Michel Véron

French National Centre for Scientific Research, Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France

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Publications (161)693.67 Total impact

  • ML Lacombe · I Lascu · X Sastre-Garau · V Wallet · M Véron

    No preview · Article · Feb 2013
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    ABSTRACT: Aberrant and constitutive NF-κB activation are frequently reported in numerous tumor types, making its inhibition an attractive target for the treatment of certain cancers. NEMO (NF-κB essential modulator) is the crucial component of the canonical NF-κB pathway that mediates IκB kinase (IKK) complex activation. IKK activation resides in the ability of the C-terminal domain of NEMO to properly dimerize and interact with linear and K63-linked polyubiquitin chains. Here, we have identified a new NEMO peptide inhibitor, termed UBI (ubiquitin binding inhibitor) that derives from the NOA/NUB/UBAN ubiquitin binding site located in the CC2-LZ domain of NEMO. UBI specifically inhibits the NF-κB pathway at the IKK level in different cell types stimulated by a variety of NF-κB signals. Circular dichroïsm and fluorescence studies showed that UBI exhibits an increased α-helix character and direct, good-affinity binding to the NOA-LZ region of NEMO. We also showed that UBI targets NEMO in cells but its mode of inhibition is completely different from the previously reported LZ peptide (herein denoted NOA-LZ). UBI does not promote dissociation of NEMO subunits in cells but impairs the interaction between the NOA UBD of NEMO and polyubiquitin chains. Importantly, we showed that UBI efficiently competes with the in vitro binding of K63-linked chains, but not with linear chains. The identification of this new NEMO inhibitor emphasizes the important contribution of K63-linked chains for IKK activation in NF-κB signaling and would provide a new tool for studying the complex role of NF-κB in inflammation and cancer.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2011 · Biochemical pharmacology
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    ABSTRACT: Nuclear factor-κB essential modulator (NEMO), the regulatory subunit of the IκB kinase complex, is a critical component of the NF-κB pathway. Hypomorphic mutations in the X-linked human NEMO gene cause various forms of anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia with immunodeficiency (EDA-ID). All known X-linked EDA-ID-causing mutations impair NEMO protein expression, folding, or both. We describe here 2 EDA-ID-causing missense mutations that affect the same residue in the CC2-LZ domain (D311N and D311G) that do not impair NEMO production or folding. Structural studies based on pull-down experiments showed a defect in noncovalent interaction with K63-linked and linear polyubiquitin chains for these mutant proteins. Functional studies on the patients' cells showed an impairment of the classic NF-κB signaling pathways after activation of 2 NEMO ubiquitin-binding-dependent receptors, the TNF and IL-1β receptors, and in the CD40-dependent NF-κB pathway. We report the first human NEMO mutations responsible for X-linked EDA-ID found to affect the polyubiquitin binding of NEMO rather than its expression and folding. These experiments demonstrate that the binding of human NEMO to polyubiquitin is essential for NF-κB activation. They also demonstrate that the normal expression and folding of NEMO do not exclude a pathogenic role for NEMO mutations in patients with EDA-ID.
