[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Bioscavengers are molecules able to neutralize neurotoxic organophosphorus compounds (OP) before they can reach their biological target. Human butyrylcholinesterase (hBChE) is a natural bioscavenger each molecule of enzyme neutralizing one molecule of OP. The amount of natural enzyme is insufficient to achieve good protection. Thus, different strategies have been envisioned. The most straightforward consists in injecting a large dose of highly purified natural hBChE to increase the amount of bioscavenger in the bloodstream. This proved to be successful for protection against lethal doses of soman and VX but remains expensive. An improved strategy is to regenerate prophylactic cholinesterases (ChE) by administration of reactivators after exposure. But broad-spectrum efficient reactivators are still lacking, especially for inhibited hBChE. Cholinesterase mutants capable of reactivating spontaneously are another option. The G117H hBChE mutant has been a prototype. We present here the Y124H/Y72D mutant of human acetylcholinesterase; its spontaneous reactivation rate after V-agent inhibition is increased up to 110 fold. Catalytic bioscavengers, enzymes capable of hydrolyzing OP, present the best alternative. Mesophilic bacterial phosphotriesterase (PTE) is a candidate with good catalytic efficiency. Its enantioselectivity has been enhanced against the most potent OP isomers by rational design. We show that PEGylation of this enzyme improves its mean residence time in the rat blood stream 24-fold and its bioavailability 120-fold. Immunogenic issues remain to be solved. Human paraoxonase 1 (hPON1) is another promising candidate. However, its main drawback is that its phosphotriesterase activity is highly dependent on its environment. Recent progress has been made using a mammalian chimera of PON1, but we provide here additional data showing that this chimera is biochemically different from hPON1. Besides, the chimera is expected to suffer from immunogenic issues. Thus, we stress that interest for hPON1 must not fade away, and in particular, the 3D structure of the hPON1 eventually in complex with OP has to be solved.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2011 · Toxicology Letters
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Bioscavengers are considered as promising antidotes against organophosphate poisoning. We focused on a bacterial phosphotriesterase (PTE) expressed in Escherichia coli. The main disadvantage of this non-human catalytic bioscavenger is its relatively short half-life in the organism and strong immunogenicity after repeated administration. Therefore, we prepared different methoxy polyethylene glycol (MPEG)-conjugated recombinant PTE as a potential catalytic bioscavenger with the aim to improve its biological properties. Enzyme was modified with two linear monofunctional MPEG derivatives with reactive aldehyde group of molecular weight 2 kDa and 5 kDa. We optimized reaction conditions (reagent ratios, temperature and duration of modification reaction) and we prepared homogeneous population of fully modified recombinant PTE with molecular weight around 52 kDa and 76 kDa, respectively. Modified PTE was characterized using SDS-PAGE and MALDI-TOF and by determining K(m) and V(max). We also investigated thermal stability of modified enzyme at 37 degrees C. Based on our results, for future in vivo evaluation of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics properties, we selected recombinant PTE modified with 5 kDa MPEG aldehyde for its superior thermal stability.
No preview · Article · Mar 2010 · Chemico-biological interactions
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: DING proteins encompass an intriguing protein family first characterized by their conserved N-terminal sequences. Some of these proteins seem to have key roles in various human diseases, e.g., rheumatoid arthritis, atherosclerosis, HIV suppression. Although this protein family seems to be ubiquitous in eukaryotes, their genes are consistently lacking from genomic databases. Such a lack has considerably hampered functional studies and has fostered therefore the hypothesis that DING proteins isolated from eukaryotes were in fact prokaryotic contaminants.
In the framework of our study, we have performed a comprehensive immunological detection of DING proteins in mice. We demonstrate that DING proteins are present in all tissues tested as isoforms of various molecular weights (MWs). Their intracellular localization is tissue-dependant, being exclusively nuclear in neurons, but cytoplasmic and nuclear in other tissues. We also provide evidence that germ-free mouse plasma contains as much DING protein as wild-type.
Hence, data herein provide a valuable basis for future investigations aimed at eukaryotic DING proteins, revealing that these proteins seem ubiquitous in mouse tissue. Our results strongly suggest that mouse DING proteins are endogenous. Moreover, the determination in this study of the precise cellular localization of DING proteins constitute a precious evidence to understand their molecular involvements in their related human diseases.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Paraoxonase (PON1) is working in vivo in a particular dynamic environment including HDL particles and associated molecules. To decipher the respective and/or concomitant role of the different cofactors involved in this molecular organization, an approach using multiple experimental techniques based on capillary electrophoresis and classical kinetics or kinetics under high pressure was implemented. The effects of calcium and phosphate as protein or plasma cofactor, of human phosphate binding protein (HPBP) as enzyme chaperone, and of a PON1 inhibitor as an active site stabilizer, on the catalytic activities and functional oligomerization of PON1 were scrutinized. PON1 displays two distinct catalytic behaviors, one against esters and lactones, the other against organophosphorus compounds; its functional states and catalytic activities against these substrates are differently modulated by the molecular environment; PON1 exists under several active multimeric forms; the binding of HPBP amends the size of the oligomeric states and exerts a stabilizing effect on the activities of PON1; PON1 functional properties are modulated by HPBP, calcium and phosphate. This integrative approach using several optimized analytical techniques allowed performing comparison of catalytic properties and oligomeric states of functional PON1 in different enzyme preparations. Relevance of these data to understand in vivo physiological PON1 functioning is mandatory.
