[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Type 2 diabetes results from failure of the β-cells to compensate for increased insulin demand due to abnormal levels of metabolic factors. The ob/ob(lep-/-) mouse has been extensively studied as an animal model of type 2 diabetes. Previous studies have shown a correlation between β-cell function and bioluminescent imaging in lean genetically engineered mice. The ability to noninvasively monitor β-cell function in ob/ob mice could provide new information on β-cell regulation in type 2 diabetes.
To create the B6 Albino ob/ob MIP-luc mice (ob/ob-luc), the ob/ob mouse was crossed with the CD1 MIP-luc mouse. All mice were backcrossed over multiple generations to ensure the genetic background of the transgenic mice was over 96% similar to the background of the original ob/ob mouse. Animal weight, blood glucose levels, insulin in plasma, and in vivo bioluminescence (BLI) were monitored weekly or biweekly for up to 70 weeks of age. BL imaging was performed using IVIS Spectrum (Perkin Elmer) and calculated by integrating the bioluminescence signal between 5 and 10 min after i.v. injection of D-luciferin. Insulin immunohistochemistry determined islet beta cell count and insulin secretion assay determined islet insulin function.
There were significant increases in BLI and insulin levels as the ob/ob-luc mice aged while glucose levels gradually decreased. Ob/ob-luc were sacrificed at different time points to determine ex vivo BLI, islet function and total β-cell numbers using a cell counting training algorithm developed for the Vectra image analysis system (Perkin Elmer). The number of β-cells increased as the mice aged and all three ex vivo measurements correlated with BLI.
The ob/ob-luc mice can serve as a model of metabolic stress, similar to human type 2 diabetes using BLI as a surrogate marker for β-cell function.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is a potent neuropeptide whose agonist interaction with the CGRP receptor (CGRP-R) results in vasodilation. This process is implicated in the cause of migraine headaches, and CGRP-R antagonists in clinical development have proven effective in treating migraine-related pain in human. CGRP-R is expressed in blood vessels throughout the periphery as well as in the CNS. However, it is not clear what role the inhibition of central CGRP-R plays in migraine pain relief. To this end, the CGRP-R PET tracer [(11)C]MK-4232 was discovered and developed. In rhesus monkey and human, [(11)C]MK-4232 displayed rapid brain uptake and a regional brain distribution consistent with the known distribution of CGRP-R. Monkey PET studies with [(11)C]MK-4232 after i.v. dosing with CGRP-R antagonists validated the ability of [(11)C]MK-4232 to detect changes in CGRP-R occupancy in proportion to drug plasma concentration. Application of [(11)C]MK-4232 in human PET studies revealed telcagepant achieved only low receptor occupancy at an efficacious dose (140 mg, p.o.). Therefore, it is unlikely that antagonism of central CGRP-R is required for migraine efficacy. However, it is not known if high central CGRP-R antagonism may provide additional therapeutic benefit.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2013 · Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The cerebellum is classically considered to be mainly involved in motor processing, but studies have suggested several other functions, including pain processing. Calcitonin-gene-related peptide (CGRP) is a neuropeptide involved in migraine pathology, where there is elevated release of CGRP during migraine attacks and CGRP receptor antagonists have antimigraine efficacy. In the present study, we examined CGRP and CGRP receptor binding sites and protein expression in primate cerebellar cortex. Additionally, mRNA expression of the CGRP receptor components, calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CLR) and receptor activity modifying protein 1 (RAMP1), was examined. In addition, expression of procalcitonin was studied. We observed high [(3)H]MK-3207 (CGRP receptor antagonist) binding densities in the molecular layer of rhesus cerebellar cortex; however, due to the limit of resolution of the autoradiographic image the exact cellular localization could not be determined. Similarly, [(125)I]CGRP binding was observed in the molecular layer and Purkinje cell layer of human cerebellum. CLR and RAMP1 mRNA was expressed within the Purkinje cell layer and some expression was found in the molecular layer. Immunofluorescence revealed expression of CGRP, CLR, and RAMP1 in the Purkinje cells and in cells in the molecular layer. Procalcitonin was found in the same localization. Recent research in the biology of cerebellum indicates that it may have a role in nociception. For the first time we have identified CGRP and CGRP receptor binding sites together with CGRP receptor expression through protein and mRNA localization in primate cerebellar cortex. These results point toward a functional role of CGRP in cerebellum. Further efforts are needed to evaluate this.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report herein the discovery of a fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) positron emission tomography (PET) tracer. Starting from a pyrazole lead, medicinal chemistry efforts directed toward reducing lipophilicity led to the synthesis of a series of imidazole analogues. Compound 6 was chosen for further profiling due to its appropriate physical chemical properties and excellent FAAH inhibition potency across species. [(11)C]-6 (MK-3168) exhibited good brain uptake and FAAH-specific signal in rhesus monkeys and is a suitable PET tracer for imaging FAAH in the brain.
