[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Eribulin mesylate is a synthetic macrocyclic ketone analogue of Halichondrin B that has demonstrated high antitumor activity in preclinical and clinical settings. This phase I study aimed to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD), dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs), and pharmacokinetics in combination with cisplatin (CP) in patients with advanced solid tumours.
Thirty-six patients with advanced solid tumours received eribulin mesylate 0.7-1.4 mg m(-2) and CP 60-75 mg m(-2). Eribulin mesylate was administered on days 1, 8, and 15 in combination with CP day 1 every 28-day cycle. The protocol was amended after dose level 4 (eribulin mesylate 1.4 mg m(-2), CP 60 mg m(-2)) when it was not feasible to administer eribulin mesylate on day 15 because of neutropenia; the treatment schedule was changed to eribulin mesylate on days 1 and 8 and CP on day 1 every 21 days.
On the 28-day schedule, three patients had DLT during the first cycle: grade (G) 4 febrile neutropenia (1.0 mg m(-2), 60 mg m(-2)); G 3 anorexia/fatigue/hypokalemia (1.2 mg m(-2), 60 mg m(-2)); and G 3 stomatitis/nausea/vomiting/fatigue (1.4 mg m(-2), 60 mg m(-2)). On the 21-day schedule, three patients had DLT during the first cycle: G 3 hypokalemia/hyponatremia (1.4 mg m(-2), 60 mg m(-2)); G 4 mucositis (1.4 mg m(-2), 60 mg m(-2)); and G 3 hypokalemia (1.2 mg m(-2), 75 mg m(-2)). The MTD and recommended phase II dose was determined as eribulin mesylate 1.2 mg m(-2) (days 1, 8) and CP 75 mg m(-2) (day 1), on a 21-day cycle. Two patients had unconfirmed partial responses (PR) (pancreatic and breast cancers) and two had PR (oesophageal and bladder cancers).
On the 21-day cycle, eribulin mesylate 1.2 mg m(-2), administered on days 1 and 8, in combination with CP 75 mg m(-2), administered on day 1 is well tolerated and showed preliminary anticancer activity.
Preview · Article · Oct 2014 · British Journal of Cancer
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Importance
Radiation therapy to the head and neck has traditionally been associated with adverse effects that can affect oral health and physical functioning. Although intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) has been widely adopted as a means of decreasing toxic effects, limited clinical data exist on its potential effect on long-term quality of life.Objective
To analyze quality of life among long-term survivors of head and neck cancer treated with IMRT.Design, Setting, and Participants
This cross-sectional analysis studied 50 consecutive long-term survivors of head and neck cancer from a comprehensive cancer center who had previously undergone IMRT that required bilateral neck irradiation for locally advanced disease. All patients were clinically without evidence of recurrent disease and had at least 5 years of follow-up.Main Outcomes and Measures
The University of Washington Quality of Life (UW-QOL) scores were reviewed for all study participants. The UW-QOL questionnaire consists of 12 domains that pertain to the degree of quality of life in the categories of pain, appearance, activity, recreation, swallowing, chewing, speech, shoulder function, taste, saliva, mood, and anxiety.Results
Five years after completion of IMRT, 42 patients (84%) reported that their health-related quality of life was “much better” or “somewhat better” than at the time of cancer diagnosis. With respect to recent health-related quality of life during the preceding 7 days at the time of completing the UW-QOL questionnaire, 40 patients (80%) treated with IMRT reported “outstanding” or “very good” levels of functioning. Five years after completion of treatment, 41 (82%) rated their overall quality of life as “outstanding” or “very good.” The lowest domain score on the UW-QOL questionnaire at 5 years pertained to salivary dysfunction. However, 42 patients (84%) reported saliva “of normal consistency” or “less saliva than normal but enough” compared with 8 (16%) reporting “too little saliva.” No patient reported having “no saliva.”Conclusions and Relevance
Our findings add to the body of literature that supports the acceptance of IMRT as standard treatment for head and neck cancer. The fact that most 5-year survivors were satisfied with their quality of lives points to the ability of IMRT to preserve long-term functioning.
No preview · Article · Dec 2013 · JAMA Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Despite advances in targeted therapies, there is an ongoing need to develop new and effective cytotoxic drug combinations in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Based on preclinical demonstration of additive cytotoxicity, we evaluated the safety and efficacy of combining pemetrexed and nanoparticle albumin bound (nab) paclitaxel with a focus on NSCLC for phase II expansion.
