Geum-Sook Hwang

Ewha Womans University, Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea

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Publications (101)363.3 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Bariatric surgery alleviates obesity and ameliorates glucose tolerance. Using metabolomic and proteomic profiles, we evaluated metabolic changes in serum and liver tissue after duodenal-jejunal bypass (DJB) surgery in rats fed a normal chow diet. We found that the levels of vitamin B12 in the sera of DJB rates were decreased. In the liver of DJB rats, betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase levels were decreased, whereas serine, cystathionine, cysteine, glutathione, cystathionine beta-synthase, glutathione S-transferase, and aldehyde dehydrogenase levels were increased. These results suggested that DJB surgery enhanced trans-sulfuration and its consecutive reactions such as detoxification and the scavenging activities of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In addition, DJB rats showed higher levels of purine metabolites such as ATP, ADP, AMP, and inosine monophosphate (IMP). Decreased guanine deaminase, as well as lower levels of hypoxanthine, indicated that DJB surgery limited the purine degradation process. In particular, the AMP:ATP ratio and phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase increased after DJB surgery, which led to enhanced energy production and increased catabolic pathway activity, such as fatty acid oxidation and glucose transport. This study shows that bariatric surgery altered trans-sulfuration and purine metabolism in the liver. Characterization of these mechanisms increases our understanding of the benefits of bariatric surgery.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · AJP Endocrinology and Metabolism
  • Su Yong Shim · Jae Yeon Kim · Miso Nam · Geum-Sook Hwang · Do Hyun Ryu
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    ABSTRACT: Chiral oxazaborolidinium ion-catalyzed asymmetric cyclopropanation of α- or α,β-substituted acroleins with α-alkyl-α-diazoesters has been developed. With this methodology, chiral functionalized cyclopropanes containing a quaternary stereogenic center were obtained with high to excellent enantioselectivities (up to >99% ee). The synthetic utility of optically enriched functionalized cyclopropane was demonstrated in the first total synthesis of (+)-hamavellone B, which establishes the absolute configuration of natural (+)-hamavellone B.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Organic Letters
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Rhizomes of Polygonatum species are commonly used as herbal supplements in Asia. They have different medicinal effects by species but have been misused and mixed due to their similar taste and smell. Therefore, accurate and reliable analytical methods to discriminate between Polygonatum species are required. Results: In this study, global and targeted metabolite profiling using (1) H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1) H NMR) and ultra-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC/Q-TOF MS) were applied to discriminate between different Polygonatum species. Partial least squared discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) models were used to classify and predict species of Polygonatum. Cross-validation derived from PLS-DA revealed good predictive accuracy. Polygonatum species were classified into unique patterns based on K-means cluster analysis. Compound 4-hydrobenzoic acid and trigonelline were identified as novel marker compounds and quantified accurately. Conclusion: Our results demonstrate that metabolite profiling approaches coupled with chemometric analysis can be used to classify and discriminate between different species of various herbal medicines.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
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    ABSTRACT: Obesity is a multifactorial health problem resulting from genetic, environmental, and behavioral factors. A particularly interesting aspect of obesity is the differences observed in response to the same high-fat diet (HFD). In this study, we performed lipidomic profiling on livers from HFD-fed C57BL/6J mice using ultra-performance liquid chromatography–quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Mice were divided into three groups: normal diet (ND), HFD-obesity prone (HFD-OP), and HFD-obesity resistant (HFD-OR). Principal components analyses showed a difference between the HFD-OP and HFD-OR groups. Individuals in the HFD-OR group were closer to those in the ND group compared with those in the HFD-OP group. In particular, phosphocholine (PC) and triglyceride (TG) levels differed significantly depending on the length of the acyl chain and degree of unsaturation, respectively. PC species were either positively or negatively correlated with concentrations of glucose, insulin, leptin, and hepatic cholesterol according to the length of the acyl chain. Decreased expression of the scavenger receptor B1 and ATP-binding cassette A1 in HFD-OP mice indicated that the acyl chain length of PC species may be related to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol metabolism. This study demonstrates that lipidomic profiling is an effective approach to analyzing global lipid alterations as they pertain to obesity.
    Preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Scientific Reports
  • Na Rae Choi · Yong Pyo Kim · Won Hyun Ji · Geum-Sook Hwang · Yun Gyong Ahn
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    ABSTRACT: An analytical method was developed for the identification and quantification of seven volatile n-nitrosamines (n-nitrosodimethylamine [NDMA], n-nitrosoethylmethylamine [NMEA], n-nitrosodiethylamine [NDEA], n-nitrosodipropylamine [NDPA], n-nitrosodibutylamine [NDBA], n-nitrosopiperidine [NPIP], and n-nitrosopyrrolidine [NPYR]) in water insoluble cream type cosmetics. It was found that the head space-solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) was suitable for extraction, clean up, and pre-concentration of n-nitrosamines in the cream type samples so its optimal conditions were investigated. Identification and quantification of n-nitrosamines using single quadrupole gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) in chemical ionization (CI) mode were carried out with accurate mass measurements. Their accurate masses of protonated molecular ions were obtained within 10 mDa of the theoretical masses when sufficiently high signal was acquired from the unique calibration method using mass and isotope accuracy. For the method validation of quantification, spiking experiments were carried out to determine the linearity, recovery, and method detection limit (MDL) using three deuterated internal standards. The average recovery was 79% within 20% relative standard deviation (RSD) at the concentration of 50 ng/g. MDLs ranged from 0.46 ng/g to 36.54 ng/g, which was satisfactory for the directive limit of 50 ng/g proposed by the European Commission (EC). As a result, it was concluded that the method could be provided for the accurate mass screening, confirmation, and quantification of n-nitrosamines when applied to cosmetic inspection.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Talanta
  • Sung Ho Shin · Eun Hee Baek · Geum-Sook Hwang · Do Hyun Ryu
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    ABSTRACT: A convenient one-pot procedure to synthesize a variety of highly optically active syn-α-aryl-β-hydroxy Weinreb amides using an asymmetric Roskamp/reduction strategy is described. An oxazaborolidinium ion catalyzed asymmetric Roskamp reaction of α-aryl diazo Weinreb amides with aldehydes produced α-phenyl-β-keto Weinreb amides, which were in situ reduced with zinc borohydride to give syn-α-aryl-β-hydroxy Weinreb amides in good yields (up to 87%) with high enantioselectivities (up to 99% ee) and syn stereoselectivities (>20:1).
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Organic Letters
  • Byung Chul Kang · Dong Guk Nam · Geum-Sook Hwang · Do Hyun Ryu
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    ABSTRACT: A novel, catalytic enantioselective route to synthesize a variety of α-tertiary aryl ketones via a boron Lewis acid promoted formal insertion of aryldiazoalkane into the C-H bond of both aromatic and aliphatic aldehydes is described. In the presence of chiral (S)-oxazaborolidinium ion catalyst 1, the reaction proceeded in good yields (up to 94%) with excellent enantioselectivities (up to 99% ee).