No preview · Article · Jun 2013 · ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Antagonism of the central opioid receptor like-1 receptor (ORL1) has been implicated in cognition, and has been a focus of drug discovery efforts to ameliorate the cognitive deficits that remain during the stable treatment of schizophrenia with current antipsychotics. In order to facilitate dose selection for phase II clinical testing an ORL1-specific PET tracer was developed to determine drug plasma concentration versus occupancy relationships in order to ensure that the doses selected and the degree of target engagement were sufficient to ensure adequate proof of concept testing. MK-0911 is a selective, high affinity antagonist for the ORL1 receptor radiolabeled with high specific activity (18)F for positron emission tomography (PET) studies. Evaluation of [(18)F]MK-0911 in rhesus monkey PET studies showed a pattern of brain uptake which was consistent with the known distribution of ORL1. In vitro autoradiography with [(18)F]MK-0911 in rhesus monkey and human brain tissue slices showed a regional distribution that was consistent with in vivo imaging results in monkey. Pre-treatment of rhesus monkeys with high doses of structurally diverse ORL1 antagonists MK-0584, MK-0337, or MK-5757 achieved blockade of [(18)F]MK-0911 in all grey matter regions. Baseline PET studies with [(18)F]MK-0911 in healthy human subjects showed tracer distribution and kinetics similar to that observed in rhesus monkey. Quantification of [(18)F]MK-0911 uptake in repeat human baseline PET studies showed a test-retest variability in volume of distribution (V(T)) averaging 3% across brain regions. Humans dosed orally with MK-5757 showed reduced [(18)F]MK-0911 tracer concentration in brain proportional with MK-5757 dose and plasma level. [(18)F]MK-0911 was useful for determining MK-5757-induced receptor occupancy of ORL1 to guide MK-5757 dose-selection for clinical proof-of-concept studies. Additionally, [(18)F]MK-0911 may be a useful tool for studying the pharmacology of ORL1 in various human populations and disease states.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An (18)F-labeled positron emission tomography (PET) tracer for amyloid plaque is desirable for early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease, particularly to enable preventative treatment once effective therapeutics are available. Similarly, such a tracer would be useful as a biomarker for enrollment of patients in clinical trials for evaluation of antiamyloid therapeutics. Furthermore, changes in the level of plaque burden as quantified by an amyloid plaque PET tracer may provide valuable insights into the effectiveness of amyloid-targeted therapeutics. This work describes our approach to evaluate and select a candidate PET tracer for in vivo quantification of human amyloid plaque.
Ligands were evaluated for their in vitro binding to human amyloid plaques, lipophilicity and predicted blood-brain barrier permeability. Candidates with favorable in vitro properties were radiolabeled with (18)F and evaluated in vivo. Baseline PET scans in rhesus monkey were conducted to evaluate the regional distribution and kinetics of each tracer using tracer kinetic modeling methods. High binding potential in cerebral white matter and cortical grey matter was considered an unfavorable feature of the candidate tracers.
