[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: High-altitude hypoxia (reduced inspired oxygen tension due to decreased barometric pressure) exerts severe physiological stress on the human body. Two high-altitude regions where humans have lived for millennia are the Andean Altiplano and the Tibetan Plateau. Populations living in these regions exhibit unique circulatory, respiratory, and hematological adaptations to life at high altitude. Although these responses have been well characterized physiologically, their underlying genetic basis remains unknown. We performed a genome scan to identify genes showing evidence of adaptation to hypoxia. We looked across each chromosome to identify genomic regions with previously unknown function with respect to altitude phenotypes. In addition, groups of genes functioning in oxygen metabolism and sensing were examined to test the hypothesis that particular pathways have been involved in genetic adaptation to altitude. Applying four population genetic statistics commonly used for detecting signatures of natural selection, we identified selection-nominated candidate genes and gene regions in these two populations (Andeans and Tibetans) separately. The Tibetan and Andean patterns of genetic adaptation are largely distinct from one another, with both populations showing evidence of positive natural selection in different genes or gene regions. Interestingly, one gene previously known to be important in cellular oxygen sensing, EGLN1 (also known as PHD2), shows evidence of positive selection in both Tibetans and Andeans. However, the pattern of variation for this gene differs between the two populations. Our results indicate that several key HIF-regulatory and targeted genes are responsible for adaptation to high altitude in Andeans and Tibetans, and several different chromosomal regions are implicated in the putative response to selection. These data suggest a genetic role in high-altitude adaption and provide a basis for future genotype/phenotype association studies necessary to confirm the role of selection-nominated candidate genes and gene regions in adaptation to altitude.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: High-altitude environments (>2,500 m) provide scientists with a natural laboratory to study the physiological and genetic effects of low ambient oxygen tension on human populations. One approach to understanding how life at high altitude has affected human metabolism is to survey genome-wide datasets for signatures of natural selection. In this work, we report on a study to identify selection-nominated candidate genes involved in adaptation to hypoxia in one highland group, Andeans from the South American Altiplano. We analysed dense microarray genotype data using four test statistics that detect departures from neutrality. Using a candidate gene, single nucleotide polymorphism-based approach, we identified genes exhibiting preliminary evidence of recent genetic adaptation in this population. These included genes that are part of the hypoxia-inducible transcription factor ( HIF ) pathway, a biochemical pathway involved in oxygen homeostasis, as well as three other genomic regions previously not known to be associated with high-altitude phenotypes. In addition to identifying selection-nominated candidate genes, we also tested whether the HIF pathway shows evidence of natural selection. Our results indicate that the genes of this biochemical pathway as a group show no evidence of having evolved in response to hypoxia in Andeans. Results from particular HIF -targeted genes, however, suggest that genes in this pathway could play a role in Andean adaptation to high altitude, even if the pathway as a whole does not show higher relative rates of evolution. These data suggest a genetic role in high-altitude adaptation and provide a basis for genotype/phenotype association studies that are necessary to confirm the role of putative natural selection candidate genes and gene regions in adaptation to altitude.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dissecting the genetic basis of disease risk requires measuring all forms of genetic variation, including SNPs and copy number variants (CNVs), and is enabled by accurate maps of their locations, frequencies and population-genetic properties. We designed a hybrid genotyping array (Affymetrix SNP 6.0) to simultaneously measure 906,600 SNPs and copy number at 1.8 million genomic locations. By characterizing 270 HapMap samples, we developed a map of human CNV (at 2-kb breakpoint resolution) informed by integer genotypes for 1,320 copy number polymorphisms (CNPs) that segregate at an allele frequency >1%. More than 80% of the sequence in previously reported CNV regions fell outside our estimated CNV boundaries, indicating that large (>100 kb) CNVs affect much less of the genome than initially reported. Approximately 80% of observed copy number differences between pairs of individuals were due to common CNPs with an allele frequency >5%, and more than 99% derived from inheritance rather than new mutation. Most common, diallelic CNPs were in strong linkage disequilibrium with SNPs, and most low-frequency CNVs segregated on specific SNP haplotypes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: While the number of success stories for mapping genes associated with complex diseases using genome-wide association approaches is growing, there is still much work to be done in developing methods for such studies when the samples are collected from a population, which may not be homogeneous. Here we report the first genome-wide association study to identify genes associated with asthma in an admixed population. We genotyped 96 Puerto Rican moderate to severe asthma cases and 88 controls as well as 109 samples representing Puerto Rico's founding populations using the Affymetrix GeneChip Human Mapping 100K array sets. The data from samples representing Puerto Rico's founding populations was used to identify ancestry informative markers for admixture mapping analyses. In addition, a genome-wide association analysis using