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Organic Letters
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    ABSTRACT: Myocardial infarction (MI), a leading cause of death worldwide, results from prolonged myocardial ischemia with necrosis of myocytes due to a blood supply obstruction to an area of the heart. Many studies have reported gender-related differences in the clinical features of MI, but the reasons for these differences remain unclear. In this study, we applied ultra-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC/Q-TOF MS) and various statistical methods-such as multivariate, pathway, and correlation analyses-to identify gender-specific metabolic patterns in polar metabolites in serum from healthy individuals and patients with MI. Patients with diagnosed MI (n=68), and age- and body mass index-matched healthy individuals (n=68), were included in this study. The partial least-squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) model was generated from metabolic profiling data, and the score plots showed a significant gender-related difference in patients with MI. Many pathways were associated with amino acids and purines; amino acids, acylcarnitines, and purines differed significantly between male and female patients with MI. This approach could be utilized to observe gender-specific metabolic pattern differences between healthy controls and patients with MI. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2015 · Journal of pharmaceutical and biomedical analysis
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    Ju Yeon Park · Sang-Hak Lee · Min-Jeong Shin · Geum-Sook Hwang
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    ABSTRACT: Lipid metabolites are indispensable regulators of physiological and pathological processes, including atherosclerosis and coronary artery disease (CAD). However, the complex changes in lipid metabolites and metabolism that occur in patients with these conditions are incompletely understood. We performed lipid profiling to identify alterations in lipid metabolism in patients with angina and myocardial infarction (MI). Global lipid profiling was applied to serum samples from patients with CAD (angina and MI) and age-, sex-, and body mass index-matched healthy subjects using ultra-performance liquid chromatography/quadruple time-of-flight mass spectrometry and multivariate statistical analysis. A multivariate analysis showed a clear separation between the patients with CAD and normal controls. Lysophosphatidylcholine (lysoPC) and lysophosphatidylethanolamine (lysoPE) species containing unsaturated fatty acids and free fatty acids were associated with an increased risk of CAD, whereas species of lysoPC and lyso-alkyl PC containing saturated fatty acids were associated with a decreased risk. Additionally, PC species containing palmitic acid, diacylglycerol, sphingomyelin, and ceramide were associated with an increased risk of MI, whereas PE-plasmalogen and phosphatidylinositol species were associated with a decreased risk. In MI patients, we found strong positive correlation between lipid metabolites related to the sphingolipid pathway, sphingomyelin, and ceramide and acute inflammatory markers (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein). The results of this study demonstrate altered signatures in lipid metabolism in patients with angina or MI. Lipidomic profiling could provide the information to identity the specific lipid metabolites under the presence of disturbed metabolic pathways in patients with CAD.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2015 · PLoS ONE
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    ABSTRACT: We evaluated metabolic changes after vertical sleeve gastrectomy (VSG) surgery in a rat model using proteomics and metabolomic profiling in liver and serum. Rats were randomly divided into two groups: sham (n = 10) and VSG (n = 12). Food intake, body weight, blood glucose, insulin, and thyroid hormone levels were measured. Two-dimensional electrophoresis, nuclear resonance spectroscopy, mass spectroscopy, immunofluorescence, and immunoblot analyses were used to determine and validate changes in metabolites and proteins in liver tissue and serum samples. Food intake and body weight decreased after VSG group (p < 0.05 and p < 0.05, respectively). Random blood glucose (sham, 183.3 ± 5.6 mg/dL; VSG, 138.5 ± 3.7 mg/dL) decreased while random insulin (sham, 0.45 ± 0.16 μg/L; VSG, 1.05 ± 0.18 μg/L) increased after VSG (p < 0.05 and p < 0.01, respectively). We found that expressions of gluconeogenic enzymes (phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase-1 and glucose-6-phosphatase) and concentrations of pyruvate and malate decreased while lactate, NADH, NADPH, glucose, and AMP/ATP ratio increased after VSG. Thyroid hormones, triiodothyronine (T3) and free thyroxine (fT4), decreased after VSG. This study proves that VSG suppresses hepatic glucose production.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2015 · Obesity Surgery
  • Sung Il Lee · Ka Eun Kim · Geum-Sook Hwang · Do Hyun Ryu