[(18)F]MK-3328 showed the most favorable combination of low in vivo binding potential in white matter and cortical grey matter in rhesus monkeys, low lipophilicity (Log D=2.91) and high affinity for human amyloid plaques (IC(50)=10.5±1.3 nM).
[(18)F]MK-3328 was identified as a promising PET tracer for in vivo quantification of amyloid plaques, and further evaluation in humans is warranted.
Full-text · Article · Jul 2011 · Nuclear Medicine and Biology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Two moderately lipophilic, high affinity ligands for metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 1 (mGluR1) were radiolabeled with a positron-emitting radioisotope and evaluated in rhesus monkey as potential PET tracers. Both ligands were radiolabeled with fluorine-18 via nucleophilic displacement of the corresponding 2-chloropyridine precursor with [¹⁸F]potassium fluoride. [¹⁸F]MK-1312 was found to have a suitable signal for quantification of mGluR1 receptors in nonhuman primates and was more thoroughly characterized. In vitro autoradiographic studies with [¹⁸F]MK-1312 in rhesus monkey and human brain tissue slices revealed an uptake distribution consistent with the known distribution of mGluR1, with the highest uptake in the cerebellum, moderate uptake in the hippocampus, thalamus, and cortical regions, and lowest uptake in the caudate and putamen. In vitro saturation binding studies in rhesus monkey and human cerebellum homogenates confirmed that [¹⁸F]MK-1312 binds to a single site with a B(max) /K(d) ratio of 132 and 98, respectively. PET studies in rhesus monkey with [¹⁸F]MK-1312 showed high brain uptake and a regional distribution consistent with in vitro autoradiography results. Blockade of [¹⁸F]MK-1312 uptake with mGluR1 allosteric antagonist MK-5435 dose-dependently reduced tracer uptake in all regions of gray matter to a similarly low level of tracer uptake. This revealed a large specific signal useful for determination of mGluR1 receptor occupancy in rhesus monkey. Taken together, these results are promising for clinical PET studies with [¹⁸F]MK-1312 to determine mGluR1 occupancy of MK-5435.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Neuropeptide Y receptor subtype 1 (NPY Y1) has been implicated in appetite regulation, and antagonists of NPY Y1 are being explored as potential therapeutics for obesity. An NPY Y1 PET tracer is useful for determining the level of target engagement by NPY Y1 antagonists in preclinical and clinical studies. Here we report the synthesis and evaluation of [(18)F]Y1-973, a novel PET tracer for NPY Y1. [(18)F]Y1-973 was radiolabeled by reaction of a primary chloride with [(18)F]KF/K2.2.2 followed by deprotection with HCl. [(18)F]Y1-973 was produced with high radiochemical purity (>98%) and high specific activity (>1000 Ci/mmol). PET studies in rhesus monkey brain showed that the distribution of [(18)F]Y1-973 was consistent with the known NPY Y1 distribution; uptake was highest in the striatum and cortical regions and lowest in the pons, cerebellum nuclei, and brain stem. Blockade of [(18)F]Y1-973 uptake with NPY Y1 antagonist Y1-718 revealed a specific signal that was dose-dependently reduced in all regions of grey matter to a similarly low level of tracer uptake, indicative of an NPY Y1 specific signal. In vitro autoradiographic studies with [(18)F]Y1-973 in rhesus monkey and human brain tissue slices revealed an uptake distribution consistent with the in vivo PET studies. Highest binding density was observed in the dentate gyrus, caudate-putamen, and cortical regions; moderate binding density in the hypothalamus and thalamus; and lowest binding density in the globus pallidus and cerebellum. In vitro saturation binding studies in rhesus monkey and human caudate-putamen homogenates confirmed a similarly high B(max)/K(d) ratio for [(18)F]Y1-973, suggesting the tracer may provide a specific signal in human brain of similar magnitude to that observed in rhesus monkey. [(18)F]Y1-973 is a suitable PET tracer for imaging NPY Y1 in rhesus monkey with potential for translation to human PET studies.