterson · Anthony Fabio · [...] · Thomas J Songer
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: Emergency medical services (EMS) clinicians are shift workers deployed in two-person teams. Extended shift duration, workplace fatigue, poor sleep and lack of familiarity with teammates are common in the EMS workforce and may contribute to workplace injury. We sought to examine the relationship between shift length and occupational injury while controlling for relevant shift work and teamwork factors. METHODS: We obtained 3 years of shift schedules and occupational injury and illness reports were from 14 large EMS agencies. We abstracted shift length and additional scheduling and team characteristics from shift schedules. We matched occupational injury and illness reports to shift records and used hierarchical logistic regression models to test the relationship between shift length and occupational injury and illness while controlling for teammate familiarity. RESULTS: The cohort contained 966 082 shifts, 4382 employees and 950 outcome reports. Risk of occupational injury and illness was lower for shifts ≤8 h in duration (RR 0.70; 95% CI 0.51 to 0.96) compared with shifts >8 and ≤12 h. Relative to shifts >8 and ≤12 h, risk of injury was 60% greater (RR 1.60; 95% CI 1.22 to 2.10) for employees that worked shifts >16 and ≤24 h. CONCLUSIONS: Shift length is associated with increased risk of occupational injury and illness in this sample of EMS shift workers.
    Full-text Article · Sep 2015 · Occupational and Environmental Medicine
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    Andrea Casas · Jessica Duell · Teagen O'Malley · [...] · Anthony Fabio
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This article summarizes and reviews the cross-discipline literature on violent crime in destination neighborhoods postrelocation in order to build a more comprehensive picture of risk factors for violence, as well as how and why housing policies influence risk of violence. High rates of violent crime continue to be a persistent problem in areas of concentrated poverty and public housing. Modern housing programs such as Moving to Opportunity and Housing Opportunities for People Everywhere are popular interventions for reducing the density of low-income people receiving public housing assistance by relocating residents of distressed housing projects. However, evidence suggests that relocated residents may not experience less violence or improved safety in their new communities.
    Full-text Article · Sep 2015 · Trauma Violence & Abuse
  • Anthony Fabio · Chung-Yu Chen · Steven Dearwater · [...] · Mark A Pereira
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Individuals with high levels of hostility may be more susceptible to the influence of television on violence and risk taking behaviors. This study aimed to examine whether hostile personality trait modifies the association between TV viewing and injuries. It is a prospective study of 4,196 black and white adults aged 23 to 35 in 1990/1. Cross-lagged panel models were analyzed at three 5-year time periods to test whether TV viewing predicted injuries. Covariates were gender, race, and education. Individuals who watched more TV (0 hours, 1-3 hours, 4-6 hours, and ≥7 hours) were more likely to have a hospitalization for an injury in the following 5 years across each of the three follow-up periods [OR = 1.5 (95%CI = 1.2, 1.9), 1.5 (1.1, 1.9), and 1.9 (1.3, 2.6)]. The cross-lagged effects of TV viewing to injury were significant in the high hostility group [OR = 1.4 (95%CI = 1.1, 1.8), 1.3 (1.0, 1.8), and 2.0 (1.3, 2.9)] but not in the low hostility group [OR = 1.3 (95%CI = 0.6, 2.2), 1.1 (0.6, 2.1), and 1.4 (0.7, 2.8)]. Additionally, a statistically significant difference between the two models (P < 0.001) suggested that hostility moderated the relationship between TV watching and injury. These findings suggest that individuals who watch more TV and have a hostile personality trait may be at a greater risk for injury.
    Article · Aug 2015 · International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion
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    Anthony Fabio · Ruth Geller · Michael Bazaco · [...] · Ravi Sharma
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: . Emerging research highlights the promise of community- and policy-level strategies in preventing youth violence. Large-scale economic developments, such as sports and entertainment arenas and casinos, may improve the living conditions, economics, public health, and overall wellbeing of area residents and may influence rates of violence within communities. Objective . To assess the effect of community economic development efforts on neighborhood residents’ perceptions on violence, safety, and economic benefits. Methods . Telephone survey in 2011 using a listed sample of randomly selected numbers in six Pittsburgh neighborhoods. Descriptive analyses examined measures of perceived violence and safety and economic benefit. Responses were compared across neighborhoods using chi-square tests for multiple comparisons. Survey results were compared to census and police data. Results . Residents in neighborhoods with the large-scale economic developments reported more casino-specific and arena-specific economic benefits. However, 42% of participants in the neighborhood with the entertainment arena felt there was an increase in crime, and 29% of respondents from the neighborhood with the casino felt there was an increase. In contrast, crime decreased in both neighborhoods. Conclusions . Large-scale economic developments have a direct influence on the perception of violence, despite actual violence rates.