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    ABSTRACT: Highly enantioselective 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reactions of α-substituted diazoacetates are accomplished by catalysis of the chiral oxazaborolidinium ion. Functionalized 2-pyrazolines are synthesized in high to excellent enantiomeric ratios (up to >99 : 1). The synthetic utility of 2-pyrazoline was expanded via preparation of 2,4-diamino ester compounds bearing a chiral quaternary carbon center.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2015 · Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
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    ABSTRACT: Arctium lappa L. (Asteracease), commonly known as burdock, has a long history of cultivation as a dietary vegetable and as an ingredient in folk medicines worldwide. Stress in plants disrupts metabolic homeostasis and requires adjustment of metabolic pathways. Exposure to heavy metals is one of the most prevalent environmental stresses encountered by plants. In this study, metabolite profiling with multivariate analysis was used to obtain a holistic view of the response of burdock roots to copper stress. A detailed pathway analysis was conducted using 1H NMR and GC-MS. The Principal component analyses (PCA) model generated from the NMR data showed significant separation between the control and copper-treated burdock roots. Copper-treated burdock roots were characterized by increased levels of phenols and decreased levels of primary metabolites such as sugars, amino acids, and organic acids. These results suggest that copper stress leads to activation of the phenylpropanoid pathway and growth inhibition. GC-MS analyses revealed increased levels of unsaturated fatty acids and decreased levels of sterols in the copper-treated group. These changes may result from damage to the cell membrane and/or a loss of membrane integrity. These results were confirmed by targeted analysis using UPLC/QTRAP-MS. This study demonstrates that metabolomic profiling is an effective analytical approach to understanding the metabolic pathway(s) associated with copper stress in burdock roots.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2015 · Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
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    ABSTRACT: Tsutsugamushi disease is an infectious disease transmitted to humans through the bite of the Orientia tsutsugamushi-infected chigger mite; however, host-pathogen interactions and the precise mechanisms of damage in O. tsutsugamushi infections have not been fully elucidated. Here, we analyzed the global metabolic effects of O. tsutsugamushi infection on the host using 1H-NMR and UPLC-Q-TOF mass spectroscopy coupled with multivariate statistical analysis. In addition, the effect of O. tsutsugamushi infection on metabolite concentrations over time was analyzed by two-way ANOVAs. Orthogonal partial least squares-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) showed distinct metabolic patterns between control and O. tsutsugamushi-infected mice in liver, spleen, and serum samples. O. tsutsugamushi infection caused decreased energy production and deficiencies in both remethylation sources and glutathione. In addition, O. tsutsugamushi infection accelerated uncommon energy production pathways (i.e., excess fatty acid and protein oxidation) in host body. Infection resulted in an enlarged spleen with distinct phospholipid and amino acid characteristics. This study suggests that metabolite profiling of multiple organ tissues and serum could provide insight into global metabolic changes and mechanisms of pathology in O. tsutsugamushi-infected hosts.
    Preview · Article · Jan 2015 · PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
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    ABSTRACT: Radiation exposure is a threat to public health because it causes many diseases, such as cancers and birth defects, due to genetic modification of cells. Compared with the past, a greater number of people are more frequently exposed to higher levels of radioactivity today, not least due to the increased use of diagnostic and therapeutic radiation-emitting devices. In this study, ultra-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF-MS)-based metabolic profiling was used to investigate radiation- induced metabolic changes in human fibroblasts. After exposure to 1 and 5 Gy of γ-radiation, the irradiated fibroblasts were harvested at 24, 48, and 72 h and subjected to global metabolite profiling analysis. Mass spectral peaks of cell extracts were analyzed by pattern recognition using principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). The results showed that the cells irradiated with 1 Gy returned to control levels at 72 h post radiation, whereas cells irradiated with 5 Gy were quite unlike the controls; therefore, cells irradiated with 1 Gy had recovered, whereas those irradiated with 5 Gy had not. Lipid and amino acid levels increased after the higher-level radiation, indicating degradation of membranes and proteins. These results suggest that MS-based metabolite profiling of γ-radiation-exposed human cells provides insight into the global metabolic alterations in these cells.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2014 · PLoS ONE
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    Yong-Kook Kwon · Yeon-Sik Bong · Kwang-Sik Lee · Geum-Sook Hwang
