[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Microglial cells, which are immunocompetent cells, are involved in all diseases of the central nervous system. During their activation in various diseases, a variety of soluble factors are released. In the present study, the correlation between cytokine levels and microglial cell migration in the course of retinal degeneration of Royal College of Surgeons (RCS) rats was evaluated. MFG-E8 and CD11b were used to confirm the microglial cells. In the retina of RCS rats, the mRNA expression of seven genes (MFG-E8 and its integrins αυ and ß5, CD11b and the cytokines TNF-α, IL-1ß, and MCP-1) formed almost similar bimodal peak distributions, which were centred at P7 and P45 to P60. In contrast, in rdy rats, which comprised the control group, a unimodal peak distribution centred at P14 was observed. The gene expression accompanied the activation and migration of microglial cells from the inner to the outer layer of the retina during the process of degeneration. Principal component analysis and discriminant function analysis revealed that the expression of these seven genes, especially TNF-α and CD11b, positively correlated with retinal degeneration and microglial activity during retinal degeneration in RCS rats, but not in the control rats. Furthermore, linear regression analysis demonstrated a significant correlation between the expression of these genes and the activation of microglial cells in the dystrophic retina. Our findings suggest that the suppression of microglial cells and the blockade of their cytotoxic effects may constitute a novel therapeutic strategy for treating photoreceptor death in various retinal disorders.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hypoxia-induced retinal ganglion cell (RGC) apoptosis has been implicated in many optic neuropathies. Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) is important in maintaining neuronal survival, proliferation, and differentiation. The purpose of this study is to explore whether IGF-1 can protect RGCs from hypoxia-induced apoptosis and to determine the precise mechanisms that regulate this process.
Purified RGC cultures were obtained from the retinas of neonatal Sprague Dawley (SD) rats using a two-step panning method. Primary cultured RGCs were cultured in a closed hypoxic chamber (5% O2, 5% CO2, and 90% N2) for 12 h with or without IGF-1. The degree of apoptosis in the RGCs was detected by caspase-3 expression and TUNEL and JC-1 staining assays. The expression and phosphorylation of protein kinase B (Akt), p44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) (extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1/2 [Erk-1/2]), Bad, and caspase-3 was investigated with immunoblot analysis.
Hypoxia induces apoptosis in primary Sprague Dawley rat RGCs, as detected by caspase-3 expression and TUNEL and JC-1 staining assays, and that IGF-1 treatment could significantly reduce this effect in RGCs. Interestingly, pretreatment of RGCs with AG1024 (an IGF-1 inhibitor), U0126 (an Erk-1/2 inhibitor), and LY294002 (an Akt inhibitor) markedly attenuated the effects of IGF-1 treatment. Furthermore, western blot analysis suggested that the Erk-1/2 and Akt signaling pathways play a role in the protective effects of IGF-1 on RGCs exposed to hypoxia.
These data indicate that IGF-1 can protect primary cultured RGCs against hypoxia-induced apoptosis via the Erk-1/2 and Akt signaling pathways, suggesting that IGF-1 treatment is a potential therapeutic approach for treating hypoxia-induced neurodegeneration in the retina.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Milk fat globule factor-E8 (MFG-E8) has been regarded as a key factor involved in the phagocytosis of apoptotic cells. We induced a lentivirus into the microglial cells for the augmentation or abrogation of MFG-E8 expression in mouse microglial cells, and investigated phagocytosis of phosphatidylserine tagged human red blood cells (hRBCs) in co-cultures. Increased MFG-E8 levels were associated with a significant increase in phagocytic activity compared to the controls. Conversely, phagocytosis dramitically decreased due to the abrogation of MFG-E8. In addition, the expression of the inflammatory cytokines, TNF-α and IL-1β, also increased or decreased in the microglial cells with the augmentation or abrogation of MFG-E8, respectively. Our findings indicate that the enhanced expression of MFG-E8 could increase phagocytosis of apoptotic cells; conversely, the rate of phagocytosis and the expression of inflammatory cytokines decreased when MFG-E8 expression was knocked down. Our results confirm that MFG-E8 plays an important role in phagocytosis, and possibly serves as an essential signal molecule for microglial cells.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hyperthyroidism is prevalent during pregnancy, but little is known about the effects of excess thyroid hormone on the development of embryonic neural stem/progenitor cells (NSCs), and the mechanisms underlying these effects. Previous studies indicate that STAT3 plays a crucial role in determining NSC fate during neurodevelopment. In this study, we investigated the effects of a supraphysiological dose of 3,5,3'-L-triiodothyronine (T3) on the proliferation and maintenance of NSCs derived from embryonic day 13.5 mouse neocortex, and the involvement of STAT3 in this process. Our results suggest that excess T3 treatment inhibits NSC proliferation and maintenance. T3 decreased tyrosine phosphorylation of JAK1, JAK2 and STAT3, and subsequently inhibited STAT3-DNA binding activity. Furthermore, proliferation and maintenance of NSCs were decreased by inhibitors of JAKs and STAT3, indicating that the STAT3 signalling pathway is involved in the process of NSC proliferation and maintenance. Taken together, these results suggest that the STAT3 signalling pathway is involved in the process of T3-induced inhibition of embryonic NSC proliferation and maintenance. These findings provide data for understanding the effects of hyperthyroidism during pregnancy on fetal brain development, and the mechanisms underlying these effects.
No preview · Article · Jul 2011 · Neurotoxicity Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In several neuropathological conditions, microglia can become overactivated and cause neurotoxicity by initiating neuronal damage in response to pro-inflammatory stimuli. Our previous studies have shown that exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF) activates cultured microglia to produce tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and nitric oxide (NO) through signal transduction involving the activator of transcription STAT3. Here, we investigated the role of STAT3 signaling in EMF-induced microglial activation and pro-inﬂammatory responses in more detail than the previous study.