A 3 + 3 dose-escalation design was used to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and the recommended phase II dose (RP2D). Three dose levels were tested: pemetrexed 500 mg/m(2) day 1 and nab-paclitaxel day 1 at 180, 220, & 260 mg/m(2) every 21 days. Phase II eligibility included advanced NSCLC, ≤2 line prior therapy, PS 0-1, adequate organ function. Primary endpoint for further study was response rate (RR) ≥ 25%.
Planned dose escalation was completed without reaching the MTD. The RP2D was pemetrexed 500 mg/m(2) and nab-paclitaxel 260 mg/m(2). The phase II portion accrued 37 pts before early closure due to increasing first-line pemetrexed/platinum doublet use in non-squamous NSCLC. In 31 assessable phase II patients there were 5 partial responses, 12 stable disease, 14 progressive disease. The median overall survival was 8.8 months; progressive disease 4.4 months and disease control 15.6 months.
Pemetrexed 500 mg/m(2) day 1 with nab-paclitaxel 260 mg/m(2) was feasible and well tolerated. The phase II component demonstrated activity in second/third-line therapy of advanced NSCLC; response rate 14% and disease control rate 46%. Treatment practice patterns of advanced NSCLC have evolved; further trials of this regimen are not planned.
No preview · Article · Sep 2013 · Investigational New Drugs
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose: Stage III non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with poor performance status (PS) or co-morbidities are often not candidates for standard chemoradiotherapy (chemoRT) due to poor tolerance to treatments. A pilot study for poor-risk stage III NSCLC patients was conducted combining cetuximab, a chimeric monoclonal antibody targeting epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), with chest radiation (RT).
Methods: Stage III NSCLC patients with Zubrod PS 2, or Zubrod PS 0–1 with poor pulmonary function and co-morbidities prohibiting chemoRT were eligible. A loading dose of cetuximab (400 mg/m2) was delivered week 1, followed by weekly cetuximab (250 mg/m2)/RT to 64.8 Gy in 1.8 Gy daily fractions, and maintenance weekly cetuximab (250 mg/m2) for 2 years or until disease progression. H-score for EGFR protein expression was conducted in available tumors.
Results: Twenty-four patients were enrolled. Twenty-two were assessed for outcome and toxicity. Median survival was 14 months and median progression-free survival was 8 months. The response rate was 47% and disease control rate was 74%. Toxicity assessment revealed 22.7% overall ≥Grade 3 non-hematologic toxicities. Grade 3 esophagitis was observed in one patient (5%). The skin reactions were mostly Grade 1 or 2 except two of 22 (9%) had Grade 3 acne and one of 22 (5%) had Grade 3 radiation skin burn. Grade 3–4 hypomagnesemia was seen in four (18%) patients. One patient (5%) had elevated cardiac troponin and pulmonary emboli. H-score did not reveal prognostic significance. An initially planned second cohort of the study did not commence due to slow accrual, which would have added weekly docetaxel to cetuximab/RT after completion of the first cohort of patients.
Conclusion: Concurrent weekly cetuximab/chest RT followed by maintenance cetuximab for poor-risk stage III NSCLC was well tolerated. Further studies with larger sample sizes will be useful to establish the optimal therapeutic ratio of this regimen.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2013 · Frontiers in Oncology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although concurrrent chemoradiation is increasingly used for patients with locally advanced head and neck cancer, many elderly patients receive radiation alone due to toxicity concerns. We evaluate acute and late toxicity among patients age ≥65 who received concurrent chemoradiation for head and neck cancer.
Tertiary care center.
Between 6/2003 and 8/2011, 40 consecutive patients age ≥65 underwent combined chemoradiation for head and neck cancer. Ten patients were treated in the postoperative setting and 30 underwent definitive chemoradiation. Twenty-eight patients received concurrent platinum-based chemotherapy and 12 received concurrent weekly paclitaxel. Treatment plans were designed to provide a dose of 66-72Gy at 2-2.12Gy/fraction to >95% of the gross tumor volume in the definitive setting or for positive margins and 60-66Gy at 2Gy/fraction post-operatively. Median follow-up was 23.2months (range: 0-94.4months).