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    ABSTRACT: ICP-MS and 1H NMR are commonly used to determine the geographical origin of food and crops. In this study, data from multielemental analysis performed by ICP-AES/ICP-MS and metabolomic data obtained from 1H NMR were integrated to improve the reliability of determining the geographical origin of medicinal herbs. Astragalus membranaceus and Paeonia albiflora with different origins in Korea and China were analysed by 1H NMR and ICP-AES/ICP-MS, and an integrated multivariate analysis was performed to characterise the differences between their origins. Four classification methods were applied: linear discriminant analysis (LDA), k-nearest neighbour classification (KNN), support vector machines (SVM), and partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). Results were compared using leave-one-out cross-validation and external validation. The integration of multielemental and metabolomic data was more suitable for determining geographical origin than the use of each individual data set alone. The integration of the two analytical techniques allowed diverse environmental factors such as climate and geology, to be considered. Our study suggests that an appropriate integration of different types of analytical data is useful for determining the geographical origin of food and crops with a high degree of reliability.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2014 · Food Chemistry
  • Young-Sang Jung · Kwang-Im Oh · Geum-Sook Hwang · Minhaeng Cho
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    ABSTRACT: For nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based protein structure determinations, the random coil chemical shifts are very important because the secondary and tertiary protein structure predictions become possible by examining deviations of measured chemical shifts from those reference chemical shift values. In addition, neighboring residue effects on chemical shifts and J-coupling constants are crucial in understanding the nature of conformational propensities exhibited by unfolded or intrinsically disordered proteins. We recently reported the 1D NMR results for a complete set of terminally blocked dipeptides (Oh KI, Jung YS, Hwang GS, Cho M. J Biomol NMR 2012;53:25-41), but the NMR resonance assignments were not possible so that the average chemical shifts and J-coupling constants were only considered. In the present work, to thoroughly investigate the neighboring residue effects and random coil chemical shifts we extend the previous studies with 2D NMR, and measured all the (3) JHNHα values and H(α) and H(N) chemical shifts of the same set of terminally blocked dipeptides that are free from structural effects like secondary structure, hydrogen-bond, long-range backbone, and side-chain interactions. In particular, the preceding and following residue effects on amino-acid backbone conformational propensities are revealed and directly compared with previous works on either short peptides or empirical chemical shift database. Chirality 00:000-000, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2014 · Chirality
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Mass screening for gastric cancer (GC), particularly using endoscopy, may not be the most practical approach as a result of its high cost, lack of acceptance, and poor availability. Thus, novel markers that can be used in cost-effective diagnosis and noninvasive screening for GC are needed. Methods: A total of 154 urine samples from GC patients and healthy individuals and 30 pairs of matched tumor and normal stomach tissues were collected. Multivariate analysis was performed on urinary and tissue metabolic profiles acquired using (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance and (1)H high-resolution magic angle spinning spectroscopy, respectively. In addition, metabolic profiling of urine from GC patients after curative surgery was performed. Results: Multivariate statistical analysis showed significant separation in the urinary and tissue data of GC patients and healthy individuals. The metabolites altered in the urine of GC patients were related to amino acid and lipid metabolism, consistent with changes in GC tissue. In the external validation, the presence of GC (early or advanced) from the urine model was predicted with high accuracy, which showed much higher sensitivity than carbohydrate antigen 19-9 and carcinoembryonic antigen. Furthermore, 4-hydroxyphenylacetate, alanine, phenylacetylglycine, mannitol, glycolate, and arginine levels were significantly correlated with cancer T stage and, together with hypoxanthine level, showed a recovery tendency toward healthy controls in the postoperative samples compared to the preoperative samples. Conclusions: An urinary metabolomics approach may be useful for the effective diagnosis of GC.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2014 · Annals of Surgical Oncology
