Sébastien Besteiro

French National Centre for Scientific Research, Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France

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Publications (40)258.44 Total impact

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    Daniel J Klionsky · Kotb Abdelmohsen · Akihisa Abe · Md Joynal Abedin · Hagai Abeliovich · Abraham Acevedo Arozena · Hiroaki Adachi · Christopher M Adams · Peter D Adams · Khosrow Adeli · [...] · Orsolya Kapuy · Vassiliki Karantza · Md Razaul Karim · Parimal Karmakar · Arthur Kaser · Susmita Kaushik · Thomas Kawula · A Murat Kaynar · Po-Yuan Ke · Zun-Ji Ke ·

    Full-text · Dataset · Jan 2016
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    Daniel J Klionsky · Kotb Abdelmohsen · Akihisa Abe · Md Joynal Abedin · Hagai Abeliovich · Abraham Acevedo Arozena · Hiroaki Adachi · Christopher M Adams · Peter D Adams · Khosrow Adeli · [...] · Xiao-Feng Zhu · Yuhua Zhu · Shi-Mei Zhuang · Xiaohong Zhuang · Elio Ziparo · Christos E Zois · Teresa Zoladek · Wei-Xing Zong · Antonio Zorzano · Susu M Zughaier ·
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    ABSTRACT: In 2008 we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, research on this topic has continued to accelerate, and many new scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Accordingly, it is important to update these guidelines for monitoring autophagy in different organisms. Various reviews have described the range of assays that have been used for this purpose. Nevertheless, there continues to be confusion regarding acceptable methods to measure autophagy, especially in multicellular eukaryotes. For example, a key point that needs to be emphasized is that there is a difference between measurements that monitor the numbers or volume of autophagic elements (e.g., autophagosomes or autolysosomes) at any stage of the autophagic process versus those that measure flux through the autophagy pathway (i.e., the complete process including the amount and rate of cargo sequestered and degraded). In particular, a block in macroautophagy that results in autophagosome accumulation must be differentiated from stimuli that increase autophagic activity, defined as increased autophagy induction coupled with increased delivery to, and degradation within, lysosomes (in most higher eukaryotes and some protists such as Dictyostelium) or the vacuole (in plants and fungi). In other words, it is especially important that investigators new to the field understand that the appearance of more autophagosomes does not necessarily equate with more autophagy. In fact, in many cases, autophagosomes accumulate because of a block in trafficking to lysosomes without a concomitant change in autophagosome biogenesis, whereas an increase in autolysosomes may reflect a reduction in degradative activity. It is worth emphasizing here that lysosomal digestion is a stage of autophagy and evaluating its competence is a crucial part of the evaluation of autophagic flux, or complete autophagy. Here, we present a set of guidelines for the selection and interpretation of methods for use by investigators who aim to examine macroautophagy and related processes, as well as for reviewers who need to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of papers that are focused on these processes. These guidelines are not meant to be a formulaic set of rules, because the appropriate assays depend in part on the question being asked and the system being used. In addition, we emphasize that no individual assay is guaranteed to be the most appropriate one in every situation, and we strongly recommend the use of multiple assays to monitor autophagy. Along these lines, because of the potential for pleiotropic effects due to blocking autophagy through genetic manipulation, it is imperative to target by gene knockout or RNA interference more than one autophagy-related protein. In addition, some individual Atg proteins, or groups of proteins, are involved in other cellular pathways implying that not all Atg proteins can be used as a specific marker for an autophagic process. In these guidelines, we consider these various methods of assessing autophagy and what information can, or cannot, be obtained from them. Finally, by discussing the merits and limits of particular assays, we hope to encourage technical innovation in the field.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2016 · Autophagy
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    ABSTRACT: Autophagy is a catabolic process widely conserved among eukaryotes that permits the rapid degradation of unwanted proteins and organelles through the lysosomal pathway. This mechanism involves the formation of a double-membrane structure called the autophagosome that sequesters cellular components to be degraded. To orchestrate this process, yeasts and animals rely on a conserved set of autophagy-related proteins (ATGs). Key among these factors is ATG8, a cytoplasmic protein that is recruited to nascent autophagosomal membranes upon the induction of autophagy. Toxoplasma gondii is a potentially harmful human pathogen in which only a subset of ATGs appears to be present. Although this eukaryotic parasite seems able to generate autophagosomes upon stresses such as nutrient starvation, the full functionality and biological relevance of a canonical autophagy pathway are as yet unclear. Intriguingly, in T. gondii, ATG8 localizes to the apicoplast under normal intracellular growth conditions. The apicoplast is a nonphotosynthetic plastid enclosed by four membranes resulting from a secondary endosymbiosis. Using superresolution microscopy and biochemical techniques, we show that TgATG8 localizes to the outermost membrane of this organelle. We investigated the unusual function of TgATG8 at the apicoplast by generating a conditional knockdown mutant. Depletion of TgATG8 led to rapid loss of the organelle and subsequent intracellular replication defects, indicating that the protein is essential for maintaining apicoplast homeostasis and thus for survival of the tachyzoite stage. More precisely, loss of TgATG8 led to abnormal segregation of the apicoplast into the progeny because of a loss of physical interactions of the organelle with the centrosomes.
