[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
The prevalence of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction (LVDD) sharply increases in women after their 50s and may contribute to the high prevalence of diastolic heart failure in elderly women. A decrease in estrogen levels after menopause is postulated to be one of the mechanisms responsible for this phenomenon. However, there is a paucity of data on the relationship between the timing of menopause and the progression of LVDD in the clinical setting; thus, we investigated this relationship in healthy postmenopausal women.
We enrolled 115 women and divided them into two groups according to median menopause age: 61 who experienced menopause at ≤50 years (early menopause group), and 54 who experienced menopause at >50 years (late menopause group). We compared the echocardiographic and clinical characteristics between the two groups.
There were no significant differences in LV diastolic parameters (mitral E/A, p=0.561; e', p=0.052; E/e', p=0.081; DCT, p=0.082; prevalence of LVDD class, p=0.801), as well as other echocardiographic parameters and clinical characteristics between the two groups. Multivariate linear regression analysis showed that the independent determinants of LVDD were age and body mass index, but not the timing of menopause.
Early menopause did not influence the progression of LVDD in postmenopausal women. The sharp progression of LVDD in elderly women is complex and probably influenced by multiple factors.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2016 · Journal of Cardiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We present the first case of multiple coronary artery-left ventricular micro fistulae complicated with hepatic arteriovenous fistulae (AVF) in an adult patient. Multiple coronary artery fistulae originated from the left anterior descending coronary artery with aneurysmal change. Multiple coronary artery-left ventricular micro fistulae presented on the left ventricular wall and showed significant localized hypertrophic change. Stress and enhanced cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) revealed myocardial ischemia that could not be detected by stress Tl-201 cardiac scintigraphy, and late patchy gadolinium enhancement (LGE) in the mid-ventricular wall apex. This LGE pattern did not match the typical pattern observed in patients with apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. These observations may help distinguish multiple coronary artery-associated myocardial ischemia and hypertrophy from apical cardiomyopathy.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2016 · International Heart Journal
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Afterload is considered to be an important factor regulating heart failure. Aortic structure or pathology may affect afterload to various extents. However, the contribution of aortic diseases, such as aortic aneurysm or aortic dissection, to heart failure status has not been completely elucidated.Here we describe a 78-year-old patient with severe heart failure who made a dramatic recovery from cardiac decompensation following endovascular thoracic aortic aneurysm surgery. He previously underwent graft replacement for impending rupture of the descending aorta and replacement of both the mitral valve and aortic valve to address valve regurgitation. Subsequently, his left ventricular (LV) function became severely depressed (13%) and serum brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) level remained high (approximately 880-3520 pg/mL). Conversely, his aortic arch was dilated to 70 mm and required surgical intervention. Despite his extremely high vascular surgery risk due to severely depressed cardiac function, stent grafting for thoracic aortic aneurysm was successfully performed. Furthermore, the severity of his depressed cardiac function and heart failure dramatically improved following stent grafting. The left ventricular ejection fraction improved from 13% presurgery to 55% postsurgery and the serum BNP level had significantly decreased to 70- 240 pg/mL. These improvements helped to alleviate the patient's heart failure symptoms, including shortness of breath.This case suggests a possible beneficial effect of aortic aneurysm repair for improving cardiac function and heart failure; our study presents a new concept of another extrinsic factor that can affect cardiac function through modulation of afterload.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2015 · International Heart Journal
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The clinical meaning of changes in PP with posture remains unclear. We performed treadmill exercise testing on 144 subjects to diagnose ischemic heart disease, and measured the PPs in the supine and standing positions. The differences in the two PPs ranged between -35 and 45 mmHg. Eleven subjects were diagnosed with significant coronary ischemia. The differences in the PPs were significantly increased, and PP in the standing position was significantly elevated in these subjects. A large difference in the PPs in the standing and supine positions was associated with significant coronary ischemia, independent of significant covariables.
No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Clinical and Experimental Hypertension
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Congenital contractural arachnodactyly (CCA) is a rare connective tissue disorder characterized by marfanoid habitus with camptodactyly. However, cardiac features have rarely been documented in adults. We herein report a sporadic case of CCA in a 20-year-old woman who developed decompensated dilated cardiomyopathy. The patient did not have any mutations in the FBN1 or FBN2 genes, which are most commonly associated with Marfan syndrome and CCA, respectively. Although whether these two diseases are caused by a mutation(s) in the same gene or two different genes remains unknown, this case provides new clinical insight into the cardiovascular management of CCA.
No preview · Article · May 2015 · Internal Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose
The physiological role of vasomotion, rhythmic oscillations in vascular tone or diameter, and its underlying mechanisms are unknown. We investigated the characteristics of brachial artery vasomotion in patients with ischemic heart disease (IHD).