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Amyloid-β (Aβ) plaques have been successfully visualized in the brain of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients with positron emission tomography (PET) tracers such as [11C]PIB. Yet, the short half-life of carbon-11 (20min) limits its use to clinical facilities close to a cyclotron. In order to support multicenter clinical trials for novel AD therapies, the present work aimed at developing a fluorine-18 (half-life 110min) Aβ PET tracer. Methods: In vitro binding studies were performed on cortical homogenates from AD and aged-matched controls with [3H]MK-3328, [3H]PIB and [3H]lazabemide. Autoradiographic mapping of [3H]MK-3328 binding site expression was performed on AD brain sections and compared to the distribution of Aβ plaques and astrocytes detected by immunocytochemistry with 6E10 and GFAP antibodies, respectively. Results: Structural similarity searches and extensive medicinal chemistry optimization identified azabenzoxazole compounds that exhibited promising pharmacological properties. The azaindole [3H]MK-3328 binds to cortical Aβ plaques with a Kd of 17 ± 4 nM (n = 5) and a Bmax of 1600 ± 419 nM (n = 5) yielding a Bmax/Kd ratio of 95 ± 15 (n = 5). Screening against a diverse set of enzymes and receptors unexpectedly revealed an interaction between MK-3328 and monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B). Studies with purified enzyme indicated that [3H]MK-3328 binds MAO-B with a Kd of 6 ± 3 nM (n = 3). Specific [3H]MK-3328 binding was also observed in non-AD human cortical membrane preparations and fully displaced by MAO-B inhibitor lazabemide. Saturation studies in AD cortex demonstrated that MAO-B levels accounted for only 17 ± 3 % (n = 5) of Aβ levels measured by [3H]PIB. Despite the contribution of MAO-B binding to background signal, autoradiographic experiments with [3H]MK-3328 revealed a punctated expression pattern in AD cortical areas comparable to [3H]PIB that was not blocked by lazabemide. Immunocytochemistry on adjacent sections supported a close association between [3H]MK-3328 positive areas, Aβ plaques labeled with 6E10 antibody and astrocytes stained with GFAP antibody. Conclusions: Despite unanticipated MAO-B binding, these results indicate that MK-3328 has an in vitro pharmacological profile supporting its development as a fluorine-18 PET tracer for the detection of Aβ deposits in AD patients. On going clinical studies will establish the value of this novel imaging agent for the detection of Aβ plaques in AD patients
No preview · Article · Jul 2010 · Alzheimer's and Dementia
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) has long been hypothesized to play a key role in migraine pathophysiology, and the advent of small-molecule antagonists has clearly demonstrated a clinical link between blocking the CGRP receptor and migraine efficacy. 2-[(8R)-8-(3,5-Difluorophenyl)-10-oxo-6,9-diazaspiro[4.5]dec-9-yl]-N-[(2R)-2'-oxo-1,1',2',3-tetrahydrospiro[indene-2,3'-pyrrolo[2,3-b]pyridin]-5-yl]acetamide (MK-3207) represents the third CGRP receptor antagonist to display clinical efficacy in migraine trials. Here, we report the pharmacological characterization of MK-3207, a potent and orally bioavailable CGRP receptor antagonist. In vitro, MK-3207 is a potent antagonist of the human and rhesus monkey CGRP receptors (K(i) = 0.024 nM). In common with other CGRP receptor antagonists, MK-3207 displays lower affinity for CGRP receptors from other species, including canine and rodent. As a consequence of species selectivity, the in vivo potency was assessed in a rhesus monkey pharmacodynamic assay measuring capsaicin-induced changes in forearm dermal blood flow via laser Doppler imaging. MK-3207 produced a concentration-dependent inhibition of dermal vasodilation, with plasma concentrations of 0.8 and 7 nM required to block 50 and 90% of the blood flow increase, respectively. The tritiated analog [3H]MK-3207 was used to study the binding characteristics on the human CGRP receptor. [3H]MK-3207 displayed reversible and saturable binding (K(D) = 0.06 nM), and the off-rate was determined to be 0.012 min(-1), with a t(1/2) value of 59 min. In vitro autoradiography studies on rhesus monkey brain slices identified the highest level of binding in the cerebellum, brainstem, and meninges. Finally, as an index of central nervous system penetrability, the in vivo cerebrospinal fluid/plasma ratio was determined to be 2 to 3% in cisterna magna-ported rhesus monkeys.