N9 microglial cells were treated with EMF exposure or a sham treatment, with or without pretreatment with an inhibitor (Pyridone 6, P6) of the Janus family of tyrosine kinases (JAK). The activation state of microglia was assessed via immunoreaction using the microglial marker CD11b. Levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), TNF-α and NO were measured using real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and the nitrate reductase method. Activation of JAKs and STAT3 proteins was evaluated by western blotting for specific tyrosine phosphorylation. The ability of STAT3 to bind to DNA was detected with an electrophoresis mobility shift assay (EMSA).
EMF was found to significantly induce phosphorylation of JAK2 and STAT3, and DNA-binding ability of STAT3 in N9 microglia. In addition, EMF dramatically increased the expression of CD11b, TNF-α and iNOS, and the production of NO. P6 strongly suppressed the phosphorylation of JAK2 and STAT3 and diminished STAT3 activity in EMF-stimulated microglia. Interestingly, expression of CD11b as well as gene expression and production of TNF-α and iNOS were suppressed by P6 at 12 h, but not at 3 h, after EMF exposure.
EMF exposure directly triggers initial activation of microglia and produces a significant pro-inflammatory response. Our findings confirm that the JAK2-STAT3 pathway may not mediate this initial microglial activation but does promote pro-inflammatory responses in EMF-stimulated microglial cells. Thus, the JAK2-STAT3 pathway might be a therapeutic target for reducing pro-inflammatory responses in EMF-activated microglia.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2010 · Journal of Neuroinflammation
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Microglia activation plays a pivotal role in the initiation and progression of central nervous system (CNS) insult. The aim of the present work was to investigate the activation of microglia and involvement of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) in microglia activation after 2.45 GHz electromagnetic fields (EMF) exposure.
In this study, murine N9 microglial cells were exposed to 2.45 GHz EMF, the protein expressions of STAT3, Janus Tyrosine kinase 1 and 2(JAK1 and JAK2), phosphor-(Try705)STAT3 and DNA binding activity of STAT3 were examined by Western blot analysis and electrophoresis mobility shift assay (EMSA). Levels of the nitric oxide (NO) derivative nitrite were determined in the culture medium by the Griess reaction. The mRNA expression of tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) were detected by reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).
A significant increase of STAT3 DNA-binding ability was noted after exposure. Consistent with this, EMF rapidly induced phosphorylation of STAT3 and activated JAK1 and JAK2. In addition, EMF exposure increased transcription levels of the inflammation-associated genes, iNOS and TNF-alpha, which are reported to contain STAT-binding elements in their promoter region. P6, a JAK inhibitor, reduced induction of iNOS and TNF-alpha, nuclear factor binding activity, and activation of STAT3 in EMF-stimulated microglia.
These results provide evidence that EMF exposure can initiate the activation of microglia cells and STAT3 signalling involves in EMF-induced microglial activation.
No preview · Article · Jan 2010 · International Journal of Radiation Biology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There is strong evidence that beta-amyloid (Abeta) causes oxidative stress and induces mitochondrial dysfunction in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. Mitochondrial transcription factor A (Tfam) has multiple roles in the maintenance of mtDNA. To study the protective roles of Tfam against amyloid neurotoxicity, we established SH-SY5Y cell lines stably overexpressing Tfam and exposed them to 10 microm Abeta1-42 for 24 h. We found that Tfam overexpression attenuated Abeta1-42-induced cell viability damage and apoptosis. In addition, Tfam overexpression significantly suppressed the increase in excess reactive oxygen species and reversed the reduction in cytochrome c oxidase activity and ATP production induced by Abeta1-42. Furthermore, overexpression of DeltaC-Tfam, which has no functional domain for stimulating mtDNA transcription but can still maintain the mtDNA nucleoid formation and mtDNA copy number, also exhibited protective effects against Abeta1-42 cytotoxicity in SH-SY5Y cells. Together, our data suggest that Tfam overexpression protects mitochondria against Abeta-induced oxidative damage in SH-SY5Y cells. These beneficial effects may be attributable to the roles of Tfam in maintaining mtDNA nucleoid formation and mtDNA copy number.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To study the role of catecholamine(CA) in the mechanism of bio-effect of electromagnetic irradiation.
The contents of norepinephrine (NE), epinephrine (E) and dopamine (DA) in serum and hippocampus of rats at 0, 8, 24, 48 hours after electromagnetic irradiation were measured by using high performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detector(HPLC-ECD), and the influence of two kinds of shelter on CA was studied.
The levels of CA in serum and hippocampus increased obviously in an instant, decreased at 8 h and increased significantly again at 24 h after irradiation without shielding irradiation. But at 48 h, the levels of NA, DA in hippocampus were still higher and the serum's NA, DA were not different from the control. After irradiation with whole body shielding, the levels of CA had no changes. The contents of CA increased significantly only at 24 h after irradiation by 65 W/cm2 electromagnetic wave with trunk shielding. After irradiation by 129 W/cm2 with trunk shielding, the change of CA were similar to that of no shielding.
CA may take part in the injury to central nervous system and cardiovascular system after electromagnetic irradiation. And the injury to central nervous system may sustain longer than that of cardiovascular system. The protective effect of whole body shielding is the best, while trunk shielding may have some protective effect following lower and middle power electromagnetic wave. The most important protective measure is to shield the head.
No preview · Article · Sep 2002 · Zhonghua lao dong wei sheng zhi ye bing za zhi = Zhonghua laodong weisheng zhiyebing zazhi = Chinese journal of industrial hygiene and occupational diseases