logistic regression was performed on the data. Although neither admixture mapping nor regression analysis gave any significant association with asthma after correction for multiple testing, an overlap analysis using the top scoring SNPs from different methods suggested chromosomal regions 5q23.3 and 13q13.3 as potential regions harboring genes for asthma in Puerto Ricans. The validation analysis of these two regions in 284 Puerto Rican asthma trios gave significant association for the 5q23.3 region. Our results provide strong evidence that the previously linked 5q23 region is associated with asthma in Puerto Ricans. The detection of causative variants in this region will require fine mapping and functional validation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent studies have used dense markers to examine the human genome in ancestrally homogeneous populations for hallmarks of selection. No genomewide studies have focused on recently admixed groups--populations that have experienced admixing among continentally divided ancestral populations within the past 200-500 years. New World admixed populations are unique in that they represent the sudden confluence of geographically diverged genomes with novel environmental challenges. Here, we present a novel approach for studying selection by examining the genomewide distribution of ancestry in the genetically admixed Puerto Ricans. We find strong statistical evidence of recent selection in three chromosomal regions, including the human leukocyte antigen region on chromosome 6p, chromosome 8q, and chromosome 11q. Two of these regions harbor genes for olfactory receptors. Interestingly, all three regions exhibit deficiencies in the European-ancestry proportion.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2007 · The American Journal of Human Genetics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Admixture mapping (AM) is a promising method for the identification of genetic risk factors for complex traits and diseases showing prevalence differences among populations. Efficient application of this method requires the use of a genomewide panel of ancestry-informative markers (AIMs) to infer the population of origin of chromosomal regions in admixed individuals. Genomewide AM panels with markers showing high frequency differences between West African and European populations are already available for disease-gene discovery in African Americans. However, no such a map is yet available for Hispanic/Latino populations, which are the result of two-way admixture between Native American and European populations or of three-way admixture of Native American, European, and West African populations. Here, we report a genomewide AM panel with 2,120 AIMs showing high frequency differences between Native American and European populations. The average intermarker genetic distance is ~1.7 cM. The panel was identified by genotyping, with the Affymetrix GeneChip Human Mapping 500K array, a population sample with European ancestry, a Mesoamerican sample comprising Maya and Nahua from Mexico, and a South American sample comprising Aymara/Quechua from Bolivia and Quechua from Peru. The main criteria for marker selection were both high information content for Native American/European ancestry (measured as the standardized variance of the allele frequencies, also known as "f value") and small frequency differences between the Mesoamerican and South American samples. This genomewide AM panel will make it possible to apply AM approaches in many admixed populations throughout the Americas.
Full-text · Article · Jul 2007 · The American Journal of Human Genetics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Copy number variation (CNV) of DNA sequences is functionally significant but has yet to be fully ascertained. We have constructed a first-generation CNV map of the human genome through the study of 270 individuals from four populations with ancestry in Europe, Africa or Asia (the HapMap collection). DNA from these individuals was screened for CNV using two complementary technologies: single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping arrays, and clone-based comparative genomic hybridization. A total of 1,447 copy number variable regions (CNVRs), which can encompass overlapping or adjacent gains or losses, covering 360 megabases (12% of the genome) were identified in these populations. These CNVRs contained hundreds of genes, disease loci, functional elements and segmental duplications. Notably, the CNVRs encompassed more nucleotide content per genome than SNPs, underscoring the importance of CNV in genetic diversity and evolution. The data obtained delineate linkage disequilibrium patterns for many CNVs, and reveal marked variation in copy number among populations. We also demonstrate the utility of this resource for genetic disease studies.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: DNA copy number alterations are one of the main characteristics of the cancer cell karyotype and can contribute to the complex phenotype of these cells. These alterations can lead to gains in cellular oncogenes as well as losses in tumor suppressor genes and can span small intervals as well as involve entire chromosomes. The ability to accurately detect these changes is central to understanding how they impact the biology of the cell.
We describe a novel algorithm called CARAT (Copy Number Analysis with Regression And Tree) that uses probe intensity information to infer copy number in an allele-specific manner from high density DNA oligonuceotide arrays designed to genotype over 100,000 SNPs. Total and allele-specific copy number estimations using CARAT are independently evaluated for a subset of SNPs using quantitative PCR and allelic TaqMan reactions with several human breast cancer cell lines. The sensitivity and specificity of the algorithm are characterized using DNA samples containing differing numbers of X chromosomes as well as a test set of normal individuals. Results from the algorithm show a high degree of agreement with results from independent verification methods.
