[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are used as flame retardants in many household items. Given concerns over their potential adverse health effects, we identified predictors and evaluated temporal changes of PBDE serum concentrations.
PBDE serum concentrations were measured in young children (2-8 years old; N = 67), parents of young children (<55 years old; N = 90), and older adults (≥55 years old; N = 59) in California, with concurrent floor wipe samples collected in participants' homes in 2008-2009. We also measured serum concentrations one year later in a subset of children (N = 19) and parents (N = 42).
PBDE serum concentrations in children were significantly higher than in adults. Floor wipe concentration is a significant predictor of serum BDE-47, 99, 100 and 154. Positive associations were observed between the intake frequency of canned meat and serum concentrations of BDE-47, 99 and 154, between canned meat entrees and BDE-154 and 209, as well as between tuna and white fish and BDE-153. The model with the floor wipe concentration and food intake frequencies explained up to 40% of the mean square prediction error of some congeners. Lower home values and renting (vs. owning) a home were associated with higher serum concentrations of BDE-47, 99 and 100. Serum concentrations measured one year apart were strongly correlated as expected (r = 0.70-0.97) with a slight decreasing trend.
Floor wipe concentration, food intake frequency, and housing characteristics can explain 12-40% of the prediction error of PBDE serum concentrations. Decreasing temporal trends should be considered when characterizing long-term exposure.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2015 · Environmental Health
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) have been measured in serum collected in 2009 from a convenience sample of surplus serum from 300 Texas children (boys and girls) in the zero to 13 years of age range. Serum concentrations of traditional persistent organic pollutants such as 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB-153) and p,p'-DDE did not change consistently with age. By contrast, serum concentrations of tetra-, penta- and, hexaBDEs were lowest in the youngest children (zero to two year old) and increased 3.0 to 7.9-fold, depending on the analyte, for children in the >4 to 6 years of age group. This increase is hypothesized to be caused by ingestion of residential dust containing PBDEs through hand-to-mouth behavior. From the apex concentration to the 10 to 13 years of age group, concentrations decreased significantly except for 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexabromodiphenyl ether (PBDE-153) which did not decrease significantly with age and also had a longer apex concentration of >4 to 8 years of age. This longer apex concentration for PBDE-153 is most likely due to a longer half-life of PBDE-153 than other PBDE congeners. The observed PBDEs concentration patterns by age may be related, at least in part, to ingestion of residential dust containing PBDEs through hand-to-mouth behavior among toddlers, preschoolers and kindergarteners. Further studies to characterize young children's exposure to PBDEs are warranted and in particular to determine the lifestyle factors that may contribute to such exposures.
No preview · Article · Jun 2014 · Environmental Science and Technology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and persistent pesticides have been measured in pooled samples representative of the general non-institutionalized population of the United States. The pools were made from individual sera from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) during 2005/06 and 2007/08. The pooled concentrations have been contrasted to NHANES 2003/04 individual measurements to evaluate changes in concentration over time and within survey period differences among age groups, race/ethnicity groups (Mexican American, non-Hispanic Black, non-Hispanic White) and sex. The arithmetic mean serum concentrations of several PCB congeners decreased from NHANES 2003/04 through 2007/08. Larger percentage reductions were seen for younger subjects (12-19 years) compared with older subjects (≥60 years). For example, the arithmetic mean concentration of 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB-153) was 36% lower in 12-19 years old adolescents when comparing NHANES 2007/08 with 2003/04 while for subjects over the age of 60 a 14% lower concentration was seen, although, the 95% confidence intervals overlapped. Similarly, the arithmetic mean serum concentrations of tri- to hexaBDEs were lower in NHANES 2007/08 than in 2003/04; however, most confidence intervals of the arithmetic means overlapped. These findings suggest that a reduction in PBDE serum concentrations cannot yet be detected following the discontinuation of pentaBDE in 2004.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and persistent pesticides have been measured in serum pools from participants 3–5, 6–11, 12–19, 20–39, 40–59, and ≥60 years of age from the 2001–2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. For 2,2′,4,4′-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (PBDE-47), the unweighted (not adjusted for sampling weights) arithmetic mean concentration (±95% confidence interval) was 3.4 times higher in 3–5-year-olds (216 ± 30 ng/g of lipid) than in 12–19-year-olds (64 ± 11 ng/g of lipid), with no apparent change with increasing age for adults ≥20 years of age. By contrast, unweighted arithmetic mean concentrations of traditional persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and 2,2′,3,3′,4,4′,5,5′-octachlorobiphenyl (PCB194) were 2- and 20-fold higher, respectively, in persons ≥60 years than in 12–19-year-old adolescents. Findings suggest higher exposures to PBDEs but lower exposures to traditional POPs in 3–5-year-old children than in adults.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are a class of flame retardants historically used in textiles, furniture, and electronic products. Recent studies have documented widespread PBDE exposure to humans, with higher levels measured in children than adults. We analyzed 10 tri- to hepta-BDE congener levels in blood collected from 7-year old Mexican-American children living in an agriculture community in California (n = 272). The most frequently detected PBDE congeners in child serum were BDE-47, -99, -100, and -153, all of which were measured in >99% of the children. We used multiple linear regression models to examine associations between child total PBDE levels (ng/g lipid) and determinants of exposure. Factors positively associated with higher PBDE levels in the children were total PBDE levels in maternal serum during pregnancy, duration of exclusive breastfeeding, and having no safe places to play in their neighborhood. Child BMI was inversely associated with serum PBDE levels (regression p-values <0.05). Our findings confirm that exposure to the penta-BDE mixture is ongoing, and that Mexican-American children living in California may be experiencing higher PBDE exposure from their environment compared to children sampled from the general U.S. population. Additional research is needed to assess the health impacts of these exposures.