Acute skin and mucosal toxicity, unplanned treatment interruptions, and chronic treatment related toxicity including gastrostomy tube dependence as graded by the CTCAE v3.0.
Eight patients (20%) required a radiation treatment break of ≥3days. Thirteen (33%) required unplanned hospitalization during or immediately following treatment. No grade 4+ skin or mucosal toxicity was noted. Five patients remained PEG tube dependent at >1year. One patient developed non-healing mandibular osteoradionecrosis >3years following chemoradiation. The 2-year Kaplan-Meier estimate of overall survival was 55%.
Higher-than-expected rates of in-patient hospitalization with significant acute toxicity were noted in this cohort with a correspondingly high rate of radiation treatment breaks. Late toxicity rates were similar to those observed in historical controls with younger patients. Careful patient selection criteria should be employed for elderly patients considering concurrent chemoradiation for head and neck cancer.
No preview · Article · Aug 2013 · American journal of otolaryngology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Pemetrexed, a multitargeted antifolate drug, is an active agent in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), especially adenocarcinomas. Based on preclinical data supporting the relevance of alpha-folate receptors in adenocarcinoma of the bronchioloalveolar carcinoma (BAC) subtype, this trial was designed to assess pemetrexed in patients with this pathologic subtype of lung adenocarcinoma.
Patients and methods:
Patients with histologically confirmed stage IIIB (with malignant pleural effusion) or stage IV adenocarcinoma with BAC features or pure BAC were eligible. Treatment consisted of pemetrexed, 500 mg/m(2), administered intravenously every 21 days.
Of 27 patients enrolled, 24 were eligible and assessable for adverse events: Toxicity was primarily hematologic, consisting of leukopenia/neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, and anemia. The median follow-up among patients still alive (n = 8) was 35 months (range, 26-47 months). Among 17 patients with measurable disease, the response rate was 23% (all partial responses; 95% confidence interval [CI], 10%-56%). The median progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were 6 and 25 months, respectively.
Pemetrexed is active and well tolerated and, in patients with adenocarcinoma BAC subtypes, likely related to its underlying mechanism of action as a multitargeted antifolate drug.
No preview · Article · Feb 2013 · Clinical Lung Cancer
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: To evaluate the responsiveness of human papillomavirus (HPV) -positive and HPV-negative oropharyngeal cancer to intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), using axial imaging obtained daily during the course of image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT). STUDY DESIGN: Observational cohort study with matched-pair analysis of patients irradiated for HPV-positive and HPV-negative oropharygeal cancer. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Ten patients treated by IMRT to 70 Gy for locally advanced, HPV-positive squamous cell carcinoma of the oropharynx were matched to one HPV-negative control subject by age, gender, performance status, T-category, tumor location, and the use of concurrent chemotherapy. The gross tumor volume (GTV) was delineated on daily IGRT scans obtained via kilovoltage cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). Mathematical modeling using fitted mixed-effects repeated measure analysis was performed to quantitatively and descriptively assess the trajectory of tumor regression. RESULTS: Patients with HPV-positive tumors experienced a more rapid rate of tumor regression between day 1 of IMRT and the beginning of week 2 (-33% Δ GTV) compared to their counterparts with HPV-negative tumors (-10% Δ GTV), which was statistically significant (p<0.001). During this initial period, the average absolute change in GTV was -22.9 cc/week for HPV-positive tumors and -5.9 cc/week for HPV-negative tumors (p<0.001). After week 2 of IMRT, the rates of GTV regression were comparable between the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: HPV-positive oropharyngeal cancers exhibited an enhanced response to radiation, characterized by a dramatically more rapid initial regression than those with HPV-negative tumors. Implications for treatment de-intensification in the context of future clinical trials and the possible mechanisms underlying this increased radiosensitivity will be discussed.
No preview · Article · Jan 2013 · The Laryngoscope
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to analyze voice quality among patients treated by definitive radiotherapy for laryngeal cancer.
Ten patients with laryngeal cancer who had completed radiotherapy were involved in this pilot study. A standardized protocol was administered assessing: (1) sustained vowel production following maximal inspiration, (2) sustained vowel production for a 7-second duration repeated 5 times, and (3) spontaneous speech for 10 seconds.