    Full-text Article · Aug 2015 · Journal of Environmental and Public Health
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    C.-Y. Chen · Mark A. Pereira · Kevin H. Kim · [...] · Anthony Fabio
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There are limited data from long-term prospective studies on the association between television (TV) viewing and obesity. We investigated this association between TV viewing and body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WST) over 15 years on 3,269 participants from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study. We used cross-lagged panel models at exam Years 5, 10, 15, and 20 over 15 years to assess the association between TV viewing and obesity. The cross-lagged effects of TV viewing on anthropometry were significant from exam Year 5 to Year 10 (B = 0.034 for BMI and 0.036 for WST). However, the cross-lagged effects of TV viewing at Years 10 and 15 on obesity at Years 15 and 20, respectively, were nonsignificant. The findings indicate that higher levels of TV viewing predicted higher BMI and WC in young adulthood, but this association was not observed as individuals aged over the following decade.
    Full-text Article · Aug 2015 · SAGE Open
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    Matthew D. Weaver · P. Daniel Patterson · Anthony Fabio · [...] · Thomas J. Songer
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective Emergency Medical Services (EMS) workers are shift workers in a high-risk, uncontrolled occupational environment. EMS-worker fatigue has been associated with self-reported injury, but the influence of extended weekly work hours is unknown.MethodsA retrospective cohort study was designed using historical shift schedules and occupational injury and illness reports. Using multilevel models, we examined the association between weekly work hours, crew familiarity, and injury or illness.ResultsIn total, 966,082 shifts and 950 reports across 14 EMS agencies were obtained over a 1–3 year period. Weekly work hours were not associated with occupational injury or illness. Schedule characteristics that yield decreased exposure to occupational hazards, such as part-time work and night work, conferred reduced risk of injury or illness.Conclusions Extended weekly work hours were not associated with occupational injury or illness. Future work should focus on transient exposures and agency-level characteristics that may contribute to adverse work events. Am. J. Ind. Med. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Full-text Article · Aug 2015 · American Journal of Industrial Medicine
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We aimed to examine abusive head trauma (AHT) incidence before, during and after the recession of 2007-2009 in 3 US regions and assess the association of economic measures with AHT incidence. Data for children <5 years old diagnosed with AHT between January 1, 2004, and December 31, 2012, in 3 regions were linked to county-level economic data using an ecologic time series analysis. Associations between county-level AHT rates and recession period as well as employment growth, mortgage delinquency, and foreclosure rates were examined using zero-inflated Poisson regression models. During the 9-year period, 712 children were diagnosed with AHT. The mean rate of AHT per 100,000 child-years increased from 9.8 before the recession to 15.6 during the recession before decreasing to 12.8 after the recession. The AHT rates after the recession were higher than the rates before the recession (incidence rate ratio 1.31, P = .004) but lower than rates during the recession (incidence rate ratio 0.78, P = .005). There was no association between the AHT rate and employment growth, mortgage delinquency rates, or foreclosure rates. In the period after the recession, AHT rate was lower than during the recession period yet higher than the level before the recession, suggesting a lingering effect of the economic stress of the recession on maltreatment risk. Copyright © 2015 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Article · Jul 2015 · Academic pediatrics
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: 1) To determine the prevalence of dysphagia in children with laryngomalacia, 2) To ascertain whether severity of laryngomalacia influences the presence of swallowing dysfunction, and 3) To examine whether patients with medical comorbidities and laryngomalacia have a higher prevalence of swallowing dysfunction. Retrospective cohort study. All patients seen in the aerodigestive center at our institution between January 2007 and December 2012 with the diagnosis of laryngomalacia were included. Swallowing function was assessed by symptoms, clinical swallowing evaluations (CSE) performed by speech pathologists, modified barium swallow (MBS) studies, and fiberoptic endoscopic evaluations of swallowing (FEES). There were 324 patients with laryngomalacia identified (41.4% female, 58.6% male). Severity of laryngomalacia was categorized in 279 patients, with 62.7% mild, 28.7% moderate, and 8.6% severe. Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) was diagnosed in 69.8% of patients. Other medical comorbidities included Down syndrome (3.1%), neurological impairment (6.5%), and congenital heart disease (0.9%). Symptoms of dysphagia or feeding difficulty were present in 163/324 (50.3%), and failure to thrive was present in 31/324 patients (9.6%). At least one abnormal swallowing assessment was present in 97/120 (80.8%) patients presenting with subjective dysphagia and 43/65 (66.2%) patients without subjective dysphagia. A total of 140/185 (75.7%) patients had at least one abnormal baseline swallowing assessment. There was no significant relationship between severity of laryngomalacia and presence of abnormal swallowing function based on symptoms, CSE, MBS, or FEES. However, patients with greater severity were more likely to have failure to thrive. There was not a significant association between the presence of swallowing dysfunction or disease severity and medical comorbidities such as Down syndrome, neurological impairment, or congenital heart disease. However, GERD was more likely to be present in patients with moderate and severe laryngomalacia than in patients with mild disease. Swallowing dysfunction is common in children with laryngomalacia regardless of disease severity or other medical comorbidities. Swallowing studies are frequently abnormal in laryngomalacia patients presenting both with and without subjective symptoms of dysphagia. Dysphagia assessment should be considered as part of the evaluation of infants with laryngomalacia. 4. Laryngoscope, 2015. © 2015 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.