    Preview · Article · May 2011 · Blood
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    ABSTRACT: ChemInform is a weekly Abstracting Service, delivering concise information at a glance that was extracted from about 100 leading journals. To access a ChemInform Abstract of an article which was published elsewhere, please select a “Full Text” option. The original article is trackable via the “References” option.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2010 · ChemInform
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    ABSTRACT: Germline mutations in five autosomal genes involved in interleukin (IL)-12-dependent, interferon (IFN)-gamma-mediated immunity cause Mendelian susceptibility to mycobacterial diseases (MSMD). The molecular basis of X-linked recessive (XR)-MSMD remains unknown. We report here mutations in the leucine zipper (LZ) domain of the NF-kappaB essential modulator (NEMO) gene in three unrelated kindreds with XR-MSMD. The mutant proteins were produced in normal amounts in blood and fibroblastic cells. However, the patients' monocytes presented an intrinsic defect in T cell-dependent IL-12 production, resulting in defective IFN-gamma secretion by T cells. IL-12 production was also impaired as the result of a specific defect in NEMO- and NF-kappaB/c-Rel-mediated CD40 signaling after the stimulation of monocytes and dendritic cells by CD40L-expressing T cells and fibroblasts, respectively. However, the CD40-dependent up-regulation of costimulatory molecules of dendritic cells and the proliferation and immunoglobulin class switch of B cells were normal. Moreover, the patients' blood and fibroblastic cells responded to other NF-kappaB activators, such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha, IL-1beta, and lipopolysaccharide. These two mutations in the NEMO LZ domain provide the first genetic etiology of XR-MSMD. They also demonstrate the importance of the T cell- and CD40L-triggered, CD40-, and NEMO/NF-kappaB/c-Rel-mediated induction of IL-12 by monocyte-derived cells for protective immunity to mycobacteria in humans.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2010
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    ABSTRACT: NEMO is an integral part of the IkappaB kinase complex and serves as a molecular switch by which the NF-kappaB signaling pathway can be regulated. Oligomerization and polyubiquitin (poly-Ub) binding, mediated through the regulatory CC2-LZ domain, were shown to be key features governing NEMO function, but the relationship between these two activities remains unclear. In this study, we solved the structure of this domain in complex with a designed ankyrin repeat protein, which helps its crystallization. We generated several NEMO mutants in this domain, including those associated with human diseases incontinentia pigmenti and immunodeficiency with or without anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia. Analytical ultracentrifugation and thermal denaturation experiments were used to evaluate the dimerization properties of these mutants. A fluorescence-based assay was developed, as well, to quantify the interaction to monoubiquitin and poly-Ub chains. Moreover, the effect of these mutations was investigated for the full-length protein. We show that a proper folding of the ubiquitin-binding domain, termed NOA/UBAN/NUB, into a stable coiled-coil dimer is required but not sufficient for efficient interaction with poly-Ub. In addition, we show that binding to poly-Ub and, to a lesser extent, to monoubiquitin increases the stability of the NOA coiled-coil dimer. Collectively, these data provide structural insights into how several pathological mutations within and outside of the CC2-LZ's NOA ubiquitin binding site affect IkappaB kinase activation in the NF-kappaB signaling pathway.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2009 · Journal of Molecular Biology
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    ABSTRACT: An important property of NEMO, the core element of the IKK complex involved in NF-kappaB activation, resides in its ability to specifically recognize poly-ubiquitin chains. A small domain called NOA/UBAN has been suggested to be responsible for this property. We recently demonstrated that the C-terminal Zinc Finger (ZF) of NEMO is also able to bind ubiquitin. We show here by ZF swapping and mutagenesis that this represents its only function. While neither NOA nor ZF shows any preference for K63-linked chains, we demonstrate that together they form a bipartite high-affinity K63-specific ubiquitin-binding domain. A similar domain can be found in two other proteins, Optineurin and ABIN2, and can be freely exchanged with that of NEMO without interfering with its activity. This suggests that the main function of the C-terminal half of NEMO is to specifically bind K63-linked poly-ubiquitin chains. We also demonstrate that the recently described binding of NEMO to linear poly-ubiquitin chains is dependent on the NOA alone and does not require the presence of the ZF.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2009 · The EMBO Journal

  • No preview · Article · Feb 2009
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    ABSTRACT: NEMO (NF-κB essential modulator) is a regulatory protein essential to the canonical NF-κB signaling pathway, notably involved in immune and inflammatory responses, apoptosis, and oncogenesis. Here, we report that the zinc finger (ZF) motif, located in the regulatory C-terminal half of NEMO, forms a specific complex with ubiquitin. We have investigated the NEMO ZF-ubiquitin interaction and proposed a structural model of the complex based on NMR, fluorescence, and mutagenesis data and on the sequence homology with the polymerase η ubiquitin-binding zinc finger involved in DNA repair. Functional complementation assays and in vivo pull-down experiments further show that ZF residues involved in ubiquitin binding are functionally important and required for NF-κB signaling in response to tumor necrosis factor-α. Thus, our findings indicate that NEMOZFisa bona fide ubiquitin-binding domain of the ubiquitin-binding zinc finger type.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2008 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
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    ABSTRACT: Adenylate kinases are involved in the activation of antiviral drugs such as the acyclic phosphonates analogs PMEA and (R)PMPA. We examine the in vitro phosphorylation of PMEA and PMPA bearing a borano- or a H- group on the phosphorus atom. The alpha-borano or alpha-H on PMEA and PMPA were detrimental to the activity of recombinant human AMP kinases 1 and 2. Docking PMEA to the active site of AMP kinase 1 indicated that the borano group may prevent two conserved critical Arg interactions with the alpha-phosphate, resulting in substrate bad positioning.