No preview · Article · Jun 2012 · Environmental Science & Technology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We measured levels of 10 polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners in serum collected during pregnancy and at delivery from 416 pregnant, predominantly immigrant, women living in Monterey County, CA. The most frequently detected congeners were BDE-47, -99, -100, and -153, all components of the penta mixture, detected in >97% of samples. We used multivariable regression models to examine factors associated with exposure to individual PBDE congeners as well as their total summed concentration (ng/g lipid). Prenatal and delivery total PBDE levels were correlated between sampling times (n = 21; Pearson r = 0.99, p < 0.001). In multivariable models, total PBDE levels increased significantly with time residing in the U.S. (p < 0.001) and among women with ≥3 pieces of stuffed furniture in their homes (p < 0.05). Women's total PBDE levels increased 4.0% (95% CI = 2.8, 5.3) for each additional year residing in the U.S., after adjustment for prepregnancy BMI, weight gain during pregnancy, and SES. Having ≥3 pieces of stuffed furniture in the home was associated with a 26.8% (95% CI = 2.0, 57.5) increase in women's serum PBDE levels. Findings suggest PBDE indoor contamination in California homes is contributing to human exposures in a population of recent immigrants.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Adjusted* means of LDL-cholesterol (mg/dL) at year 20 according to quartiles of organochlorine (OC) pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) or polybrominated biphenyl (PBB).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Means of year 20 BMI, triglyceride, HDL-cholesterol, and HOMA-IR according to quartiles of selected PCBs which showed Ptrend<0.1 or Pquadratic<0.1 in the Tables 1 to 5. Adjusted for age, sex, race, BMI, triglycerides, and total cholesterol at year 2. Year 20 HDL-cholesterol and HOMA-IR were additionally adjusted for their baseline values at year 2 and year 7, respectively.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There is emerging evidence that background exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are important in the development of conditions predisposing to diabetes as well as of type 2 diabetes itself. We recently reported that low dose POPs predicted incident type 2 diabetes in a nested case-control study. The current study examined if low dose POPs predicted future adiposity, dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance among controls without diabetes in that study.
The 90 controls were diabetes-free during 20 years follow-up. They were a stratified random sample, enriched with overweight and obese persons. POPs measured in 1987-88 (year 2) sera included 8 organochlorine (OC) pesticides, 22 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and 1 polybrominated biphenyl (PBB). Body mass index (BMI), triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and homeostasis model assessment value for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) were study outcomes at 2005-06 (year 20). The evolution of study outcomes during 18 years by categories of serum concentrations of POPs at year 2 was evaluated by adjusting for the baseline values of outcomes plus potential confounders. Parallel to prediction of type 2 diabetes, many statistically significant associations of POPs with dysmetabolic conditions appeared at low dose, forming inverted U-shaped dose-response relations. Among OC pesticides, p,p'-DDE most consistently predicted higher BMI, triglycerides, and HOMA-IR and lower HDL-cholesterol at year 20 after adjusting for baseline values. Oxychlordane, trans-nonachlor, and hexachlorobenzene also significantly predicted higher triglycerides. Persistent PCBs with ≥7 chlorides predicted higher BMI, triglycerides, and HOMA-IR and lower HDL-cholesterol at year 20 with similar dose-response curves.