    Preview · Article · Oct 2015 · mBio
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    Sebastien Besteiro

    Preview · Article · Jun 2015
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    ABSTRACT: For the third time, teams belonging to the "Montpellier Infectious Diseases" network in the Rabelais BioHealth Cluster held their annual meeting on the 27(th) and 28(th) of November in Montpellier, France. While the 2012 meeting was focused on the cooperation between the local force tasks in biomedical and medical chemistry and presented the interdisciplinary research programs designed to fight against virus, bacteria and parasites, the 2014 edition of the meeting was focused on the translational research in infectious diseases and highlighted the bench-to-clinic strategies designed by academic and private research groups in the Montpellier area. Copyright © 2015.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2015 · Infection, genetics and evolution: journal of molecular epidemiology and evolutionary genetics in infectious diseases
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    ABSTRACT: Most macrophages remain uninfected in HIV-1-infected patients. Nevertheless, the phagocytic capacity of phagocytes from these patients is impaired, favouring the multiplication of opportunistic pathogens. The basis for this phagocytic defect is not known. HIV-1 Tat protein is efficiently secreted by infected cells. Secreted Tat can enter uninfected cells and reach their cytosol. Here we found that extracellular Tat, at the subnanomolar concentration present in the sera of HIV-1-infected patients, inhibits the phagocytosis of Mycobacterium avium or opsonized Toxoplasma gondii by human primary macrophages. This inhibition results from a defect in mannose- and Fcγ-receptor-mediated phagocytosis, respectively. Inhibition relies on the interaction of Tat with phosphatidylinositol (4,5)bisphosphate that interferes with the recruitment of Cdc42 to the phagocytic cup, thereby preventing Cdc42 activation and pseudopod elongation. Tat also inhibits FcγR-mediated phagocytosis in neutrophils and monocytes. This study provides a molecular basis for the phagocytic defects observed in uninfected phagocytes following HIV-1 infection.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2015 · Nature Communications
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    ABSTRACT: Research in autophagy continues to accelerate,(1) and as a result many new scientists are entering the field. Accordingly, it is important to establish a standard set of criteria for monitoring macroautophagy in different organisms. Recent reviews have described the range of assays that have been used for this purpose.(2,3) There are many useful and convenient methods that can be used to monitor macroautophagy in yeast, but relatively few in other model systems, and there is much confusion regarding acceptable methods to measure macroautophagy in higher eukaryotes. A key point that needs to be emphasized is that there is a difference between measurements that monitor the numbers of autophagosomes versus those that measure flux through the autophagy pathway; thus, a block in macroautophagy that results in autophagosome accumulation needs to be differentiated from fully functional autophagy that includes delivery to, and degradation within, lysosomes (in most higher eukaryotes) or the vacuole (in plants and fungi). Here, we present a set of guidelines for the selection and interpretation of the methods that can be used by investigators who are attempting to examine macroautophagy and related processes, as well as by reviewers who need to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of papers that investigate these processes. This set of guidelines is not meant to be a formulaic set of rules, because the appropriate assays depend in part on the question being asked and the system being used. In addition, we emphasize that no individual assay is guaranteed to be the most appropriate one in every situation, and we strongly recommend the use of multiple assays to verify an autophagic response.
