[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aims:
Longitudinal determinants of aortic stiffness (AS) measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have not been assessed in a large community-based population. Our aim was to examine the determinants of change in thoracic AS over 10 years of follow-up in a multi-ethnic population of individuals 45 years of age and older measured by MRI.
Methods and results:
We studied 1160 participants (mean age = 60 ± 9 years at baseline, 45% male) with aortic MRI at both the MESA Year 0 and Year 10 examinations. Ascending and descending aorta distensibility (AAD/DAD) and aortic arch pulse-wave velocity (PWV) were measured using MRI. Determinants of the change in AS parameters over 10 years were assessed using linear regression adjusted for baseline values, demographic variables, baseline risk factors and change in risk factors, and chronic risk exposure. AAD and DAD decreased slightly (5% decrease in median for AAD: 1.33-1.26 mmHg(-1) · 10(-3), P = 0.008; 5% decrease in median for DAD: 1.73-1.64 mmHg(-1) · 10(-3), P < 0.001), and PWV increased over 10 years (18% increase in median: 6.8-8.0 m/s P < 0.001). Baseline age was related to a reduction in AAD and DAD and an increase in PWV throughout the follow-up period. Baseline and change in mean blood pressure and continued smoking were associated with a reduction in AAD and an increase in PWV. Furthermore, baseline heart rate was also related to a reduction in AAD and DAD. Blood pressure normalization was related to less aortic stiffening throughout the follow-up period.
In our longitudinal, community-based cohort study of adult individuals aged 45 years or greater, greater mean blood pressure and a history of smoking history were associated with increased aortic stiffening over 10 years as assessed by MRI.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2016 · European Heart Journal Cardiovascular Imaging
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Obesity and visceral adiposity are increasingly recognized risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Visceral fat may reduce myocardial perfusion by impairing vascular endothelial function. Women experience more anginal symptoms compared to men despite less severe coronary artery stenosis, as assessed by angiography. Women and men have different fat storage patterns which may account for the observed differences in cardiovascular disease. Therefore, our objective was to evaluate the relationship between visceral adipose tissue distributions and myocardial perfusion in men and women.
Visceral and subcutaneous fat distributions and myocardial perfusion were measured in 69 men and women without coronary artery disease using magnetic resonance imaging techniques. Myocardial perfusion index was quantified after first-pass perfusion with gadolinium contrast at peak dose dobutamine stress.
We observed inverse relationships between female gender (r = -0.35, p = 0.003), pericardial fat (r = -0.36, p = 0.03), intraperitoneal fat (r = -0.37, p = 0.001), and retroperitoneal fat (r = -0.36, p = 0.002) and myocardial perfusion index. Visceral fat depots were not associated with reduced myocardial perfusion at peak dose dobutamine in men. However, in women, BMI (r = -0.33, p = 0.04), pericardial fat (r = -0.53, p = 0.02), subcutaneous fat (r = -0.39, p = 0.01) and intraperitoneal fat (r = -0.30, p = 0.05) were associated with reduced myocardial perfusion during dobutamine stress.
Higher visceral fat volumes are associated with reduced left ventricular myocardial perfusion at peak dose dobutamine stress in women but not in men. These findings suggest that visceral fat may contribute to abnormal microcirculatory coronary artery perfusion syndromes, explaining why some women exhibit more anginal symptoms despite typically lower grade epicardial coronary artery stenoses than men.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Abnormal resting arterial stiffness is present in middle‐aged and elderly persons with abnormalities of fasting glucose (diabetes or impaired fasting glucose) and is associated with exercise intolerance. We sought to determine whether these same persons exhibited stress‐related abnormalities of arterial stiffness.
Methods and Results
We analyzed dobutamine magnetic resonance stress imaging results from 373 consecutively recruited persons aged 55 to 85 years with normal fasting glucose, impaired fasting glucose, or diabetes who were at risk for but without symptomatic heart failure. Personnel blinded to participant identifiers measured arterial stiffness (brachial pulse pressure/left ventricular stroke volume indexed to body surface area, the aortic elastance index [brachial end‐systolic pressure/left ventricular stroke volume indexed to body surface area], and thoracic aortic distensibility) at 80% of the maximum predicted heart rate response for age. Participants averaged 69±8 years of age; 79% were white, 92% were hypertensive, and 66% were women. After accounting for hypertension, sex, coronary artery disease, smoking, medications, hypercholesterolemia, and visceral fat, we observed an effect of glycemic status for stress measures of arterial stiffness in those with diabetes and impaired fasting glucose relative to those with normal fasting glucose (P=0.002, P=0.02, and P=0.003, respectively).
Middle‐ and older‐aged individuals with diabetes or impaired fasting glucose have higher stress measures of arterial stiffness than those with normal fasting glucose. These data emphasize the need for future studies with larger sample sizes to determine whether stress‐related elevations in arterial stiffness are related to exercise intolerance and future episodes of heart failure experienced by those with abnormalities of fasting glucose.