    No preview · Article · May 2008 · Nucleosides Nucleotides & Nucleic Acids
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    ABSTRACT: The regulatory NEMO (NF-kappaB essential modulator) protein has a crucial role in the canonical NF-kappaB signaling pathway notably involved in immune and inflammatory responses, apoptosis and oncogenesis. The regulatory domain is located in the C-terminal half of NEMO and contains a classical CCHC-type zinc finger (ZF). We have investigated the structural and functional effects of a cysteine to phenylalanine point mutation (C417F) in the ZF motif, identified in patients with anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia with immunodeficiency. The solution structures of the wild type and mutant ZF were determined by NMR. Remarkably, the mutant adopts a global betabetaalpha fold similar to that of the wild type and retains thermodynamic stability, i.e., the ability to bind zinc with a native-like affinity, although the last zinc-chelating residue is missing. However, the mutation induces enhanced dynamics in the motif and leads to an important loss of stability. A detailed analysis of the wild type solution structure and experimental evidences led to the identification of two possible protein-binding surfaces that are largely destabilized in the mutant. This is sufficient to alter NEMO function, since functional complementation assays using NEMO-deficient pre-B and T lymphocytes show that full-length C417F pathogenic NEMO leads to a partial to strong defect in LPS, IL-1beta and TNF-alpha-induced NF-kappaB activation, respectively, as compared to wild type NEMO. Altogether, these results shed light onto the role of NEMO ZF as a protein-binding motif and show that a precise structural integrity of the ZF should be preserved to lead to a functional protein-recognition motif triggering full NF-kappaB activation.
    Full-text · Article · May 2008 · Journal of Molecular Biology

  • No preview · Article · Feb 2008
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    ABSTRACT: The link between the NF-kappaB signal transduction pathway and cancer is now well established. Inhibiting this pathway is therefore a promising approach in the treatment of certain cancers through a pro-apoptotic effect in malignant cells. Owing to its central role in the pathway, the IkappaB kinase (IKK) complex is a privileged target for designing inhibitors. Previously, we showed that oligomerization of NEMO is necessary for IKK activation and defined a minimal oligomerization domain (CC2-LZ) for NEMO, and we developed NEMO peptides inhibiting NF-kappaB activation at the level of the IKK complex. To improve the low-affinity inhibitors, we used ribosome display to select small and stable proteins with high affinity against the individual CC2-LZ because the entire NEMO protein is poorly soluble. Several binders with affinities in the low nanomolar range were obtained. When expressed in human cells, some of the selected molecules, despite their partial degradation, inhibited TNF-alpha-mediated NF-kappaB activation while having no effect on the basal activity. Controls with a naive library member or null plasmid had no effect. Furthermore, we could show that this NF-kappaB inhibition occurs through a specific interaction between the binders and the endogenous NEMO, resulting in decreased IKK activation. These results indicate that in vitro selections with the NEMO subdomain alone as a target may be sufficient to lead to interesting compounds that are able to inhibit NF-kappaB activation.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2007 · Protein Science