    Full-text · Dataset · Dec 2013
  • Sébastien Besteiro
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    ABSTRACT: Functional characterization of autophagy has only started recently in medically important parasitic protists. It appears both from bioinformatic searches and experimental data that besides a conserved core machinery, the autophagic pathway in these divergent eukaryotic cells might harbor several original features. Moreover, some intracellular parasitic protists are also able to manipulate host cell autophagy in order to establish or maintain infection within a host. Peculiarities of the autophagic functions in these pathogenic protists and, more importantly, the essentiality of these functions for the survival or the pathogenicity of several parasites, suggest that this pathway should be explored to discover new anti-parasitic drug targets.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2013
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    Full-text · Dataset · Sep 2013
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    ABSTRACT: In the process of autophagy, the Atg8 protein is conjugated, through a ubiquitin-like system, to the lipid phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) to associate with the membrane of forming autophagosomes. There, it plays a crucial role in the genesis of these organelles and in autophagy in general. In most eukaryotes, the cysteine peptidase Atg4 processes the C terminus of cytosolic Atg8 to regulate its association with autophagosomal membranes and also delipidates Atg8 to release this protein from membranes. The parasitic protist Toxoplasma gondii contains a functional, yet apparently reduced, autophagic machinery. T. gondii Atg8 homolog, in addition to a cytosolic and occasionally autophagosomal localization, also localizes to the apicoplast, a nonphotosynthetic plastid bounded by four membranes. Our attempts to interfere with TgATG8 function showed that it appears to be essential for parasite multiplication inside its host cell. This protein also displays a peculiar C terminus that does not seem to necessitate processing prior to membrane association and yet an unusually large Toxoplasma homolog of ATG4 is predicted in the parasite genome. A TgATG4 conditional expression mutant that we have generated is severely affected in growth, and displays significant alterations at the organellar level, noticeably with a fragmentation of the mitochondrial network and a loss of the apicoplast. TgATG4-depleted parasites appear to be defective in the recycling of membrane-bound TgATG8. Overall, our data highlight a role for the TgATG8 conjugation pathway in maintaining the homeostasis of the parasite's organelles and suggest that Toxoplasma has evolved a specialized autophagic machinery with original regulation.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2013 · Autophagy
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    Full-text · Dataset · Nov 2012
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    ABSTRACT: Plasmodium falciparum is the causative agent of malaria, a deadly infectious disease for which treatments are scarce and drug-resistant parasites are now increasingly found. A comprehensive method of identifying and quantifying metabolites of this intracellular parasite could expand the arsenal of tools to understand its biology, and be used to develop new treatments against the disease. Here, we present two methods based on liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry for reliable measurement of water-soluble metabolites involved in phospholipid biosynthesis, as well as several other metabolites that reflect the metabolic status of the parasite including amino acids, carboxylic acids, energy-related carbohydrates, and nucleotides. A total of 35 compounds was quantified. In the first method, polar compounds were retained by hydrophilic interaction chromatography (amino column) and detected in negative mode using succinic acid-(13)C(4) and fluorovaline as internal standards. In the second method, separations were carried out using reverse phase (C18) ion-pair liquid chromatography, with heptafluorobutyric acid as a volatile ion pairing reagent in positive detection mode, using d(9)-choline and 4-aminobutanol as internal standards. Standard curves were performed in P. falciparum-infected and uninfected red blood cells using standard addition method (r(2)>0.99). The intra- and inter-day accuracy and precision as well as the extraction recovery of each compound were determined. The lower limit of quantitation varied from 50pmol to 100fmol/3×10(7)cells. These methods were validated and successfully applied to determine intracellular concentrations of metabolites from uninfected host RBCs and isolated Plasmodium parasites.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2012 · Analytica chimica acta
  • Sébastien Besteiro
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    ABSTRACT: Autophagy is a life-sustaining process by which cytoplasmic components are sequestered in double-membrane vesicles called autophagosomes, and degraded after fusion with a lytic compartment. This process can be triggered under cellular stress conditions in order to recycle damaged organelles or provide nutrients to the cell, but may also be involved in cell remodelling during normal development. This catabolic process is conserved among most eukaryotes and characterisation of its molecular machinery has benefited greatly from functional genetic studies in yeast and mammalian models. Until recently, not much was known about the functions of autophagy in Apicomplexa, but recent data obtained in Toxoplasma have shed light on a very important role for this machinery, potentially at the crossroads between life and death decisions for the parasite. The possible roles for autophagy during the life cycles of other medically important apicomplexan parasites and the perspectives for discovering new drug targets in this pathway for combating these parasites are discussed in this review.