Clinical Trial Registration
URL: http://clinicaltrials.gov/. Unique identifier: NCT00542503.
Preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Journal of the American Heart Association
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dobutamine associated left ventricular (LV) wall motion analyses exhibit reduced sensitivity for detecting inducible ischemia in individuals with increased LV wall thickness. This study was performed to better understand the mechanism of this reduced sensitivity in the elderly who often manifest increased LV wall thickness and risk factors for coronary artery disease.
During dobutamine cardiovascular magnetic resonance (DCMR) stress testing, we assessed rate pressure product (RPP), aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV), LV myocardial oxygen demand (pressure volume area, PVA, mass, volumes, concentricity, and the presence of wall motion abnormalities (WMA) and first pass gadolinium enhanced perfusion defects (PDs) indicative of ischemia in 278 consecutively recruited individuals aged 69 ± 8 years with pre-existing or known risk factors for coronary artery disease. Each variable was assessed independently by personnel blinded to participant identifiers and analyses of other DCMR or hemodynamic variables.
Participants were 80% white, 90% hypertensive, 43% diabetic and 55% men. With dobutamine, 60% of the participants who exhibited PDs had no inducible WMA. Among these participants, myocardial oxygen demand was lower than that observed in those who had both wall motion and perfusion abnormalities suggestive of ischemia (p = 0.03). Relative to those with PDs and inducible WMAs, myocardial oxygen demand remained different in these individuals with PDs without an inducible WMA after accounting for LV afterload and contractility (p = 0.02 and 0.03 respectively), but not after accounting for either LV stress related end diastolic volume index (LV preload) or resting concentricity (p = 0.31-0.71).
During dobutamine stress testing, elderly patients experience increased LV concentricity and declines in LV preload and myocardial oxygen demand, all of which are associated with an absence of inducible LV WMAs indicative of myocardial ischemia. These findings provide insight as to why dobutamine associated wall motion analyses exhibit reduced sensitivity for identifying inducible ischemia in elderly.
This study was registered with Clinicaltrials.gov (NCT00542503).
Preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Left ventricular wall motion abnormalities (LVWMA) observed during cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) pharmacologic stress testing can be used to determine cardiac prognosis, but currently, information regarding the prognostic utility of upright maximal treadmill induced LVWMA is unknown. Our objective was to determine the prognostic utility of upright maximal treadmill exercise stress CMR.
One hundred and fifteen (115) men and women with known or suspected coronary arteriosclerosis and an appropriate indication for cardiovascular (CV) imaging to supplement ST segment stress testing underwent an upright treadmill exercise CMR stress test in which LVWMA were identified before and immediately after exercise. Personnel blinded to results determined the post-test incidence of cardiac events (cardiac death, myocardial infarctions [MI], and unstable angina warranting hospital admission or coronary arterial revascularization).
All participants completed the testing protocol, with 90 % completing image acquisition within 60 s of exercise cessation. MI or cardiac death occurred in 3 % of individuals without and 17 % of individuals with inducible LVWMA (p = 0.024). The combination of MI, cardiac death, and unstable angina warranting hospitalization occurred in 14 % of individuals without and 47 % of individuals with inducible LVWMA (p = 0.002). The addition of CMR imaging identified those at risk for future events (p = 0.002), as opposed to the electrocardiogram stress test alone (p = 0.63).
In patients with or suspected of coronary arteriosclerosis and appropriate indication for imaging to supplement ST segment analysis during upright treadmill exercise, the presence of inducible LVWMA during treadmill exercise stress CMR supplements ST segment monitoring and helps identify those at risk of the future combined endpoints of myocardial infarction, cardiac death, and unstable angina warranting hospitalization.
Preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective Although the clinical importance of left ventricular noncompaction cardiomyopathy (LVNC) is known, few data exist that describe the prognosis associated with intermediate levels of LV trabeculations that do not meet criteria for LVNC. Methods Trabeculation/possible LVNC by CMR was retrospectively observed among 122 consecutive cases. We assessed the end-systolic noncompacted-to-compacted ratios (ESNCCR) along with deaths, embolic events, congestive heart failure (CHF) readmissions, ventricular arrhythmias, myocardial thickening (MT), and ejection fraction (EF). ESNCCRs were categorized as follows: < 1, 1< 1.5, 1.5< 2, ≥ 2. General linear models were used to compare combined events (death, CHF readmission, embolism, ventricular arrhythmia) between categories of ESNCCR. There were 3 models used: model 1: unadjusted; model 2: adjusted for age, race, gender, body surface area, LV ejection fraction, and trabeculated segments; model 3: model 2 + adjustment for myocardial thickening. Results In model 1, those with an ESNCCR < 1 had a lower association with composite clinical events than those with a ratio between 1.5 < 2 and those ≥ 2 (P < 0.002 and P < 0.001, respectively). In model 2, the lower association continued, (P = 0.009 and P < 0.001, respectively), but in model 3, those with a ratio from 1.5-2 only had a trend towards a higher association with composite clinical events than those with a ratio < 1 (P =-0.09). Those with a ratio ≥ 2 continued to have a higher association (P =-0.001). Conclusion Patients with intermediate trabeculations not meeting criteria for LVNC had a higher association with composite clinical events, but it was mediated by decreased myocardial thickening in the associated compacted layer.