The acoustic parameters among patients with early-stage cancer were not statistically different from healthy age-corresponding controls, except for shimmer (0.20 vs 0.16 dB, ρ = 0.01) and maximum phonation duration (24.37 vs 30.10 seconds, ρ = 0.04). For patients with locally advanced cancer, differences with controls were observed with shimmer (2.29 vs 0.16 dB, ρ = 0.01), jitter (7.49% vs 1.04%, ρ = 0.01), harmonics-to-noise ratio (2.67 vs 9.22, ρ = 0.01), and maximum phonation duration (14.12 vs 30.10 seconds, ρ = 0.01).
Despite the subtle differences in voice quality that existed, radiotherapy as a curative treatment for laryngeal cancer allows maintenance of a functional voice.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To identify clinical and treatment-related predictors of brachial plexus-associated neuropathies after radiation therapy for head-and-neck cancer.
Three hundred thirty patients who had previously completed radiation therapy for head-and-neck cancer were prospectively screened using a standardized instrument for symptoms of neuropathy thought to be related to brachial plexus injury. All patients were disease-free at the time of screening. The median time from completion of radiation therapy was 56 months (range, 6-135 months). One-hundred fifty-five patients (47%) were treated by definitive radiation therapy, and 175 (53%) were treated postoperatively. Radiation doses ranged from 50 to 74 Gy (median, 66 Gy). Intensity-modulated radiation therapy was used in 62% of cases, and 133 patients (40%) received concurrent chemotherapy.
Forty patients (12%) reported neuropathic symptoms, with the most common being ipsilateral pain (50%), numbness/tingling (40%), motor weakness, and/or muscle atrophy (25%). When patients with <5 years of follow-up were excluded, the rate of positive symptoms increased to 22%. On univariate analysis, the following factors were significantly associated with brachial plexus symptoms: prior neck dissection (p = 0.01), concurrent chemotherapy (p = 0.01), and radiation maximum dose (p < 0.001). Cox regression analysis confirmed that both neck dissection (p < 0.001) and radiation maximum dose (p < 0.001) were independently predictive of symptoms.
The incidence of brachial plexus-associated neuropathies after radiation therapy for head-and-neck cancer may be underreported. In view of the dose-response relationship identified, limiting radiation dose to the brachial plexus should be considered when possible.
No preview · Article · Mar 2012 · International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To compare the long-term quality of life among patients treated with and without intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for head-and-neck cancer.
The University of Washington Quality of Life instrument scores were reviewed for 155 patients previously treated with radiation therapy for locally advanced head-and-neck cancer. All patients were disease free and had at least 2 years of follow-up. Eighty-four patients (54%) were treated with IMRT. The remaining 71 patients (46%) were treated with three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D CRT) by use of initial opposed lateral fields matched to a low anterior neck field.
The mean global quality of life scores were 67.5 and 80.1 for the IMRT patients at 1 and 2 years, respectively, compared with 55.4 and 57.0 for the 3D CRT patients, respectively (p < 0.001). At 1 year after the completion of radiation therapy, the proportion of patients who rated their global quality of life as "very good" or "outstanding" was 51% and 41% among patients treated by IMRT and 3DCRT, respectively (p = 0.11). At 2 years, the corresponding percentages increased to 73% and 49%, respectively (p < 0.001). On multivariate analysis accounting for sex, age, radiation intent (definitive vs. postoperative), radiation dose, T stage, primary site, use of concurrent chemotherapy, and neck dissection, the use of IMRT was the only variable independently associated with improved quality of life (p = 0.01).
The early quality of life improvements associated with IMRT not only are maintained but apparently become more magnified over time. These data provide powerful evidence attesting to the long-term benefits of IMRT for head-and-neck cancer.
No preview · Article · Jan 2012 · International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: 3-Aminopyridine-2-carboxaldehyde thiosemicarbazone (3-AP) is a novel small-molecule ribonucleotide reductase inhibitor. This study was designed to estimate the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and oral bioavailability of 3-AP in patients with advanced-stage solid tumors.
Twenty patients received one dose of intravenous and subsequent cycles of oral 3-AP following a 3 + 3 patient dose escalation. Intravenous 3-AP was administered to every patient at a fixed dose of 100 mg over a 2-h infusion 1 week prior to the first oral cycle. Oral 3-AP was administered every 12 h for 5 consecutive doses on days 1-3, days 8-10, and days 15-17 of every 28-day cycle. 3-AP was started at 50 mg with a planned dose escalation to 100, 150, and 200 mg. Dose-limiting toxicities (DLT) and bioavailability were evaluated.