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2012 · Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In 2008 we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, research on this topic has continued to accelerate, and many new scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Accordingly, it is important to update these guidelines for monitoring autophagy in different organisms. Various reviews have described the range of assays that have been used for this purpose. Nevertheless, there continues to be confusion regarding acceptable methods to measure autophagy, especially in multicellular eukaryotes. A key point that needs to be emphasized is that there is a difference between measurements that monitor the numbers or volume of autophagic elements (e.g., autophagosomes or autolysosomes) at any stage of the autophagic process vs. those that measure flux through the autophagy pathway (i.e., the complete process); thus, a block in macroautophagy that results in autophagosome accumulation needs to be differentiated from stimuli that result in increased autophagic activity, defined as increased autophagy induction coupled with increased delivery to, and degradation within, lysosomes (in most higher eukaryotes and some protists such as Dictyostelium) or the vacuole (in plants and fungi). In other words, it is especially important that investigators new to the field understand that the appearance of more autophagosomes does not necessarily equate with more autophagy. In fact, in many cases, autophagosomes accumulate because of a block in trafficking to lysosomes without a concomitant change in autophagosome biogenesis, whereas an increase in autolysosomes may reflect a reduction in degradative activity. Here, we present a set of guidelines for the selection and interpretation of methods for use by investigators who aim to examine macroautophagy and related processes, as well as for reviewers who need to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of papers that are focused on these processes. These guidelines are not meant to be a formulaic set of rules, because the appropriate assays depend in part on the question being asked and the system being used. In addition, we emphasize that no individual assay is guaranteed to be the most appropriate one in every situation, and we strongly recommend the use of multiple assays to monitor autophagy. In these guidelines, we consider these various methods of assessing autophagy and what information can, or cannot, be obtained from them. Finally, by discussing the merits and limits of particular autophagy assays, we hope to encourage technical innovation in the field.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2012 · Autophagy
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In 2008 we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, research on this topic has continued to accelerate, and many new scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Accordingly, it is important to update these guidelines for monitoring autophagy in different organisms. Various reviews have described the range of assays that have been used for this purpose. Nevertheless, there continues to be confusion regarding acceptable methods to measure autophagy, especially in multicellular eukaryotes. A key point that needs to be emphasized is that there is a difference between measurements that monitor the numbers or volume of autophagic elements (e.g., autophagosomes or autolysosomes) at any stage of the autophagic process vs. those that measure flux through the autophagy pathway (i.e., the complete process); thus, a block in macroautophagy that results in autophagosome accumulation needs to be differentiated from stimuli that result in increased autophagic activity, defined as increased autophagy induction coupled with increased delivery to, and degradation within, lysosomes (in most higher eukaryotes and some protists such as Dictyostelium) or the vacuole (in plants and fungi). In other words, it is especially important that investigators new to the field understand that the appearance of more autophagosomes does not necessarily equate with more autophagy. In fact, in many cases, autophagosomes accumulate because of a block in trafficking to lysosomes without a concomitant change in autophagosome biogenesis, whereas an increase in autolysosomes may reflect a reduction in degradative activity. Here, we present a set of guidelines for the selection and interpretation of methods for use by investigators who aim to examine macroautophagy and related processes, as well as for reviewers who need to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of papers that are focused on these processes. These guidelines are not meant to be a formulaic set of rules, because the appropriate assays depend in part on the question being asked and the system being used. In addition, we emphasize that no individual assay is guaranteed to be the most appropriate one in every situation, and we strongly recommend the use of multiple assays to monitor autophagy. In these guidelines, we consider these various methods of assessing autophagy and what information can, or cannot, be obtained from them. Finally, by discussing the merits and limits of particular autophagy assays, we hope to encourage technical innovation in the field.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2012 · Autophagy
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In 2008 we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, research on this topic has continued to accelerate, and many new scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Accordingly, it is important to update these guidelines for monitoring autophagy in different organisms. Various reviews have described the range of assays that have been used for this purpose. Nevertheless, there continues to be confusion regarding acceptable methods to measure autophagy, especially in multicellular eukaryotes. A key point that needs to be emphasized is that there is a difference between measurements that monitor the numbers or volume of autophagic elements (e.g., autophagosomes or autolysosomes) at any stage of the autophagic process versus those that measure flux through the autophagy pathway (i.e., the complete process);5,6 thus, a block in macroautophagy that results in autophagosome accumulation needs to be differentiated from stimuli that result in increased autophagic activity, defined as increased autophagy induction coupled with increased delivery to, and degradation within, lysosomes (in most higher eukaryotes and some protists such as Dictyostelium) or the vacuole (in plants and fungi). In other words, it is especially important that investigators new to the field understand that the appearance of more autophagosomes does not necessarily equate with more autophagy. In fact, in many cases, autophagosomes accumulate because of a block in trafficking to lysosomes without a concomitant change in autophagosome biogenesis, whereas an increase in autolysosomes may reflect a reduction in degradative activity. Here, we present a set of guidelines for the selection and interpretation of methods for use by investigators who aim to examine macroautophagy and related processes, as well as for reviewers who need to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of papers that are focused on these processes. These guidelines are not meant to be a formulaic set of rules, because the appropriate assays depend in part on the question being asked and the system being used. In addition, we emphasize that no individual assay is guaranteed to be the most appropriate one in every situation, and we strongly recommend the use of multiple assays to monitor autophagy. In these guidelines, we consider these various methods of assessing autophagy and what information can, or cannot, be obtained from them. Finally, by discussing the merits and limits of particular autophagy assays, we hope to encourage technical innovation in the field.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2012 · Autophagy