Preview · Article · Apr 2010 · Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In an effort to develop agents to test the NMDA hypofunction hypothesis of schizophrenia, benchmark compounds from a program to discover potent, selective, competitive glycine transporter 1 (GlyT1) inhibitors were radiolabeled in order to further study the detailed pharmacology of these inhibitors and the distribution of GlyT1 in brain. We here report the in vitro characterization of [35S](S)-2-amino-4-chloro-N-(1-(4-phenyl-1-(propylsulfonyl)piperidin-4-yl)ethyl)benzamide ([35S]ACPPB), a radiotracer developed from a potent and selective non-sarcosine-derived GlyT1 inhibitor, its use in autoradiographic studies to localize (S)-2-amino-6-chloro-N-(1-(4-phenyl-1-(propylsulfonyl)piperidin-4-yl)ethyl)benzamide (ACPPB) binding sites in rat and rhesus brain and for in vivo occupancy assays of competitive GlyT1 inhibitors.
Functional potencies of unlabeled compounds were characterized by [14C]glycine uptake into JAR (human placental choriocarcinoma) cells and synaptosomes. Radioligand binding studies were performed with tissue homogenates. Autoradiographic studies were performed on tissue slices.
ACPPB is a potent (Kd=1.9 nM), selective, GlyT1 inhibitor that, when radiolabeled with [35S], is a well-behaved radioligand with low nondisplaceable binding. Autoradiographic studies of rat and rhesus brain slices with this ligand showed that specific binding sites were plentiful and nonhomogeneously distributed, with high levels of binding in the brainstem, cerebellar white matter, thalamus, cortical white matter and spinal cord gray matter. In vivo studies demonstrate displaceable binding of [35S]ACPPB in rat brain tissues following iv administration of this radioligand.
This is the first report of detailed anatomical localization of GlyT1 using direct radioligand binding, and the first demonstration that an in vivo occupancy assay is feasible, suggesting that it may also be feasible to develop positron emission tomography tracers for GlyT1.
No preview · Article · May 2008 · Nuclear Medicine and Biology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Inhibition of gamma-secretase is a potential therapeutic target for Alzheimer's disease (AD). The present studies have characterized the in vitro properties of a radiolabeled small molecule gamma-secretase inhibitor, [3H]compound D (Yan et al., 2004, J. Neurosci.24, 2942-2952) in mammalian brain. [3H]Compound D was shown to bind with nanomolar affinity (Kd = 0.32-1.5 nM) to a single population of saturable sites in rat, rhesus and human brain cortex homogenates, the density of binding sites ranging from 4 to 7 nM across the species. Competition studies with a structurally diverse group of gamma-secretase inhibitors with a wide range of binding affinities showed that the binding affinities of these compounds correlated well with their ability to inhibit gamma-secretase in vitro. Autoradiographic studies showed that the specific binding of [3H]compound D was widely distributed throughout adult rat, rhesus and normal human brain. There did not appear to be any difference in distribution of [3H]compound D specific binding sites in AD cortex compared with control human cortex as measured using tissue section autoradiography, nor any correlation between gamma-secretase binding and plaque burden as measured immunohistochemically. [3H]compound D is a useful tool to probe the expression and pharmacology of gamma-secretase in mammalian brain.