Overall, CARAT automatically detects regions with copy number variations and assigns a significance score to each alteration as well as generating allele-specific output. When coupled with SNP genotype calls from the same array, CARAT provides additional detail into the structure of genome wide alterations that can contribute to allelic imbalance.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The complete sequencing the human genome and recent analytical advances have provided the opportunity to perform genome-wide studies of human variation. There is substantial potential for such population-genomic approaches to assist efforts to uncover the historical and demographic histories of human populations. Additionally, these genome-wide datasets allow for investigations of variability among genomic regions. Although all genomic regions in a population have experienced the same demographic events, they have not been affected by these events in precisely the same way. Much of the variability among genomic regions is simply the result of genetic drift (i.e., gene frequency changes resulting from the effects of small breeding-population size), but some is also the result of genetic adaptation, which will only affect the gene under selection and nearby regions. We have used a new DNA typing assay that allows for the genotyping of thousands of SNPs on hundreds of samples to identify regions most likely to have been affected by genetic adaptation. Populations that have inhabited different niches (e.g., high-altitude regions) can be used to identify genes underlying the physiological differences. We have used two methods (admixture mapping and genome scans for genetic adaptation) founded on the population-genomic paradigms to search for genes underlying population differences in response to chronic hypoxia. There is great promise that together these methods will facilitate the discovery of genes influencing hypoxic response.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2006 · Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Latinos are the largest minority population in the United States. Although usually classified as a single ethnic group by researchers, Latinos are heterogeneous from cultural, socioeconomic, and genetic perspectives. From a cultural and social perspective, Latinos represent a wide variety of national origins and ethnic and cultural groups, with a full spectrum of social class. From a genetic perspective, Latinos are descended from indigenous American, European, and African populations. We review the historical events that led to the formation of contemporary Latino populations and use results from recent genetic and clinical studies to illustrate the unique opportunity Latino groups offer for studying the interaction between racial, genetic, and environmental contributions to disease occurrence and drug response.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2006 · American Journal of Public Health
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Understanding the distribution of human genetic variation is an important foundation for research into the genetics of common diseases. Some of the alleles that modify common disease risk are themselves likely to be common and, thus, amenable to identification using gene-association methods. A problem with this approach is that the large sample sizes required for sufficient statistical power to detect alleles with moderate effect make gene-association studies susceptible to false-positive findings as the result of population stratification. Such type I errors can be eliminated by using either family-based association tests or methods that sufficiently adjust for population stratification. These methods require the availability of genetic markers that can detect and, thus, control for sources of genetic stratification among populations. In an effort to investigate population stratification and identify appropriate marker panels, we have analysed 11,555 single nucleotide polymorphisms in 203 individuals from 12 diverse human populations. Individuals in each population cluster to the exclusion of individuals from other populations using two clustering methods. Higher-order branching and clustering of the populations are consistent with the geographic origins of populations and with previously published genetic analyses. These data provide a valuable resource for the definition of marker panels to detect and control for population stratification in population-based gene identification studies. Using three US resident populations (European-American, African-American and Puerto Rican), we demonstrate how such studies can proceed, quantifying proportional ancestry levels and detecting significant admixture structure in each of these populations.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Motivation: A high density of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) coverage on the genome is desirable and often an essential requirement for population genetics studies. Region-specific or chromosome-specific linkage studies also benefit from the availability of as many high quality SNPs as possible. The availability of millions of SNPs from both Perlegen and the public domain and the development of an efficient microarray-based assay for genotyping SNPs has brought up some interesting analytical challenges. Effective methods for the selection of optimal subsets of SNPs spanning the genome and methods for accurately calling genotypes from probe hybridization patterns have enabled the development of a new microarray-based system for robustly genotyping over 100 000 SNPs per sample. Results: We introduce a new dynamic model-based algorithm (DM) for screening over 3 million SNPs and genotyping over 100 000 SNPs. The model is based on four possible underlying states: Null, A, AB and B for each probe quartet. We calculate a probe-level log likelihood for each model and then select between the four competing models with an SNP-level statistical aggregation across multiple probe quartets to provide a high-quality genotype call along with a quality measure of the call. We assess performance with HapMap reference genotypes, informative Mendelian inheritance relationship in families, and consistency between DM and another genotype classification method. At a call rate of 95.91% the concordance with reference genotypes from the HapMap Project is 99.81% based on over 1.5 million genotypes, the Mendelian error rate is 0.018% based on 10 trios, and the consistency between DM and MPAM is 99.90% at a comparable rate of 97.18%. We also develop methods for SNP selection and optimal probe selection.