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In 2008 we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, research on this topic has continued to accelerate, and many new scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Accordingly, it is important to update these guidelines for monitoring autophagy in different organisms. Various reviews have described the range of assays that have been used for this purpose. Nevertheless, there continues to be confusion regarding acceptable methods to measure autophagy, especially in multicellular eukaryotes. A key point that needs to be emphasized is that there is a difference between measurements that monitor the numbers or volume of autophagic elements (e.g., autophagosomes or autolysosomes) at any stage of the autophagic process vs. those that measure flux through the autophagy pathway (i.e., the complete process); thus, a block in macroautophagy that results in autophagosome accumulation needs to be differentiated from stimuli that result in increased autophagic activity, defined as increased autophagy induction coupled with increased delivery to, and degradation within, lysosomes (in most higher eukaryotes and some protists such as Dictyostelium) or the vacuole (in plants and fungi). In other words, it is especially important that investigators new to the field understand that the appearance of more autophagosomes does not necessarily equate with more autophagy. In fact, in many cases, autophagosomes accumulate because of a block in trafficking to lysosomes without a concomitant change in autophagosome biogenesis, whereas an increase in autolysosomes may reflect a reduction in degradative activity. Here, we present a set of guidelines for the selection and interpretation of methods for use by investigators who aim to examine macroautophagy and related processes, as well as for reviewers who need to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of papers that are focused on these processes. These guidelines are not meant to be a formulaic set of rules, because the appropriate assays depend in part on the question being asked and the system being used. In addition, we emphasize that no individual assay is guaranteed to be the most appropriate one in every situation, and we strongly recommend the use of multiple assays to monitor autophagy. In these guidelines, we consider these various methods of assessing autophagy and what information can, or cannot, be obtained from them. Finally, by discussing the merits and limits of particular autophagy assays, we hope to encourage technical innovation in the field.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2012 · Autophagy
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    Full-text · Article · Apr 2012 · Autophagy
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    Sébastien Besteiro
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    ABSTRACT: Toxoplasma gondii belongs to the phylum Apicomplexa, a diverse group of early branching unicellular eukaryotes related to dinoflagellates and ciliates. Like several other Apicomplexa such as Plasmodium (the causative agent of malaria), T. gondii is a human pathogen responsible for a potentially lethal disease called toxoplasmosis. Most Apicomplexa have complex life cycles, involving intermediate hosts and vectors, which include obligatory intracellular developmental stages. In the case of malaria and toxoplasmosis, it is that replicative process, leading to the ultimate lysis of the host cell, which is causing the symptoms of the disease. For Toxoplasma, the invasive and fast-replicating form of the parasite is called the tachyzoite. While autophagy has been a fast-growing field of research in recent years, not much was known about the relevance of this catabolic process in medically important apicomplexan parasites. Vesicles resembling autophagosomes had been described in drug-treated Plasmodium parasites in the early 1970s and a potential role for autophagy in organelle recycling during differentiation between Plasmodium life stages has also been recently described. Interestingly, recent database searches have identified putative orthologs of the core machinery responsible for the formation of autophagosomes in several protists, including Toxoplasma. In spite of an apparently reduced machinery (only about one-third of the yeast ATG genes appear to be conserved), T. gondii seemed thus able to perform macroautophagy, but the cellular functions of the pathway for this parasite remained to be demonstrated.
    Preview · Article · Mar 2012 · Autophagy
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    Full-text · Article · Jan 2012 · Autophagy

Publication Stats

3k Citations
258.44 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2011-2015
    • French National Centre for Scientific Research
      • Centre de Biochimie Structurale
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
    • Unité Inserm U1077
      Caen, Lower Normandy, France
  • 2008-2015
    • Université Montpellier
      • Centre d'Étude d'Agents Pathogènes et Biotechnologie pour la Santé (CNRS)
      Montpelhièr, Languedoc-Roussillon, France
  • 2013
    • Université Montpellier 2 Sciences et Techniques
      Montpelhièr, Languedoc-Roussillon, France
  • 2012
    • University of Michigan
      • Life Sciences Institute
      Ann Arbor, MI, United States
  • 2005-2009
    • University of Glasgow
      • Wellcome Trust Centre for Molecular Parasitology
      Glasgow, Scotland, United Kingdom
  • 2002
    • The University of Manchester
      Manchester, England, United Kingdom
    • Université Victor Segalen Bordeaux 2
      • Centre de Résonance Magnétique des Systèmes Biologiques
      Burdeos, Aquitaine, France