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    ABSTRACT: Curcuma, a genus of rhizomatous herbaceous species, has been used as a spice, traditional medicine, and natural dye. In this study, the metabolite profile of Curcuma extracts was determined using gas chromatography-time of flight mass spectrometry (GC/TOF MS) and ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC/Q-TOF MS) to characterize differences between Curcuma aromatica and Curcuma longa grown on the Jeju-do or Jin-do islands, South Korea. Previous studies have performed primary metabolite profiling of Curcuma species grown in different regions using NMR-based metabolomics. This study focused on profiling of secondary metabolites from the hexane extract of Curcuma species. Principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least-squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) plots showed significant differences between the C. aromatica and C. longa metabolite profiles, whereas geographical location had little effect. A t-test was performed to identify statistically significant metabolites, such as terpenoids. Additionally, targeted profiling using UPLC/Q-TOF MS showed that the concentration of curcuminoids differed depending on the plant origin. Based on these results, a combination of GC- and LC-MS allowed us to analyze curcuminoids and terpenoids, the typical bioactive compounds of Curcuma, which can be used to discriminate Curcuma samples according to species or geographical origin.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2014 · Molecules
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    ABSTRACT: Discovery of biomarkers in peripheral blood is a crucial step toward the early diagnosis and repetitive monitoring of treatment response for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Metabolomics is a promising technology that can identify unbiased biomarkers. To explore potential blood biomarkers for AD via metabolic profiling with high-resolution magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance techniques, we identified changes in peripheral blood metabolomic profiles in response to amyloid-β (Aβ)-induced neuroinflammation and co-treatment with gallate, a phytochemical known to have anti-neuroinflammatory properties. Alzheimer's-like (AL) model mice were produced by intracerebroventricular infusion of Aβ and compared with normal control mice with infusion of vehicle. AL mice were treated with either gallate (treated AL mice) or vehicle (untreated AL mice). Metabolomic analyses of both whole blood and plasma showed a clear separation between untreated AL mice and the other two groups, with levels of several metabolites involved in energy metabolism, including pyruvate and creatine, being significantly reduced in untreated AL mice compared with control and treated AL mice. Gallate treatment suppressed Aβ-induced overproduction of the inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-α in the hippocampus and normalized plasma levels of the affected metabolites. These results suggest that plasma levels of several metabolites could be indicative of both brain pathology and therapeutic responses, supporting the possibility of a close relationship between central neuroinflammation and systemic metabolic disturbance. These findings also suggest the potential of NMR-based metabolomics as a method to identify novel plasma biomarkers for AD, which could be confirmed by future translational research with human patients.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2014 · Journal of Alzheimer's disease: JAD
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    ABSTRACT: Leachate, generated by the decomposition of animal carcasses, presents many environmental, sanitary, and food safety hazards. However, research on the characteristics of leachate is lacking. In this study, we performed biochemical profiling of leachate from two animal species (pig and cattle) in two soil types (sandy loam and sandy soil) using (1)H-NMR-based profiling, followed by multivariate data analysis. The leachate was collected from a well-controlled artificial burial site over a 31-week period. Principal components analysis (PCA) of the NMR data showed similar patterns between species and soil types. Organic components, including organic acids and phenols, predominated, and their levels increased with time. The methylamine level in leachate from pig carcasses 18 weeks following burial was significantly higher than that from cattle carcasses; leachate from cattle carcasses in sandy soil 1 week after burial contained unique components (specifically ethanol, formate, alanine, N-methylation, and taurine), in contrast with those from sandy loam soil. This study suggests that a NMR-based profiling approach is useful to characterize the organic components in leachate from animal carcasses over time.
    Full-text · Article · May 2014 · Environmental Science and Pollution Research

Publication Stats

1k Citations
363.30 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2015
    • Ewha Womans University
      • Department of Life Sciences
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2009-2015
    • Chungnam National University
      • Graduate School of Analytical Science and Technology
      Daiden, Daejeon, South Korea
  • 2007-2015
    • Korea Basic Science Institute KBSI
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2011
    • Gachon University
      Sŏngnam, Gyeonggi Province, South Korea