Simultaneous exposure to various POPs in the general population may contribute to development of obesity, dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance, common precursors of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Although obesity is a primary cause of these metabolic abnormalities, POPs exposure may contribute to excess adiposity and other features of dysmetabolism.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Means of year 20 BMI, triglyceride, HDL-cholesterol, and HOMA-IR according to quartiles of selected organochlorine pesticides which showed Ptrend<0.1 or Pquadratic<0.1 in Tables 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5. Adjusted for age, sex, race, BMI, triglycerides, and total cholesterol at year 2. Year 20 HDL-cholesterol and HOMA-IR were additionally adjusted for their baseline values at year 2 and year 7, respectively.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Household dust can be a major source of human exposure to environmental contaminants such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers, pesticides, and other compounds. This work shows a screening technique that may be used to identify components in an environmental sample as xenobiotics based on mass spectral characteristics of classes of compounds that may be expected to be present in the environment. Household dust (SRM-2585) from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) was extracted with hexane using accelerated solvent extraction. Large molecules, such as triglycerides and fatty acids were removed with gel permeation chromatography. The extract was then concentrated and analyzed by comprehensive two dimensional gas chromatography coupled to a time of flight mass spectrometer. The resulting peak table was automatically filtered to identify compound classes such as phthalates, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and their heterocyclic analogs, chlorinated compounds, brominated compounds, and nitro compounds. While phthalates can be identified by abundances at specific masses, the identification of the remaining classes is based on the identification of the molecular ion and identification of isotope clusters or other spectral characteristics. The technique detected compounds identified and quantified by NIST as well as compounds not identified by NIST in the sample. By comparison with concentrations determined by NIST for the analytes found, the technique is able to identify analytes in these compound classes at concentrations as low as 10-20 ng/g dust.
No preview · Article · Oct 2010 · Journal of Chromatography A
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are widely used flame retardant compounds that are persistent and bioaccumulative and therefore have become ubiquitous environment contaminants. Animal studies suggest that prenatal PBDE exposure may result in adverse neurodevelopmental effects.
In a longitudinal cohort initiated after 11 September 2001, including 329 mothers who delivered in one of three hospitals in lower Manhattan, New York, we examined prenatal PBDE exposure and neurodevelopment when their children were 12-48 and 72 months of age.
We analyzed 210 cord blood specimens for selected PBDE congeners and assessed neurodevelopmental effects in the children at 12-48 and 72 months of age; 118, 117, 114, 104, and 96 children with available cord PBDE measurements were assessed at 12, 24, 36, 48, and 72 months, respectively. We used multivariate regression analyses to evaluate the associations between concentrations of individual PBDE congeners and neurodevelopmental indices.
Median cord blood concentrations of PBDE congeners 47, 99, and 100 were 11.2, 3.2, and 1.4 ng/g lipid, respectively. After adjustment for potential confounders, children with higher concentrations of BDEs 47, 99, or 100 scored lower on tests of mental and physical development at 12-48 and 72 months. Associations were significant for 12-month Psychomotor Development Index (BDE-47), 24-month Mental Development Index (MDI) (BDE-47, 99, and 100), 36-month MDI (BDE-100), 48-month full-scale and verbal IQ (BDE-47, 99, and 100) and performance IQ (BDE-100), and 72-month performance IQ (BDE-100).
This epidemiologic study demonstrates neurodevelopmental effects in relation to cord blood PBDE concentrations. Confirmation is needed in other longitudinal studies.
Full-text · Article · May 2010 · Environmental Health Perspectives
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Low doses of some persistent organic pollutants (POPs) associate cross-sectionally with type 2 diabetes, whereas associations with high POP exposures are inconsistent.
We investigated whether several POPs prospectively predict type 2 diabetes within the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) cohort.
Participants in this nested case-control study were diabetes free in 1987-1988. By 2005-2006, the 90 controls remained free of diabetes, whereas the 90 cases developed diabetes. Using serum collected in 1987-1988, we measured 8 organochlorine pesticides, 22 polychlorinated biphenyl congeners (PCBs), and 1 polybrominated biphenyl (PBB). We compared POP concentrations from CARDIA and the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) in 2003-2004. We computed odds ratios (ORs) for incident diabetes using logistic regression analysis.
Chlorinated POPs in CARDIA in 1987-1988 were much higher than corresponding NHANES 2003-2004 concentrations. POPs showed nonlinear associations with diabetes risk. The highest risk was observed in the second quartiles of trans-nonachlor, oxychlordane, mirex, highly chlorinated PCBs, and PBB153-a finding that suggests low-dose effects. We concentrated risk by summing these POPs and isolated very low concentrations of multiple POPs in the lowest sextile of the sum. The adjusted OR in the second sextile vs. the lowest sextile was 5.3 overall and 20.1 for body mass index > or = 30 kg/m2.