No preview · Article · Nov 2009 · Journal of chromatography. B, Analytical technologies in the biomedical and life sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Human paraoxonase-1 (HuPON1) is the ideal candidate to engineer as catalytic bioscavenger for pre-treatment and therapy of exposure to toxic organophosphorus compounds. HuPON1 is a naturally-occurring hydrophobic plasma protein associated with a partner, the human phosphate binding protein (HPBP) on high density lipoproteins. The relationships between the composition and the size of multimeric states of HuPON1 are not well understood. Moreover, the effect of HPBP's presence on enzyme catalysis and stability is not clear. The effect of hydrostatic pressure on structural stability and activity of different PON1 preparations (free natural HuPON1 or in the presence of 50% w/w HPBP, hybrid recombinant PON1) was investigated. Results showed that PON1 exists under several multimeric forms, and that the binding of HPBP amends the size of the hetero-oligomeric states and exerts a stabilizing effect on the activities of PON1. Furthermore, high pressure kinetic experiments highlighted the fact that PON1 displays two distinct catalytic behaviors: the first one for arylesterase and lactonase activities and the second one for its organophosphate-hydrolase activity.
No preview · Article · Apr 2009 · Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Human paraoxonase (HuPON1) is a candidate as catalytic bioscavenger for pre-treatment and therapy of poisoning by organophosphate compounds. HuPON1 is a hydrophobic protein associated with a partner, the human phosphate binding protein (HPBP) in plasma high density lipoproteins. The relationship between the composition and the size of multimeric states of HuPON1 is not well understood. Moreover the effect of HPBP's presence on enzyme catalytic mechanisms and stability is unclear. We investigated the effect of hydrostatic pressure and temperature on structural stability and activity of different PON1 preparations (hybrid recombinant PON1, natural HuPON1 free of its partner or in the presence of 50% w/w HPBP). We showed that PON1 exists under several multimeric forms and that the binding of HPBP amends the size of the hetero-oligomeric states and exerts a stabilizing effect on the activity of PON1.
Full-text · Article · Jul 2008 · Journal of Physics Conference Series
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Organophosphorus chemical warfare agents (nerve agents) are to be feared in military operations as well as in terrorist attacks. Among them, VX (O-ethyl-S-[2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl] methylphosphonothioate) is a low volatility liquid that represents a percutaneous as well as an inhalation hazard if aerosolized. It is a potent irreversible cholinesterase (ChE) inhibitor that causes severe signs and symptoms, including respiratory dysfunction that stems from different mechanisms. VX-induced pulmonary oedema was previously reported in dogs but mechanisms involved are not well understood, and its clinical significance remains to be assessed. An experimental model was thus developed to study VX-induced cardiovascular changes and pulmonary oedema in isoflurane-anaesthetized swine. In the course of this study, we observed a fast and unexpected rebound of plasma ChE activity following inhibition provoked by the intravenous injection of 6 and 12 microg kg(-1) of VX. In whole blood ChE activity, the rebound could stay unnoticed. Further investigations showed that the rebound of plasma esterase activity was neither related to spontaneous reactivation of ChE nor to VX-induced increase in paraoxonase/carboxylesterase activities. A bias in Ellman assay, haemoconcentration or severe liver cytolysis were also ruled out. All in all, these results suggest that the rebound was likely due to the release of butyrylcholinesterase into the blood stream from ChE producing organs. Nature of the organ(s) and mechanisms involved in enzyme release will need further investigations as it may represent a mechanism of defence, i.e. VX scavenging, that could advantageously be exploited.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: While there is a consensus that human PON1 (paraoxonase-1) has a protective role, its primary biological function remains unclear. A protective role against poisoning by organophosphates [OPs (organophosphorus compounds)] drove earlier works. Clinical interest has recently focused on a protective role of PON1 against vascular diseases. PON1 resides mainly on HDL (high-density lipoprotein) particles, and converging recent works show that both its activities and stability dramatically depend on this versatile and dynamic molecular environment. The discovery that HPBP (human phosphate-binding protein) has a firm tendency to associate with PON1 has steered new directions for characterizing PON1 functional state(s). Storage stability studies provided evidence that HPBP is involved in maintaining physiologically active PON1 conformation(s). Thermal stability studies showed that human PON1 is remarkably thermostable and that its association with HPBP strongly contributes to slowing down the denaturation rate. A hybrid PON1, displaying mutations that stabilized recombinant enzyme expressed in Escherichia coli, was shown to be more thermostable than natural human PON1. Predictably, its stability was unaffected by the presence of HPBP. Synergistic efforts on characterizing natural PON1 and rPON1 (recombinant PON1) provide information for the design of future stable mutants of PON1-based bioscavengers to be used as safe and effective countermeasures to challenge OPs. Maintaining a stable environment for such administrable human rPON1 should, at least, preserve the anti-atherogenic activity of the enzyme.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2008 · Biochemical Society Transactions
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Human PON1 displays functional promiscuity correlated to its natural biological milieu. Devoid of its physiological HDL environment,