We performed a retrospective study of 37 patients with IHD. Endothelial function was assessed using flow-mediated dilation (FMD), and power spectral analysis of brachial artery diameter oscillations during FMD was performed. Frequency-domain components were calculated by integrating the power spectrums in three frequency bands (in ms2) using the MemCalc (GMS, Tokyo, Japan): very-low frequency (VLF), 0.003–0.04 Hz; low frequency (LF), 0.04–0.15 Hz; and high frequency (HF), 0.15–0.4 Hz. Total spectral power (TP) was calculated as the sum of all frequency bands, and each spectral component was normalized against TP.
Data revealed that HF/TP closely correlated with FMD (r = −0.33, p = 0.04), whereas VLF/TP and LF/TP did not. We also explored the relationship between elevated C-reactive protein (CRP) levels and vasomotion. HF/TP was significantly increased in subjects with high CRP levels (CRP;>0.08 mg/dL) compared with subjects with low CRP levels (0.052±0.026 versus 0.035±0.022, p<0.05). The HF/TP value closely correlated with CRP (r = 0.24, p = 0.04), whereas the value of FMD did not (r = 0.023, p = 0.84). In addition, elevated CRP levels significantly increased the value of HF/TP after adjustment for FMD and blood pressure (β = 0.33, p<0.05).
The HF component of brachial artery diameter oscillation during FMD measurement correlated well with FMD and increased in the presence of elevated CRP levels in subjects with IHD.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
In-stent restenosis (ISR) is still a recognized clinical problem in the era of drug-eluting stent (DES). Some previous studies have suggested that circulating eosinophils play an important role in both restenosis and thrombosis after DES implantation. However, the contribution of eosinophils to the pathogenesis of ISR has not yet been concisely clarified.
We present the case of an 83-year-old male Japanese patient with ISR exacerbated by drug-induced severe eosinophilia. He had previous histories of coronary stent implantations by DES and was referred to our hospital because of erythema with severe eosinophilia (maximum was 6500/μl [48% of total white blood cell count]). Around the same time, the patient developed ISR, for which a stent was deployed 2 years earlier. Arterial wall injury due to the increase in circulating eosinophils was verified in several findings, such as the increase of D-dimer and brain natriuretic peptide. In addition, the histology of the resected tissue from erythema demonstrated that the nuclei of endothelial cells were swollen where eosinophils and lymphocytes heavily infiltrated into the extravascular space, suggesting the presence of vascular injury. This injury due to the increase in circulating eosinophils may have a marked impact on the pathologic process of ISR in DES implantation.
Just a few anecdotal reports are available of ISR occurring in the setting of hypereosinophilia. The clarification of the mechanism in this patient provides a new effective therapeutic strategy against ISR in the setting of DES implantation.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2014 · American Journal of Case Reports
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Endothelial dysfunction and autonomic nervous system dysfunction are both risk factors for atherosclerosis. There is evidence demonstrating that there is a close interrelationship between these two systems. In hypertension, endothelial dysfunction affects the pathologic process through autonomic nervous pathways, and the pathophysiological process of autonomic neuropathy in diabetes mellitus is closely related with vascular function. However, detailed mechanisms of this interrelationship have not been clearly explained. In this review, we summarize findings concerning the interrelationship between vascular function and the autonomic nervous system from both experimental and clinical studies. The clarification of this interrelationship may provide more comprehensive risk stratification and a new effective therapeutic strategy against atherosclerosis.
No preview · Article · Jul 2014 · Annals of Vascular Diseases
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the add-on effect of aliskiren to valsartan on endothelial-dependent vasodilation in hypertensive patients with ischemic heart disease (IHD). After 4 weeks of treatment with 80 mg of valsartan, 28 patients were allocated to either continued treatment with valsartan or an add-on treatment with valsartan plus 150 mg of aliskiren. Aliskiren significantly decreased plasma renin activity, whereas endothelium-dependent vasodilation measured by flow-mediated dilation (FMD) did not change. In contrast, heart rate significantly decreased (73.1 ± 9.8 to 66.3 ± 7.0 beats per minute at baseline and 24 weeks, respectively [P = .009]) and the standard deviation of the R-R intervals (SDNN) significantly increased in the aliskiren group. The add-on aliskiren to valsartan therapy may not improve endothelial functions, although it significantly reduced resting heart rate via regulation of the autonomic nervous system in hypertensive patients with IHD.