Several POPs at low doses similar to current exposure levels may increase diabetes risk, possibly through endocrine disruption. Certain POPs may a play a role in the current epidemic of diabetes, which has been attributed to obesity.
Full-text · Article · May 2010 · Environmental Health Perspectives
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Levels of brominated flame retardants are increasing in US populations, yet little data are available on body burdens of these and other persistent hormonally active agents (HAAs) in school-aged children. Exposures to such chemicals may affect a number of health outcomes related to development and reproductive function.
Determine the distribution of biomarkers of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and organo-chlorinated pesticides (OCPs), such as DDT/DDE, in children, and their variation by key descriptor variables.
Ethnically diverse cohorts of girls 6-8 y old at baseline are being followed for growth and pubertal development in a multi-site, longitudinal study. Nearly 600 serum samples from the California and Ohio sites were analyzed for lipids, 35 PCB congeners, 11 PBDE congeners, and 9 OCPs. The biomarker distributions were examined and geometric means compared for selected analytes across categories of age, race, site, body mass index (BMI), parental education, maternal age at delivery, and breast feeding in adjusted models.
Six PBDE congeners were detected among greater than 70% of samples, with BDE-47 having the highest concentration (median 42.2, range 4.9-855 ng/g lipid). Girls in California had adjusted geometric mean (GM) PBDE levels significantly higher than girls in Ohio. Furthermore, Blacks had significantly higher adjusted GMs of all six PBDE congeners than Whites, and Hispanics had intermediate values. GMs tended to be lower among more obese girls, while other variables were not strongly associated. In contrast, GMs of the six PCB congeners most frequently detected were significantly lower among Blacks and Hispanics than Whites. PCBs and the three pesticides most frequently detected were also consistently lower among girls with high BMI, who were not breast-fed, whose mothers were younger, or whose care-givers (usually parents) were less educated. Girls in California had higher GMs than in Ohio for the pesticides and most PCB congeners, but the opposite for CB-99 and -118.
Several of these potential HAAs were detected in nearly all of these young girls, some at relatively high levels, with variation by geographic location and other demographic factors that may reflect exposure pathways. The higher PBDE levels in California likely reflect differences in fire regulation and safety codes, with potential policy implications.
Full-text · Article · Apr 2010 · Environmental Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE) are a class of brominated flame retardants with some congeners having the ability to accumulate in body lipids. The incorporation of PBDE in consumer products found primarily in the indoor environment suggests that routes of exposure include inhalation of indoor air and contact with indoor dust. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that lifestyle factors, and in particular the proximity and use of products likely to contain PBDE in the indoor environment, are primarily responsible for levels of PBDE found in human milk. Human milk samples were taken from two populations of lactating women in the same geographic region of the United States: one “typical” of US suburban lifestyle, and the other practicing a traditional Amish lifestyle, which excludes many modern amenities containing PBDE, such as computers and televisions. For a subset of the cohort, persistent organic pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) were also measured in human milk samples. Despite the small number of participants, there is evidence suggestive of Amish women having lower PBDE concentrations in their milk. In addition, the nonsignificant differences in levels of PCBs and pesticides between the two groups of women as compared to the significant differences in levels of PBDE suggest an important route of exposure for PBDE other than diet. Information prepared for study participants is provided to initiate a dialogue on how to best communicate biomonitoring findings to study participants and to the public in general.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2008 · Toxicological and Environmental Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Seven polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners were measured in the particulate fraction (<2mm) of household dust samples (n=40), collected in four different countries (Australia, Germany, Great Britain, and United States). Dust samples from Germany contained the lowest concentrations of total PBDEs (median: 74 ng/g, range: 17-550 ng/g dust). Australian dust contained the second lowest concentration (median: 1200 ng/g, range: 500-13,000 ng/g dust). The dust from the United States and Great Britain contained the highest measured amounts of total PBDEs (US median: 4200 ng/g dust, range: 520-29,000 ng/g; Great Britain median: 10,000 ng/g, range: 950-54,000 ng/g). Daily intake of PBDEs has been estimated from published reference values on daily dust intake rates. The highest daily intake of 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47) found was in the United States (<1-330 ng/day) and the lowest was in Germany (<1-2 ng/day). The PBDE congeners present in commercially available pentabromodiphenyl ether were the highest in concentration in the United States, and the congener distribution was similar to that of the technical preparation (i.e., 2,2',4,4',5-pentabromodiphenyl ether [BDE-99] was similar in concentration to that of BDE-47). We conclude that further studies are required to investigate human indoor exposure to PBDEs across countries and to determine the risk factors related to indoor design factors.