No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Acta cardiologica
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Although adverse left ventricular shape changes (remodeling) after myocardial infarction (MI) are predictive of morbidity and mortality, current clinical assessment is limited to simple mass and volume measures, or dimension ratios such as length to width ratio. We hypothesized that information maximizing component analysis (IMCA), a supervised feature extraction method, can provide more efficient and sensitive indices of overall remodeling.
IMCA was compared to linear discriminant analysis (LDA), both supervised methods, to extract the most discriminatory global shape changes associated with remodeling after MI. Finite element shape models from 300 patients with myocardial infarction from the DETERMINE study (age 31–86, mean age 63, 20 % women) were compared with 1991 asymptomatic cases from the MESA study (age 44–84, mean age 62, 52 % women) available from the Cardiac Atlas Project. IMCA and LDA were each used to identify a single mode of global remodeling best discriminating the two groups. Logistic regression was employed to determine the association between the remodeling index and MI. Goodness-of-fit results were compared against a baseline logistic model comprising standard clinical indices.
A single IMCA mode simultaneously describing end-diastolic and end-systolic shapes achieved best results (lowest Deviance, Akaike information criterion and Bayesian information criterion, and the largest area under the receiver-operating-characteristic curve). This mode provided a continuous scale where remodeling can be quantified and visualized, showing that MI patients tend to present larger size and more spherical shape, more bulging of the apex, and thinner wall thickness.
IMCA enables better characterization of global remodeling than LDA, and can be used to quantify progression of disease and the effect of treatment. These data and results are available from the Cardiac Atlas Project (http://www.cardiacatlas.org).
Full-text · Article · Nov 2015 · Journal of Translational Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Myocardial injury because of oxidative stress manifesting through reductions in left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) may occur after the administration of anthracycline-based chemotherapy (A-bC). We hypothesized that bilirubin, an effective endogenous antioxidant, may attenuate the reduction in LVEF that sometimes occurs after receipt of A-bC. We identified 751 consecutively treated patients with cancer who underwent a pre-A-bC LVEF measurement, exhibited a serum total bilirubin level <2 mg/dl, and then received a post-A-bC LVEF assessment because of symptomatology associated with heart failure. Analysis of variance, Tukey's Studentized range test, and chi-square tests were used to evaluate an association between bilirubin and LVEF changes. The LVEF decreased by 10.7 ± 13.7%, 8.9 ± 11.8%, and 7.7 ± 11.5% in group 1 (bilirubin at baseline ≤0.5 mg/dl), group 2 (bilirubin 0.6 to 0.8 mg/dl), and group 3 (bilirubin 0.9 to 1.9 mg/dl), respectively. More group 1 patients experienced >15% decrease in LVEF compared with those in group 3 (p = 0.039). After adjusting for age, coronary artery disease/myocardial infarction, diabetes mellitus, hematocrit, and the use of cardioactive medications, higher precancer treatment bilirubin levels and lesser total anthracycline doses were associated with LVEF preservation (p = 0.047 and 0.011, respectively). In patients treated with anthracyclines who subsequently develop symptoms associated with heart failure, pre-anthracycline treatment serum bilirubin levels inversely correlate with subsequent deterioration in post-cancer treatment LVEF. In conclusion, these results suggest that increased levels of circulating serum total bilirubin, an intrinsic antioxidant, may facilitate preservation of LVEF in patients receiving A-bC for cancer.
No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · The American journal of cardiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: With advancements in technology and a better understanding of human cardiovascular physiology, research as well as clinical care can go beyond dimensional anatomy offered by traditional imaging and investigate aortic functional properties and the impact disease has on this function. Linking the knowledge of the histopathological changes with the alterations in aortic function observed on noninvasive imaging results in a better understanding of disease pathophysiology. Translating this to clinical medicine, these noninvasive imaging assessments of aortic function are proving to be able to diagnose disease, better predict risk, and assess response to therapies. This review is designed to summarize the various hemodynamic measures that can characterize the aorta, the various noninvasive techniques, and applications for various disease states.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA), initiated in July 2000, is a six-center longitudinal population-based study that included 6,814 men and women at baseline study. Cardiac MRI was part of the study procedures, representing the first large-scale application of cardiac MRI in a multi-center and multi-ethnic population study in the USA. To date, this is the largest ever MRI study. Such effort would come with a great potential for variability due to the number of professionals involved; therefore, an intensive quality control process was implemented since the very beginning. A workflow for process control was used to match image protocols in different types of MRI scanners, transfer images to the reading center, train technicians, and implement image quality scorecards. This article reviews the influence of research management for quality control and work standardization processes in cardiac magnetic MRI results at the 10th year of follow-up in MESA.
No preview · Article · May 2015 · Current Cardiovascular Imaging Reports