the natural human enzyme is unstable. The serendipitous discovery of HPBP, a PON1 partner protein, and the contamination of
current PON1 preparations causing misinterpretation of PON1’s functions are central new data. Besides, both activities and
stability of PON1 are completely dependent on the HDL components’ molecular surrounding. Because of the variability of the
HDL environment of PON1, identification of partner lipoprotein(s) or/and hydrophobic cofactor(s) capable of acting as reliable
surrogate stabilizer(s) of the enzyme’s functional conformation is crucial. Attempts at characterizing PON1’s functional state(s),
determining its thermal stability and describing factors involved in its storage stability demonstrated that HPBP helps to
stabilize the active form(s) of natural human PON1. Together with the depiction of other HDL-associated components in the
modulation of PON1 stability, these data shed light on the contribution of the HDL environment to the interactions of PON1
with its natural and/or multiples substrates
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: The biological role of human paraoxonase (PON1) remains unclear, whilst there is a consensus that the enzyme has a protective influence. A toxicological role, protecting from environmental poisoning by organophosphate derivatives drove earlier works, and more recently, clinical interest has focused on a protective role in vascular disease. PON1 resides essentially on HDL particles, a complex and dynamic molecular environment. Our recent discovery of the human phosphate binding protein (HPBP), displaying a firm propensity to associate with PON1, has steered new directions for characterizing PON1 functional state. Here, we report investigations on the effect of HPBP on oligomerization, storage and thermal stability of PON1. We found that purified PON1 is as a mixture of at least two states, and that the absence of HPBP favors homo-oligomerization of PON1 into state(s) of higher molecular size. We showed that HPBP allows stabilizing active conformation(s) of PON1 disencumbered of its natural environment. We also showed that PON1 exhibits intrinsically a remarkable thermal stability, and that the association of HPBP strongly contributes to slow the denaturation rate. A hybrid recombinant PON1 was shown more thermostable than the human enzyme, and its stability was unaffected by the presence of HPBP. Altogether, the results strongly encourage further study of the human enzyme.
No preview · Article · Aug 2007 · Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: The Human Phosphate Binding Protein (HPBP) is a serendipitously discovered apolipoprotein from human plasma that binds phosphate. Amino acid sequence relates HPBP to an intriguing protein family that seems ubiquitous in eukaryotes. These proteins, named DING according to the sequence of their four conserved N-terminal residues, are systematically absent from eukaryotic genome databases. As a consequence, HPBP amino acids sequence had to be first assigned from the electronic density map. Then, an original approach combining X-ray crystallography and mass spectrometry provides the complete and a priori exact sequence of the 38-kDa HPBP. This first complete sequence of a eukaryotic DING protein will be helpful to study HPBP and the entire DING protein family.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2007 · Proteins Structure Function and Bioinformatics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: We report the serendipitous discovery of a human plasma phosphate binding protein (HPBP). This 38 kDa protein is co-purified with paraoxonase (PON1). The association between HPON1 and HPBP is modulated by phosphate and calcium concentrations. The HPBP X-ray structure solved at 1.9 A resolution is similar to the prokaryotic phosphate solute-binding proteins (SBPs) associated with ATP binding cassette transmembrane transporters, though phosphate-SBPs have never been characterized or predicted from nucleic acid databases in eukaryotes. However, HPBP belongs to the family of ubiquitous eukaryotic proteins named DING, meaning that phosphate-SBPs are also widespread in eukaryotes. The absence of complete genes for eukaryotic phosphate-SBP from databases is intriguing, but the astonishing 90% sequence conservation of genes between evolutionary distant species suggests that the corresponding proteins play an important function. HPBP is the first identified transporter capable of binding phosphate ions in human plasma. Thus it is thought to become a new predictor and a potential therapeutic agent for phosphate-related diseases such as atherosclerosis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: We report the serendipitous discovery of a human plasma phosphate binding protein (HPBP). This 38 kDa protein is co-purified with paraoxonase (PON1). The association between HPON1 and HPBP is modulated by phosphate and calcium concentrations. The HPBP X-ray structure solved at 1.9 Å resolution is similar to the prokaryotic phosphate solute-binding proteins (SBPs) associated with ATP binding cassette transmembrane transporters, though phosphate-SBPs have never been characterized or predicted from nucleic acid databases in eukaryotes. However, HPBP belongs to the family of ubiquitous eukaryotic proteins named DING, meaning that phosphate-SBPs are also widespread in eukaryotes. The absence of complete genes for eukaryotic phosphate-SBP from databases is intriguing, but the astonishing 90% sequence conservation of genes between evolutionary distant species suggests that the corresponding proteins play an important function. HPBP is the first identified transporter capable of binding phosphate ions in human plasma. Thus it is thought to become a new predictor and a potential therapeutic agent for phosphate-related diseases such as atherosclerosis.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2007 · Annales Pharmaceutiques Françaises