    Article · Jul 2015 · The Laryngoscope
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In a prior study of seven North American cities Pittsburgh had the highest crude rate of cardiac arrest deaths in patients 18 to 64 years of age, particularly in neighborhoods with lower socioeconomic status (SES). We hypothesized that lower SES, associated poor health behaviors (e.g., illicit drug use) and pre-existing comorbid conditions (grouped as socioeconomic factors [SE factors]) could affect the type and severity of cardiac arrest, thus outcomes. We retrospectively identified patients aged 18 to 64 years treated for in-hospital (IHCA) and out-of hospital arrest (OHCA) at two Pittsburgh hospitals between January 2010 and July 2012. We abstracted data on baseline demographics and arrest characteristics like place of residence, insurance and employment status. Favorable cerebral performance category [CPC] (1 or 2) was our primary outcome. We examined the associations between SE factors, cardiac arrest variables and outcome as well as post-resuscitation care. Among 415 subjects who met inclusion criteria, unfavorable CPC were more common in patients who were unemployed, had a history of drug abuse or hypertension. In OHCA, favorable CPC was more often associated with presentation with ventricular fibrillation/tachycardia (OR 3.53, 95% CI 1.43-8.74, p=0.006) and less often associated with non-cardiovascular arrest etiology (OR 0.22, 95% CI 0.08-0.62, p=0.004). We found strong associations between specific SE factors and arrest factors associated with outcome in OHCA patients only. Significant differences in post-resuscitation care existed based on injury severity, not on SES. SE factors strongly influence type and severity of OHCA but not IHCA resulting in an association with outcomes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Full-text Article · May 2015 · Resuscitation
  • Dara D. Mendez · Kevin H. Kim · Cecily R. Hardaway · Anthony Fabio
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives This study examined neighborhood racial and socioeconomic disparities and the density of food and alcohol establishments. We also examined whether these disparities differed by data source. Methods This study included commercial data for 2003 and 2009 from InfoUSA and Dun and Bradstreet (D&B) in 416 census tracts in Allegheny County, PA. Food and alcohol establishment densities were calculated by using area and population data from the 2000 US census. Differences between InfoUSA and D&B of food and alcohol densities across neighborhood racial and socioeconomic characteristics were tested using correlations and two-way mixed analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results There were differences by data source in the association between neighborhood racial and socioeconomic characteristics and food/alcohol establishment density. There was a positive correlation between grocery store/supermarket density and percentage black, poverty, and percentage without a car among D&B data but not in InfoUSA. Alcohol outlet density (AOD) increased as neighborhood poverty increased for both data sources, but the mean difference in AOD between InfoUSA and D&B was highest among neighborhoods with 25–50 % poverty (Cohen’s d −0.49, p
    Article · May 2015
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: No systematic review of epidemiological evidence has examined risk factors for sleep disturbances among older adults. We searched the PubMed database combining search terms targeting the following domains 1) prospective, 2) sleep, and 3) aging, and identified 21 relevant population-based studies with prospective sleep outcome data. Only two studies utilized objective measures of sleep disturbance, while six used the Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI) and thirteen used insomnia symptoms or other sleep complaints as the outcome measure. Female gender, depressed mood, and physical illness were most consistently identified as risks for future sleep disturbances. Less robust evidence implicated the following as potentially relevant predictors: lower physical activity levels, African-American race, lower economic status, previous manual occupation, widowhood, marital quality, loneliness and perceived stress, preclinical dementia, long-term benzodiazepine and sedative use, low testosterone levels, and inflammatory markers. Chronological age was not identified as a consistent, independent predictor of future sleep disturbances. In conclusion, prospective studies have identified female gender, depressed mood, and physical illness as general risk factors for future sleep disturbances in later life, although specific physiological pathways have not yet been established. Research is needed to determine the precise mechanisms through which these factors influence sleep over time. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Article · Jan 2015 · Sleep Medicine Reviews
  • Dara Mendez · Kevin H. Kim · Cecily Hardaway · Anthony Fabio
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction: This study examined systematic differences between commercial data in the relation between neighborhood racial and socioeconomic characteristics and the density of food and alcohol establishments. Methods: This study included two commercial datasets for 2003 and 2009 in Allegheny County, PA. Food and alcohol establishment densities were calculated by census tract (416 census tracts). Differences between the two commercial data sources of the food and alcohol environment across levels of neighborhood racial and socioeconomic characteristics were tested using correlations and two-way mixed analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results: There were differences by data source in the association between neighborhood racial and socioeconomic characteristics and food/alcohol establishment density. There was a positive correlation between grocery store/supermarket density and percentage black, poverty and percentage without a car among commercial data source #1 but not in data source #2. Alcohol outlet density (AOD) increased as neighborhood poverty increased for both data sources, but the mean difference in AOD between the two commercial data sources was highest among neighborhoods with 25-50% poverty (Cohen’s d -0.49, p<0.001) compared to neighborhoods with lower or higher poverty (2003 data). Mean grocery store density increased as percentage poverty increased, but only among commercial data source #1 (2009 data). Discussion: The location, numeration, and density of food and alcohol establishments are differentially associated with neighborhood racial and socioeconomic characteristics and may introduce systematic biases. Using multiple data sources may be important for addressing systematic biases and data limitations.
    Conference Paper · Nov 2014