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    ABSTRACT: NF-kappaB essential modulator (NEMO) plays an essential role in the nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) pathway as a modulator of the two other subunits of the IkappaB kinase (IKK) complex, i.e. the protein kinases, IKKalpha and IKKbeta. Previous reports all envision the IKK complex to be a static entity. Using glycerol-gradient ultracentrifugation, we observed stimulus-dependent dynamic IKK complex assembly. In wild-type fibroblasts, the kinases and a portion of cellular NEMO associate in a 350-kDa high-molecular-mass complex. In response to constitutive NF-kappaB stimulation by Tax, we observed NEMO recruitment and oligomerization to a shifted high-molecular-mass complex of 440 kDa which displayed increased IKK activity. This stimulus-dependent oligomerization of NEMO was also observed using fluorescence resonance energy transfer after a transient pulse with interleukin-1beta. In addition, fully activated, dimeric kinases not bound to NEMO were detected in these Tax-activated fibroblasts. By glycerol gradient ultracentrifugation, we also showed that: (a) in fibroblasts deficient in IKKalpha and IKKbeta, NEMO predominantly exists as a monomer; (b) in NEMO-deficient fibroblasts, IKKbeta dimers are present that are less stable than IKKalpha dimers. Intriguingly, in resting Rat-1 fibroblasts, 160-kDa IKKalpha-NEMO and IKKbeta-NEMO heterocomplexes were observed as well as a significant proportion of NEMO monomer. These results suggest that most NEMO molecules do not form a tripartite IKK complex with an IKKalpha-IKKbeta heterodimer as previously reported in the literature but, instead, NEMO is able to form a complex with the monomeric forms of IKKalpha and IKKbeta.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2007 · FEBS Journal
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    ABSTRACT: In high-risk myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML), blasts constitutively activate the antiapoptotic transcription factor nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB). Here, we show that this NF-kappaB activation relies on the constitutive activation of the IkappaB kinase (IKK) complex, which is formed by the IKKalpha, IKKbeta and IKKgamma/NF-kappaB essential modulator (NEMO) subunits. A cell-permeable peptide that mimics the leucine zipper subdomain of IKKgamma, thus preventing its oligomerization, inhibited the constitutive NF-kappaB activation and induced apoptotic cell death in a panel of human MDS and AML cell lines (P39, MOLM13, THP1 and MV4-11). Small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of the p65 NF-kappaB subunit or the three IKK subunits including IKKgamma/NEMO also induced apoptotic cell death in P39 cells. Cell death induced by the IKKgamma/NEMO-antagonistic peptide involved the caspase-independent loss of the mitochondrial transmembrane potential as well as signs of outer mitochondrial membrane permeabilization with the consequent release of cytochrome c, apoptosis-inducing factor and endonuclease G. Primary bone marrow CD34(+) cells from high-risk MDS and AML patients also succumbed to the IKKgamma/NEMO-antagonistic peptide, but not to a mutated control peptide. Altogether, these data indicate that malignant cells in high-risk MDS and AML cells critically depend on IKKgamma/NEMO to survive. Moreover, our data delineate a novel procedure for their therapeutic removal, through inhibition of IKKgamma/NEMO oligomerization.