Twenty patients were enrolled. For dose level 1 (50 mg), the second of three treated patients had a DLT of grade 3 hypertension. In the dose level 1 expansion cohort, three patients had no DLTs. No further DLTs were encountered during escalation until the 200-mg dose was reached. At the 200 mg 3-AP dose level, two treated patients had DLTs of grade 3 hypoxia. One additional DLT of grade 4 febrile neutropenia was subsequently observed at the de-escalated 150 mg dose. One DLT in 6 evaluable patients established the MTD as 150 mg per dose on this dosing schedule. Responses in the form of stable disease occurred in 5 (25%) of 20 patients. The oral bioavailability of 3-AP was 67 ± 29% and was consistent with the finding that the MTD by the oral route was 33% higher than by the intravenous route.
Oral 3-AP is well tolerated and has an MTD similar to its intravenous form after accounting for the oral bioavailability. Oral 3-AP is associated with a modest clinical benefit rate of 25% in our treated patient population with advanced solid tumors.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2011 · Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine if intra-patient dose escalation of the multi-targeted kinase inhibitor sorafenib is feasible in patients with advanced pretreated solid malignancies.
An intra-patient dose escalation scheme starting at 400 mg BID was employed in this prospective trial. Doses were escalated to 600 mg BID for the second cycle and to 800 mg BID for the third cycle in the absence of grade 3+ adverse events. In the event of grade 3+ adverse events during cycle 1, doses were reduced to 400 mg daily through cycle 2. Dose re-escalation for cycle 3 was allowed in the absence of grade 3+ adverse events during cycle 2. Further dose escalation was prohibited. The primary endpoint was the overall percentage of patients tolerating dose escalation to 600 mg BID through cycle 2 or tolerating re-escalation to 400 mg BID through cycle 3.
Fifty eligible patients with various solid tumors and a median of 3 prior therapies were enrolled. Eleven patients (22%) tolerated primary dose escalation or re-escalation. Only 14 patients (28%) completed cycle 1 without dose modification or discontinuing treatment. Seven of 13 patients tolerated primary dose escalation through cycle 2. Four of 5 patients tolerated dose re-escalation through cycle 3. Reasons for escalation failure included tumor progression (42%) and adverse events (26%). Common grade 3+ adverse events included hand-foot skin reaction, hypertension, and hypophosphatemia.
Intra-patient dose escalation and/or re-escalation of sorafenib were not feasible in pretreated solid tumor patients. Sorafenib dose escalation remains an investigational approach.
No preview · Article · Oct 2011 · Investigational New Drugs
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors given concurrently with chemotherapy do not improve patient outcomes compared with chemotherapy alone in advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). On the basis of preclinical models, we hypothesized pharmacodynamic separation, achieved by intermittent delivery of epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors intercalated with chemotherapy, as a reasonable strategy to deliver combination therapy.
A phase I dose-escalating trial using two scheduling strategies (arms A and B) was conducted in patients with advanced solid tumors to determine the feasibility of intermittent erlotinib and docetaxel. Phase II efficacy evaluation was conducted in an expanded cohort of patients with previously treated advanced NSCLC using arm B scheduling. Docetaxel was given every 21 days (70-75 mg/m intravenously) in both arms. In arm A, erlotinib was administered on days 2, 9, and 16 (600-1000 mg); in arm B, erlotinib was delivered on days 2 through 16 (150-300 mg). Patients without progression or unacceptable toxicity after six cycles continued erlotinib alone.
Eighty-one patients were enrolled in this study (17 arm A; 25 arm B; and 39 at phase II dose). Phase I patients had advanced solid tumors and 22 with NSCLC (10 and 12 patients for arms A and B, respectively). Treatment was well tolerated for both arms, with dose-limiting toxicities including grade 3 infection and febrile neutropenia in arm A (maximum tolerated dose [MTD] of erlotinib 600 mg/docetaxel 70 mg/m) and grade 4 rash, febrile neutropenia, grade 3 mucositis, and grade 3 diarrhea in arm B (MTD of erlotinib 200 mg/docetaxel 70 mg/m). The MTD for arm B was chosen for phase II evaluation given the feasibility of administration, number of responses (one complete response and three partial responses), and achievement of pharmacodynamic separation. The response rate for patients treated at the phase II dose was 28.2%, and the disease control rate was 64.1%. Median progression-free and overall survival were 4.1 and 18.2 months, respectively. Common grade ≥3 toxicities were neutropenia (36%) and diarrhea (18%).