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aortic stenosis (AS) is the most common valvular disease and aortic valve replacement (AVR) is one of its most effective interventions. AS affects not only the left ventricle, but also vascular function beyond the stenotic valve, which can lead to various types of vascular dysfunction. However, research evaluating the effect of AS on aortic vascular function is limited. In this study, we investigated clinical meaning to evaluate endothelial function in subjects with AS. From April 2011 to April 2012, 20 consecutive adult patients with degenerative AS (mean age, 74.7 ± 7.4 years; range 50-83 years) who underwent AVR at our institution were included in the study. We measured flow-mediated dilation (FMD) to evaluate the effect of AS on endothelial function. The difference between brachial artery diameter (BAD) before (4.0 ± 0.7 mm) and after AVR (3.9 ± 0.6 mm) was not significant (p = 0.043), but FMD significantly improved after AVR (from 3.1 ± 1.8 to 6.0 ± 2.7 %, p < 0.0001). We also analyzed FMD × BAD index, endogenous vasodilatory capability independent of BAD, resulting that it also significantly increased after AVR (12.3 ± 7.0-22.5 ± 9.3, p < 0.0001). We divided patients into two groups by pre- to post-AVR change in FMD (ΔFMD); large-ΔFMD group [ΔFMD >3.0 % (median value)] and small-ΔFMD group (ΔFMD <3.0 %). There were no significant changes in age, blood pressure, heart rate, B-type natriuretic peptide, or echocardiographic parameters in either group. In contrast, BAD was significantly larger in the small ΔFMD group (4.3 ± 0.7 mm) than in the large ΔFMD group (3.7 ± 0.7 mm) (p = 0.030). In addition, cardio-thoracic ratio was significantly greater in the small ΔFMD group (58.4 ± 7.1 %) than in the large ΔFMD group (53.7 ± 4.6 %) (p = 0.048). Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis of BAD to differentiate large and small ΔFMD demonstrated an area under the curve of 0.750 (p = 0.059) and that optimal cutoff for BAD was 4.28 mm (70 % sensitivity, 80 % specificity). AVR in subjects with AS is associated with a significant improvement in FMD in the brachial artery. Measurement of the BAD may be helpful in distinguishing whether the impairment of FMD in AS derives from a stenotic valve or vascular remodeling.
No preview · Article · Feb 2014 · Heart and Vessels
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Right atrial pressure (RAP) is commonly estimated using inferior vena cava (IVC) diameter and its respirophasic variations. Although a guideline has been provided for estimation of RAP due to variation in IVC dimensions based on studies in Western subjects, echocardiographic values in Asian subjects are unknown.
Methods and results:
We studied 369 patients who underwent IVC ultrasound within 24h of right heart catheterization (RHC). The maximum and minimum IVC diameter during a respiratory cycle and the percent collapse after a sniff test were measured. These IVC parameters were compared with mean RAP measured on RHC. Receiver operating characteristic curves were generated for each IVC parameter to determine the optimal cut-off to detect RAP >10mmHg. The IVC maximum diameter cut-off for detecting RAP >10mmHg was 19mm (sensitivity, 75%; specificity, 78%) and the percent collapse cut-off was 30% (sensitivity, 75%; specificity, 83%). Both cut-offs were smaller than those previously reported in patients from Western countries. When the cut-off values from the existing guideline were applied to the present cohort, the sensitivity and specificity for normal RAP (0-5mmHg) were 38.6% and 74.2%, respectively, and 60.0% and 92.0% for elevated RAP (>10mmHg).
The optimal IVC maximum diameter and percent collapse cut-offs to detect elevated RAP were smaller in Asian subjects than in a previously reported Western cohort.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2014 · Circulation Journal
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We conducted a retrospective study of 60 patients with ischemic heart disease (31 with diabetes and 29 without diabetes) to investigate the impact of diabetes on diurnal body temperature patterns. We found that the increase of axillary body temperature in the evening was reduced in the presence of diabetes, which was associated with autonomic neuropathy.
No preview · Article · Jan 2014 · Clinical Autonomic Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Marfan syndrome is an inherited disorder characterized by genetic abnormality of microfibrillar connective tissue proteins. Endothelial dysfunction is thought to cause aortic dilation in subjects with a bicuspid aortic valve; however, the role of endothelial dysfunction and endothelial damaging factors has not been elucidated in Marfan syndrome. Flow-mediated dilation, a noninvasive measurement of endothelial function, was evaluated in 39 patients with Marfan syndrome. Aortic diameter was measured at the aortic annulus, aortic root at the sinus of Valsalva, sinotubular junction and ascending aorta by echocardiography, and adjusted for body surface area (BSA). The mean value of flow-mediated dilation was 6.5 ± 2.4 %. Flow-mediated dilation had a negative correlation with the diameter of the ascending thoracic aorta (AscAd)/BSA (R = -0.39, p = 0.020) and multivariate analysis revealed that flow-mediated dilation was an independent factor predicting AscAd/BSA, whereas other segments of the aorta had no association. Furthermore, Brinkman index had a somewhat greater influence on flow-mediated dilation (R = -0.42, p = 0.008). Although subjects who smoked tended to have a larger AscAd compared with non-smokers (AscA/BSA: 17.3 ± 1.8 versus 15.2 ± 3.0 mm/m(2), p = 0.013), there was no significant change in flow-mediated dilation, suggesting that smoking might affect aortic dilation via an independent pathway. Common atherogenic risks, such as impairment of flow-mediated dilation and smoking status, affected aortic dilation in subjects with Marfan syndrome.
No preview · Article · Jul 2013 · Heart and Vessels