    Full-text · Article · May 2007 · Oncogene
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    ABSTRACT: Geographic spread of highly pathogenic avian H5N1 influenza viruses may give rise to an influenza pandemic. During the first months of a pandemic, control measures would rely mainly on antiviral drugs, such as the neuraminidase (NA) inhibitors oseltamivir and zanamivir. In this study, we compare the sensitivities to oseltamivir of the NAs of several highly pathogenic H5N1 viruses isolated in Asia from 1997 to 2005. The corresponding 50% inhibitory concentrations were determined using a standard in vitro NA inhibition assay. The K(m) for the substrate and the affinity for the inhibitor (K(i)) of NA were determined for a 1997 and a 2005 virus, using an NA inhibition assay on cells transiently expressing the viral enzyme. Our data show that the sensitivities of the NAs of H5N1 viruses isolated in 2004 and 2005 to oseltamivir are about 10-fold higher than those of earlier H5N1 viruses or currently circulating H1N1 viruses. Three-dimensional modeling of the N1 protein predicted that Glu248Gly and Tyr252His changes could account for increased sensitivity. Our data indicate that genetic variation in the absence of any drug-selective pressure may result in significant variations in sensitivity to anti-NA drugs. Although the clinical relevance of a 10-fold increase in the sensitivity of NA to oseltamivir needs to be investigated further, the possibility that sensitivity to anti-NA drugs could increase (or possibly decrease) significantly, even in the absence of treatment, underscores the need for continuous evaluation of the impact of genetic drift on this parameter, especially for influenza viruses with pandemic potential.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2006 · Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
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    ABSTRACT: In high-risk myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML), blasts constitutively activate the antiapoptotic transcription factor nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB). Here, we show that this NF-kappaB activation relies on the constitutive activation of the IkappaB kinase (IKK) complex, which is formed by the IKKalpha, IKKbeta and IKKgamma/NF-kappaB essential modulator (NEMO) subunits. A cell-permeable peptide that mimics the leucine zipper subdomain of IKKgamma, thus preventing its oligomerization, inhibited the constitutive NF-kappaB activation and induced apoptotic cell death in a panel of human MDS and AML cell lines (P39, MOLM13, THP1 and MV4-11). Small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of the p65 NF-kappaB subunit or the three IKK subunits including IKKgamma/NEMO also induced apoptotic cell death in P39 cells. Cell death induced by the IKKgamma/NEMO-antagonistic peptide involved the caspase-independent loss of the mitochondrial transmembrane potential as well as signs of outer mitochondrial membrane permeabilization with the consequent release of cytochrome c, apoptosis-inducing factor and endonuclease G. Primary bone marrow CD34(+) cells from high-risk MDS and AML patients also succumbed to the IKKgamma/NEMO-antagonistic peptide, but not to a mutated control peptide. Altogether, these data indicate that malignant cells in high-risk MDS and AML cells critically depend on IKKgamma/NEMO to survive. Moreover, our data delineate a novel procedure for their therapeutic removal, through inhibition of IKKgamma/NEMO oligomerization.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2006
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    ABSTRACT: Germline mutations in five autosomal genes involved in interleukin (IL)-12-dependent, interferon (IFN)-gamma-mediated immunity cause Mendelian susceptibility to mycobacterial diseases (MSMD). The molecular basis of X-linked recessive (XR)-MSMD remains unknown. We report here mutations in the leucine zipper (LZ) domain of the NF-kappaB essential modulator (NEMO) gene in three unrelated kindreds with XR-MSMD. The mutant proteins were produced in normal amounts in blood and fibroblastic cells. However, the patients' monocytes presented an intrinsic defect in T cell-dependent IL-12 production, resulting in defective IFN-gamma secretion by T cells. IL-12 production was also impaired as the result of a specific defect in NEMO- and NF-kappaB/c-Rel-mediated CD40 signaling after the stimulation of monocytes and dendritic cells by CD40L-expressing T cells and fibroblasts, respectively. However, the CD40-dependent up-regulation of costimulatory molecules of dendritic cells and the proliferation and immunoglobulin class switch of B cells were normal. Moreover, the patients' blood and fibroblastic cells responded to other NF-kappaB activators, such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha, IL-1beta, and lipopolysaccharide. These two mutations in the NEMO LZ domain provide the first genetic etiology of XR-MSMD. They also demonstrate the importance of the T cell- and CD40L-triggered, CD40-, and NEMO/NF-kappaB/c-Rel-mediated induction of IL-12 by monocyte-derived cells for protective immunity to mycobacteria in humans.