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2006 · Journal of Neurochemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Three metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 5 (mGluR5) PET tracers have been labeled with either carbon-11 or fluorine-18 and their in vitro and in vivo behavior in rhesus monkey has been characterized. Each of these tracers share the common features of high affinity for mGluR5 (0.08-0.23 nM vs. rat mGluR5) and moderate lipophilicity (log P 2.8-3.4). Compound 1b was synthesized using a Suzuki or Stille coupling reaction with [11C]MeI. Compounds 2b and 3b were synthesized by a SNAr reaction using a 3-chlorobenzonitrile precursor. Autoradiographic studies in rhesus monkey brain slices using 2b and 3b showed specific binding in cortex, caudate, putamen, amygdala, hippocampus, most thalamic nuclei, and lower binding in the cerebellum. PET imaging studies in monkey showed that all three tracers readily enter the brain and provide an mGluR5-specific signal in all gray matter regions, including the cerebellum. The specific signal observed in the cerebellum was confirmed by the autoradiographic studies and saturation binding experiments that showed tracer binding in the cerebellum of rhesus monkeys. In vitro metabolism studies using the unlabeled compounds showed that 1a, 2a, and 3a are metabolized slower by human liver microsomes than by monkey liver microsomes. In vivo metabolism studies showed 3b to be long-lived in rhesus plasma with only one other more polar metabolite observed.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Compound A (N-[2-[4-(4,5-dihydro-1H-imidazol-2-yl)phenyl]ethyl]-2-[(2R)-1-(2-napthylsulfonyl)-3-oxo-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoxalin-2-yl]acetamide) is a member of a new class of aryl sulfonamide dihydroquinoxalinone bradykinin B1 receptor antagonists that should be useful pharmacological tools. Here we report on some of the pharmacological properties of compound A as well as the characterization of [35S]compound A as the first nonpeptide bradykinin B1 receptor radioligand. Compound A inhibited tritiated peptide ligand binding to the cloned human, rabbit, dog, and rat bradykinin B1 receptors expressed in CHO cells with Ki values of 0.016, 0.050, 0.56, and 29 nM, respectively. It was inactive at 10 microM in binding assays with the cloned human bradykinin B2 receptor. In functional antagonist assays with the cloned bradykinin B1 receptors, compound A inhibited agonist-induced signaling with activities consistent with the competition binding results, but had no antagonist activity at the bradykinin B2 receptor. Compound A was also found to be a potent antagonist in a rabbit aorta tissue bath preparation and to effectively block des-Arg9 bradykinin depressor responses in lipopolysaccharide-treated rabbit following intravenous administration. The binding of [35S]compound A was evaluated with the cloned bradykinin B1 receptors. In assays with human, rabbit, and dog receptors, [35S]compound A labeled a single site with Kd values of 0.012, 0.064, and 0.37 nM, respectively, and with binding site densities equivalent to those obtained using the conventional tritiated peptide ligands. Binding assays with the cloned rat bradykinin B1 receptor were not successful, presumably due to the low affinity of the ligand for this species receptor. There was no specific binding of the ligand detected in CHO cells expressing the human bradykinin B2 receptor. In assays with the cloned human bradykinin B1 receptor, the pharmacologies of the binding of [35S]compound A and [3H][Leu9]des-Arg10-kallidin were the same. The high signal-to-noise ratio obtained with [35S]compound A will allow this ligand to be a very useful tool for future investigations of the bradykinin B1 receptor.
No preview · Article · Oct 2004 · European Journal of Pharmacology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Antagonism of the bradykinin B(1) receptor was demonstrated to be a potential treatment for chronic pain and inflammation. Novel benzodiazepines were designed that display subnanomolar affinity for the bradykinin B(1) receptor (K(i) = 0.59 nM) and high selectivity against the bradykinin B(2) receptor (K(i) > 10 microM). In vivo efficacy, comparable to morphine, was demonstrated for lead compounds in a rodent hyperalgesia model.
No preview · Article · Jun 2003 · Journal of Medicinal Chemistry