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We present a genotyping method for simultaneously scoring 116,204 SNPs using oligonucleotide arrays. At call rates >99%, reproducibility is >99.97% and accuracy, as measured by inheritance in trios and concordance with the HapMap Project, is >99.7%. Average intermarker distance is 23.6 kb, and 92% of the genome is within 100 kb of a SNP marker. Average heterozygosity is 0.30, with 105,511 SNPs having minor allele frequencies >5%.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) is increasingly utilized to investigate the genetic causes of complex human diseases. Here we present a high-throughput genotyping platform that uses a one-primer assay to genotype over 10,000 SNPs per individual on a single oligonucleotide array. This approach uses restriction digestion to fractionate the genome, followed by amplification of a specific fractionated subset of the genome. The resulting reduction in genome complexity enables allele-specific hybridization to the array. The selection of SNPs was primarily determined by computer-predicted lengths of restriction fragments containing the SNPs, and was further driven by strict empirical measurements of accuracy, reproducibility, and average call rate, which we estimate to be >99.5%, >99.9%, and>95%, respectively [corrected]. With average heterozygosity of 0.38 and genome scan resolution of 0.31 cM, the SNP array is a viable alternative to panels of microsatellites (STRs). As a demonstration of the utility of the genotyping platform in whole-genome scans, we have replicated and refined a linkage region on chromosome 2p for chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis and thyroid disease, previously identified using a panel of microsatellite (STR) markers.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Analysis of many thousands of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) across whole genome is crucial to efficiently map disease genes and understanding susceptibility to diseases, drug efficacy and side effects for different populations and individuals. High density oligonucleotide microarrays provide the possibility for such analysis with reasonable cost. Such analysis requires accurate, reliable methods for feature extraction, classification, statistical modeling and filtering.
We propose the modified partitioning around medoids as a classification method for relative allele signals. We use the average silhouette width, separation and other quantities as quality measures for genotyping classification. We form robust statistical models based on the classification results and use these models to make genotype calls and calculate quality measures of calls. We apply our algorithms to several different genotyping microarrays. We use reference types, informative Mendelian relationship in families, and leave-one-out cross validation to verify our results. The concordance rates with the single base extension reference types are 99.36% for the SNPs on autosomes and 99.64% for the SNPs on sex chromosomes. The concordance of the leave-one-out test is over 99.5% and is 99.9% higher for AA, AB and BB cells. We also provide a method to determine the gender of a sample based on the heterozygous call rate of SNPs on the X chromosome. See http://www.affymetrix.com for further information. The microarray data will also be available from the Affymetrix web site.
The algorithms will be available commercially in the Affymetrix software package.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: High-density oligonucleotide microarrays enable simultaneous monitoring of expression levels of tens of thousands of transcripts. For accurate detection and quantitation of transcripts in the presence of cellular mRNA, it is essential to design microarrays whose oligonucleotide probes produce hybridization intensities that accurately reflect the concentration of original mRNA. We present a model-based approach that predicts optimal probes by using sequence and empirical information. We constructed a thermodynamic model for hybridization behavior and determined the influence of empirical factors on the effective fitting parameters. We designed Affymetrix GeneChip probe arrays that contained all 25-mer probes for hundreds of human and yeast transcripts and collected data over a 4,000-fold concentration range. Multiple linear regression models were built to predict hybridization intensities of each probe at given target concentrations, and each intensity profile is summarized by a probe response metric. We selected probe sets to represent each transcript that were optimized with respect to responsiveness, independence (degree to which probe sequences are nonoverlapping), and uniqueness (lack of similarity to sequences in the expressed genomic background). We show that this approach is capable of selecting probes with high sensitivity and specificity for high-density oligonucleotide arrays.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2003 · Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: MOTIVATION: We consider the problem of estimating values associated with gene expression from oligonucleotide arrays. Such estimates should linearly track concentration, yield non-negative results, have statistical guarantees of robustness against outliers, and allow estimates of significance and variance. RESULTS: A hierarchy of simple models is used to design robust estimators meeting these goals for both stand alone and comparative experiments. This algorithm has been validated against an extensive panel of known spike experiments, and shows comparable performance to existing standards.