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2006 · Journal of Experimental Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: The NEMO (NF-kappaB essential modulator) protein plays a crucial role in the canonical NF-kappaB pathway as the regulatory component of the IKK (IkappaB kinase) complex. The human disease anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia with immunodeficiency (EDA-ID) has been recently linked to mutations in NEMO. We investigated the effect of an alanine to glycine substitution found in the NEMO polypeptide of an EDA-ID patient. This pathogenic mutation is located within the minimal oligomerization domain of the protein, which is required for the IKK activation in response to diverse stimuli. The mutation does not dramatically change the native-like state of the trimer, but temperature-induced unfolding studied by circular dichroism showed that it leads to an important loss in the oligomer stability. Furthermore, fluorescence studies showed that the tyrosine located in the adjacent zinc finger domain, which is possibly required for NEMO ubiquitination, exhibits an alteration in its spectral properties. This is probably due to a conformational change of this domain, providing evidence for a close interaction between the oligomerization domain and the zinc finger. In addition, functional complementation assays using NEMO-deficient pre-B and T lymphocytes showed that the pathogenic mutation reduced TNF-alpha and LPS-induced NF-kappaB activation by altering the assembly of the IKK complex. Altogether, our findings provide understanding as to how a single point mutation in NEMO leads to the observed EDA-ID phenotype in relation to the NEMO-dependent mechanism of IKK activation.
    Preview · Article · Apr 2006 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
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    ABSTRACT: Recombination is a major source of genetic heterogeneity in the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) population. The main mechanism responsible for the generation of recombinant viruses is a process of copy choice between the two copies of genomic RNA during reverse transcription. We previously identified, after a single cycle of infection of cells in culture, a recombination hot spot within the gp120 gene, corresponding to the top portion of a RNA hairpin. Here, we determine that the hot region is circumscribed to 18 nucleotides located in the descending strand of the stem, following the sense of reverse transcription. Three factors appeared to be important, albeit at different extents, for the high rate of recombination observed in this region. The position of the hot sequence in the context of the RNA structure appears crucial, because changing its location within this structure triggered differences in recombination up to 20-fold. Another pivotal factor is the presence of a perfectly identical sequence between donor and acceptor RNA in the region of transfer, because single or double nucleotide differences in the hot spot were sufficient to almost completely abolish recombination in the region. Last, the primary structure of the hot region also influenced recombination, although with effects only in the 2-3-fold range. Altogether, these results provide the first molecular dissection of a hot spot in infected cells and indicate that several factors contribute to the generation of a site of preferential copy choice.
    Preview · Article · Mar 2006 · Journal of Biological Chemistry

Publication Stats

5k Citations
693.67 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1993-2011
    • French National Centre for Scientific Research
      • Laboratoire d'Enzymologie et Biochime Structurales
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
    • University of São Paulo
      • Department of Biochemistry (IQ)
      San Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil
  • 2010
    • Universität Bremen
      Bremen, Bremen, Germany
  • 1973-2009
    • Institut Pasteur
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 2005
    • Laboratoire d'Enzymologie et Biochimie Structurales
      Gif, Île-de-France, France
  • 1996
    • University of Lausanne
      Lausanne, Vaud, Switzerland
  • 1983-1995
    • Institut de Génétique et de Biologie Moléculaire et Cellulaire
      Strasburg, Alsace, France
  • 1986
    • Institut de Génétique Moléculaire de Montpellier
      Montpelhièr, Languedoc-Roussillon, France
  • 1979
    • Institut de biologie moléculaire des plantes, Strasbourg
      Strasburg, Alsace, France
  • 1978
    • Université Paris-Sud 11
      Orsay, Île-de-France, France