Pharmacodynamic separation using intercalated schedules of erlotinib delivered on an intermittent basis together with docetaxel chemotherapy is feasible and tolerable. Further studies using this approach together with interrogation of relevant molecular pathways are ongoing.
Preview · Article · Sep 2011 · Journal of thoracic oncology: official publication of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the effect of continued cigarette smoking among patients undergoing radiation therapy for head-and-neck cancer by comparing the clinical outcomes among active smokers and quitters.
A review of medical records identified 101 patients with newly diagnosed squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck who continued to smoke during radiation therapy. Each active smoker was matched to a control patient who had quit smoking before initiation of radiation therapy. Matching was based on tobacco history (pack-years), primary site, age, sex, Karnofsky Performance Status, disease stage, radiation dose, chemotherapy use, year of treatment, and whether surgical resection was performed. Outcomes were compared by use of Kaplan-Meier analysis. Normal tissue effects were graded according to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group/European Organization for the Treatment of Cancer toxicity criteria.
With a median follow-up of 49 months, active smokers had significantly inferior 5-year overall survival (23% vs. 55%), locoregional control (58% vs. 69%), and disease-free survival (42% vs. 65%) compared with the former smokers who had quit before radiation therapy (p < 0.05 for all). These differences remained statistically significant when patients treated by postoperative or definitive radiation therapy were analyzed separately. The incidence of Grade 3 or greater late complications was also significantly increased among active smokers compared with former smokers (49% vs. 31%, p = 0.01).
Tobacco smoking during radiation therapy for head-and-neck cancer is associated with unfavorable outcomes. Further studies analyzing the biologic and molecular reasons underlying these differences are planned.
No preview · Article · Feb 2011 · International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The proteasome inhibitor bortezomib sensitizes tumor cells to chemotherapy-induced apoptosis. In preclinical non–small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) models, p53-dependent growth arrest after bortezomib treatment resulted in reduced cytotoxicity if bortezomib preceded docetaxel. The reverse sequence of docetaxel before bortezomib was associated with increased apoptosis, cleavage of caspase-3 and PARP (poly [ADP-ribose] polymerase), and reduction in Bcl-2. A prospective randomized phase II trial of concurrent versus sequential docetaxel and bortezomib was conducted to assess whether administration sequence resulted in measurable clinical differences.
No preview · Article · Jan 2011 · Clinical Lung Cancer
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine how the addition of cisplatin-based concurrent chemotherapy to radiation therapy influences outcomes among a cohort of patients treated for head-and-neck cancer of unknown primary origin.
The medical records of 60 consecutive patients treated by radiation therapy for squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck presenting as cervical lymph node metastasis of occult primary origin were reviewed. Thirty-two patients (53%) were treated by concurrent chemoradiation, and 28 patients (47%) were treated by radiation therapy alone. Forty-five patients (75%) received radiation therapy after surgical resection, and 15 patients (25%) received primary radiation therapy. Thirty-five patients (58%) were treated by intensity-modulated radiotherapy.
The 2-year estimates of overall survival, local-regional control, and progression-free survival were 89%, 89%, and 79%, respectively, among patients treated by chemoradiation, compared to 90%, 92%, and 83%, respectively, among patients treated by radiation therapy alone (p > 0.05, for all). Exploratory analysis failed to identify any subset of patients who benefited from the addition of concurrent chemotherapy to radiation therapy. The use of concurrent chemotherapy was associated with a significantly increased incidence of Grade 3+ acute and late toxicity (p < 0.001, for both).
Concurrent chemoradiation is associated with significant toxicity without a clear advantage to overall survival, local-regional control, and progression-free survival in the treatment of head-and-neck cancer of unknown primary origin. Although selection bias cannot be ignored, prospective data are needed to further address this question.
No preview · Article · Oct 2010 · International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics