Tomoyoshi Soga

Keio University, Edo, Tōkyō, Japan

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Publications (188)894.41 Total impact

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    Full-text · Dataset · Jan 2016
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    ABSTRACT: Hot spring water and natural mineral water have been therapeutically used to prevent or improve various diseases. Specifically, consumption of bicarbonate-rich mineral water (BMW) has been reported to prevent or improve type 2 diabetes (T2D) in humans. However, the molecular mechanisms of the beneficial effects behind mineral water consumption remain unclear. To elucidate the molecular level effects of BMW consumption on glycemic control, blood metabolome analysis and fecal microbiome analysis were applied to the BMW consumption test. During the study, 19 healthy volunteers drank 500 mL of commercially available tap water (TW) or BMW daily. TW consumption periods and BMW consumption periods lasted for a week each and this cycle was repeated twice. Biochemical tests indicated that serum glycoalbumin levels, one of the indexes of glycemic controls, decreased significantly after BMW consumption. Metabolome analysis of blood samples revealed that 19 metabolites including glycolysis-related metabolites and 3 amino acids were significantly different between TW and BMW consumption periods. Additionally, microbiome analysis demonstrated that composition of lean-inducible bacteria was increased after BMW consumption. Our results suggested that consumption of BMW has the possible potential to prevent and/or improve T2D through the alterations of host metabolism and gut microbiota composition.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2015 · Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: Metabolomics is a promising approach to the identification of biomarkers in plasma. Here, we performed a population-based, cross-sectional study to identify potential biomarkers of alcohol intake and alcohol-induced liver injury by metabolomic profiling using capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry (CE-MS). Methods: Fasting plasma samples were collected from 896 Japanese men who participated in the baseline survey of the Tsuruoka Metabolomics Cohort Study, and 115 polar metabolites were identified and absolutely quantified by CE-MS. Information on daily ethanol intake was collected through a standardized, self-administered questionnaire. The associations between ethanol intake and plasma concentration of metabolites were examined. Relationships between metabolite concentrations or their ratios and serum liver enzyme levels in the highest ethanol intake group (>46.0 g/day) were then examined by linear regression analysis. Replication analysis was conducted in 193 samples collected from independent population of this cohort. Results: Nineteen metabolites were identified to have an association with daily alcohol consumption both in the original and replication population. Three of these metabolites (threonine, glutamine, and guanidinosuccinate) were found to associate well with elevated levels of serum liver enzymes in the highest ethanol intake group, but not in the non-drinker group. We also found that the glutamate/glutamine ratio had a much stronger relation to serum γ-glutamyltransferase, aspartate transaminase, and alanine transaminase than glutamate or glutamine alone (standardized beta = 0.678, 0.558, 0.498, respectively). Conclusions: We found 19 metabolites associated with alcohol intake, and three biomarker candidates (threonine, guanidinosuccinate and glutamine) of alcohol-induced liver injury. Glutamate/glutamine ratio might also be good biomarker.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2015 · Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: Intravenous administration of high-dose vitamin C has recently attracted attention as a cancer therapy. High-dose vitamin C induces pro-oxidant effects and selectively kills cancer cells. However, the anticancer mechanisms of vitamin C are not fully understood. Here, we analyzed metabolic changes induced by vitamin C in MCF7 human breast adenocarcinoma and HT29 human colon cancer cells using capillary electrophoresis time-of-flight mass spectrometry (CE-TOFMS). The metabolomic profiles of both cell lines were dramatically altered after exposure to cytotoxic concentrations of vitamin C. Levels of upstream metabolites in the glycolysis pathway and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle were increased in both cell lines following treatment with vitamin C, while adenosine triphosphate (ATP) levels and adenylate energy charges were decreased concentration-dependently. Treatment with N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) and reduced glutathione (GSH) significantly inhibited vitamin C-induced cytotoxicity in MCF7 cells. NAC also suppressed vitamin C-dependent metabolic changes, and NAD treatment prevented vitamin C-induced cell death. Collectively, our data suggests that vitamin C inhibited energy metabolism through NAD depletion, thereby inducing cancer cell death.
    Preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Scientific Reports
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    ABSTRACT: Unlike bacteria such as Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis, several species of freshwater cyanobacteria are known to contain multiple chromosomal copies per cell, at all stages of their cell cycle. We have characterized the replication of multi-copy chromosomes in the cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 (hereafter Synechococcus 7942). In Synechococcus 7942, the replication of multi-copy chromosome is asynchronous, not only among cells but also among multi-copy chromosomes. This suggests that DNA replication is not tightly coupled to cell division in Synechococcus 7942. To address this hypothesis, we analysed the relationship between DNA replication and cell doubling at various growth phases of Synechococcus 7942 cell culture. Three distinct growth phases were characterised in Synechococcus 7942 batch culture: lag phase, exponential phase, and arithmetic (linear) phase. The chromosomal copy number was significantly higher during the lag phase than during the exponential and linear phases. Likewise, DNA replication activity was higher in the lag phase cells than in the exponential and linear phase cells, and the lag phase cells were more sensitive to nalidixic acid, a DNA gyrase inhibitor, than cells in other growth phases. To elucidate physiological differences in Synechococcus 7942 during the lag phase, we analysed the metabolome at each growth phase. In addition, we assessed the accumulation of central carbon metabolites, amino acids, and DNA precursors at each phase. The results of these analyses suggest that Synechococcus 7942 cells prepare for cell division during the lag phase by initiating intensive chromosomal DNA replication and accumulating metabolites necessary for the subsequent cell division and elongation steps that occur during the exponential growth and linear phases.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2015 · PLoS ONE

  • No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Experimental Hematology
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    ABSTRACT: Although nanoparticles (NPs) has afforded considerable benefits in various fields of sciences, several reports have shown their harmful effects, suggesting the necessity of adequate risk assessment. To clarify the mechanism of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs)-enhanced gingival inflammation, we conducted the full-scale metabolomic analyses of human gingival fibroblast cells treated with IL-1β alone or in combination with TiO2 NPs. Observation with transmission electron microscope demonstrated the incorporation of TiO2 NPs into vacuoles of the cells. TiO2 NPs significantly enhanced the IL-1β-induced prostaglandin E2 production and COX-1 and COX-2 protein expression. IL-1β reduced the intracellular concentrations of overall primary metabolites especially those of amino acid, urea cycle, polyamine, S-adenosylmethione and glutathione synthetic pathways. The addition of TiO2 NPs further augmented these IL-1β-induced metabolic changes, recommending careful use of dental materials containing TiO2 NPs towards patients with gingivitis or periodontitis. The impact of the present study is to identify the molecular targets of TiO2 NPs for the future establishment of new metabolic markers and therapeutic strategy of gingival inflammation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2015 · Biomaterials
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    ABSTRACT: The anti-tumor activity of gemcitabine (GEM) has been clinically proven in several solid tumors, including pancreatic cancer, biliary tract cancer, urinary bladder cancer, and non-small cell lung cancer. However, problems remain with issues such as acquisition of chemoresistance against GEM. GEM is activated after phosphorylation by deoxycytidine kinase (DCK) inside of the cell; thus, DCK inactivation is one of the important mechanisms for acquisition of GEM resistance. We previously investigated the DCK gene in multiple GEM resistant cancer cell lines and identified frequent inactivating mutations. In this study, we identified two crucial genetic alteration in DCK. (1) A total deletion of DCK in RTGBC1-TKB, an acquired GEM resistant cell line derived from a gall bladder cancer cell line TGBC1-TKB. (2) An E197K missense alteration of DCK in MKN28, a gastric cancer cell line; its acquired GEM resistant cancer cell line, RMKN28, showed a loss of the normal E197 allele. We introduced either normal DCK or altered DCK_E197K into RMKN28 and proved that only the introduction of normal DCK restored GEM sensitivity. Furthermore, we analyzed 104 healthy volunteers and found that none of them carried the same base substitution observed in MKN28. These results strongly suggest that (1) the E197K alteration in DCK causes inactivation of DCK, and that (2) loss of the normal E197 allele is the crucial mechanism in acquisition of GEM resistance in RMKN28. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2015 · Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
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    ABSTRACT: Reduced expression of microRNA122 (miR122), a liver-specific microRNA, is frequent in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, its biological significances remain poorly understood. Because deregulated amino acid levels in cancers can affect their biological behavior, we determined the amino acid levels in miR122-silenced mouse liver tissues, in which intracellular arginine levels were significantly increased. The increased intracellular arginine levels were through upregulation of the solute carrier family 7 (SLC7A1), a transporter of arginine and a direct target of miR122. Arginine is the substrate for nitric oxide (NO) synthetase, and intracellular NO levels were increased in miR122-silenced HCC cells, with increased resistance to sorafenib, a multikinase inhibitor. Conversely, maintenance of the miR122-silenced HCC cells in arginine-depleted culture media, as well as overexpression of miR122 in miR122-low-expressing HCC cells, reversed these effects and rendered the cells more sensitive to sorafenib. Using a reporter knock-in construct, chemical compounds were screened, and Wee1 kinase inhibitor was identified as upregulators of miR122 transcription, which increased the sensitivity of the cells to sorafenib. These results provide an insight into sorafenib resistance in miR122-low HCC, and suggest that arginine depletion or a combination of sorafenib with the identified compound may provide promising approaches to managing this HCC subset.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2015 · Oncotarget
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    ABSTRACT: In the present study, prior to the establishment of a method for the clinical diagnosis of chronic fatigue in humans, we validated the utility of plasma metabolomic analysis in a rat model of fatigue using capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry (CE-MS). In order to obtain a fatigued animal group, rats were placed in a cage filled with water to a height of 2.2 cm for 5 days. A food-restricted group, in which rats were limited to 10 g/d of food (around 50% of the control group), was also assessed. The food-restricted group exhibited weight reduction similar to that of the fatigued group. CE-MS measurements were performed to evaluate the profile of food intake-dependent metabolic changes, as well as the profile in fatigue loading, resulting in the identification of 48 metabolites in plasma. Multivariate analyses using hierarchical clustering and principal component analysis revealed that the plasma metabolome in the fatigued group showed clear differences from those in the control and food-restricted groups. In the fatigued group, we found distinctive changes in metabolites related to branched-chain amino acid metabolism, urea cycle, and proline metabolism. Specifically, the fatigued group exhibited significant increases in valine, leucine, isoleucine, and 2-oxoisopentanoate, and significant decreases in citrulline and hydroxyproline compared with the control and food-restricted groups. Plasma levels of total nitric oxide were increased in the fatigued group, indicating systemic oxidative stress. Further, plasma metabolites involved in the citrate cycle, such as cis-aconitate and isocitrate, were reduced in the fatigued group. The levels of ATP were significantly decreased in the liver and skeletal muscle, indicative of a deterioration in energy metabolism in these organs. Thus, this comprehensive metabolic analysis furthered our understanding of the pathophysiology of fatigue, and identified potential diagnostic biomarkers based on fatigue pathophysiology.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2015 · PLoS ONE
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    ABSTRACT: The development of high throughput metabolite measurement technologies has enabled the use of metabolomics for epidemiologic studies by profiling metabolite concentrations in large cohorts of human blood samples. Standard protocols are necessary to obtain unbiased profiles through multiple runs over long periods of time and to allow reliable statistical analyses. This study assessed the effects of sampling procedures and storage conditions on the stability of metabolomic profiles in blood and serum. Charged metabolomic profiles were determined by capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry (CE-MS) and compared by multivariate analyses. The effects of pre-analytical procedures, including times for clotting and incubation of serum and plasma, respectively; incubation temperatures; and number of freeze-thaw cycles, were assessed. Overall, inter-individual differences in profiles were larger than intra-individual differences, and profiles in plasma showed better stability than those in serum. These quantified datasets of metabolites, along with their stability and variation, may help in interpreting data from long-term cohort studies. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2015 · Electrophoresis
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    ABSTRACT: The cystine/glutamate transporter, designated as system xc-, is important for maintaining intracellular glutathione levels and extracellular redox balance. The substrate-specific component of system xc-, xCT, is strongly induced by various stimuli, including oxidative stress, whereas it is constitutively expressed only in specific brain regions and immune tissues such as thymus and spleen. While cystine and glutamate are the well-established substrates of system xc- and the knockout of xCT leads to alterations of extracellular redox balance, nothing is known about other potential substrates. We thus performed a comparative metabolite analysis of tissues from xCT-deficient and wild-type mice using capillary electrophoresis time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Although most of the analysed metabolites did not show significant alterations between xCT-deficient and wild-type mice, cystathionine emerged to be absent specifically in thymus and spleen of xCT-deficient mice. No expression of either cystathionine β-synthase or cystathionine γ-lyase was observed in thymus and spleen of mice. In embryonic fibroblasts derived from wild-type embryos, cystine uptake was significantly inhibited by cystathionine in a concentration-dependent manner. Wild-type cells showed an intracellular accumulation of cystathionine when incubated in cystathionine-containing buffer, which concomitantly stimulated an increased release of glutamate into the extracellular space. By contrast, none of these effects could be observed in xCT-deficient cells. Remarkably, unlike knockout cells, wild-type cells could be rescued from cystine deprivation-induced cell death by cystathionine supplementation. We thus conclude that cystathionine is a novel physiological substrate of system xc-, and that the accumulation of cystathionine in immune tissues is exclusively mediated by system xc-. Copyright © 2015, The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2015 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
  • Masataka Wakayama · Akiyoshi Hirayama · Tomoyoshi Soga
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    ABSTRACT: Capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry (CE-MS) has proven to be useful for metabolomics studies. Charged metabolites are first separated by CE based on charge and size and are subsequently selectively detected using MS. The major advantages of CE-MS are its high resolution and the fact that almost any charged species can be analyzed by two methods, both cationic and anionic. This technique can readily be applied to various types of biological samples originating from bacteria, plants, mammals, and body fluids. This chapter highlights detailed practical procedures for using this technology.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2015 · Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.)
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    ABSTRACT: The accumulation of uremic toxins is involved in the progression of CKD. Various uremic toxins are derived from gut microbiota, and an imbalance of gut microbiota or dysbiosis is related to renal failure. However, the pathophysiologic mechanisms underlying the relationship between the gut microbiota and renal failure are still obscure. Using an adenine-induced renal failure mouse model, we evaluated the effects of the ClC-2 chloride channel activator lubiprostone (commonly used for the treatment of constipation) on CKD. Oral administration of lubiprostone (500 µg/kg per day) changed the fecal and intestinal properties in mice with renal failure. Additionally, lubiprostone treatment reduced the elevated BUN and protected against tubulointerstitial damage, renal fibrosis, and inflammation. Gut microbiome analysis of 16S rRNA genes in the renal failure mice showed that lubiprostone treatment altered their microbial composition, especially the recovery of the levels of the Lactobacillaceae family and Prevotella genus, which were significantly reduced in the renal failure mice. Furthermore, capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry-based metabolome analysis showed that lubiprostone treatment decreased the plasma level of uremic toxins, such as indoxyl sulfate and hippurate, which are derived from gut microbiota, and a more recently discovered uremic toxin, trans-aconitate. These results suggest that lubiprostone ameliorates the progression of CKD and the accumulation of uremic toxins by improving the gut microbiota and intestinal environment. Copyright © 2014 by the American Society of Nephrology.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2014 · Journal of the American Society of Nephrology
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    ABSTRACT: The biochemistry of cancer cells diverges significantly from normal cells as a result of a comprehensive reprogramming of metabolic pathways. A major factor influencing cancer metabolism is hypoxia, which is mediated by HIF1α and HIF2α. HIF1α represents one of the principal regulators of metabolism and energetic balance in cancer cells through its regulation of glycolysis, glycogen synthesis, Krebs cycle and the pentose phosphate shunt. However, less is known about the role of HIF1α in modulating lipid metabolism. Lipids serve cancer cells to provide molecules acting as oncogenic signals, energetic reserve, precursors for new membrane synthesis and to balance redox biological reactions. To study the role of HIF1α in these processes, we used HCT116 colorectal cancer cells expressing endogenous HIF1α and cells in which the hif1α gene was deleted to characterize HIF1α-dependent and independent effects on hypoxia regulated lipid metabolites. Untargeted metabolomics integrated with proteomics revealed that hypoxia induced many changes in lipids metabolites. Enzymatic steps in fatty acid synthesis and the Kennedy pathway were modified in a HIF1α-dependent fashion. Palmitate, stearate, PLD3 and PAFC16 were regulated in a HIF-independent manner. Our results demonstrate the impact of hypoxia on lipid metabolites, of which a distinct subset is regulated by HIF1α.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2014 · Oncotarget
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    ABSTRACT: Serum γ-glutamyl di- and tripeptides have proven to be useful biomarkers to accurately predict nine different forms of liver disease. Using liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS) with multiple reaction monitoring (MRM), serum and liver samples spiked with γ-glutamyl peptide standards were analyzed to estimate accuracy. Unexpectedly, the recovery rates for several γ-glutamyl peptides in the serum samples were quite low, whereas values for some γ-glutamyl peptides in the liver samples were highly elevated. Most of these peptides were barely retained on the reverse-phase column, resulting in significant ion suppression or enhancement. In contrast, a capillary electrophoresis tandem mass spectrometry (CE-MS/MS) method with MRM was minimally affected by matrix effects. Of the 39 tested compounds, most of γ-glutamyl peptides that did not contain a thiol substituent in its structure gave acceptable recoveries (70–120%), and limits of detection for the analytes were between 3.6 and 800 nmol/l with pressure injection at 5 kPa for 10 s (ca. 10 nl). The CE-MS/MS method provided high resolution and proved to be highly selective and sensitive, its utility being demonstrated by the determination of γ-glutamyl di- and tripeptides in serum and liver samples.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2014 · Journal of Chromatography A
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    ABSTRACT: Quinonoid dihydropteridine reductase (QDPR) catalyzes the regeneration of tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4), a cofactor for monoamine synthesis, phenylalanine hydroxylation and nitric oxide production. Here, we produced and analyzed a transgenic Qdpr(-/-) mouse model. Unexpectedly, the BH4 contents in the Qdpr(-/-) mice were not decreased and even increased in some tissues, whereas those of the oxidized form dihydrobiopterin (BH2) were significantly increased. We demonstrated that unlike the wild-type mice, dihydrofolate reductase regenerated BH4 from BH2 in the mutants. Furthermore, we revealed wide alterations in folate-associated metabolism in the Qdpr(-/-) mice, which suggests an interconnection between folate and biopterin metabolism in the transgenic mouse model.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2014 · FEBS Letters
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    ABSTRACT: Unlabelled: L-cysteine is essential for virtually all living organisms, from bacteria to higher eukaryotes. Besides having a role in the synthesis of virtually all proteins and of taurine, cysteamine, glutathione, and other redox-regulating proteins, L-cysteine has important functions under anaerobic/microaerophilic conditions. In anaerobic or microaerophilic protozoan parasites, such as Entamoeba histolytica, L-cysteine has been implicated in growth, attachment, survival, and protection from oxidative stress. However, a specific role of this amino acid or related metabolic intermediates is not well understood. In this study, using stable-isotope-labeled L-cysteine and capillary electrophoresis-time of flight mass spectrometry, we investigated the metabolism of L-cysteine in E. histolytica. [U-(13)C3, (15)N]L-cysteine was rapidly metabolized into three unknown metabolites, besides L-cystine and L-alanine. These metabolites were identified as thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid (T4C), 2-methyl thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid (MT4C), and 2-ethyl-thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid (ET4C), the condensation products of L-cysteine with aldehydes. We demonstrated that these 2-(R)-thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acids serve for storage of L-cysteine. Liberation of L-cysteine occurred when T4C was incubated with amebic lysates, suggesting enzymatic degradation of these L-cysteine derivatives. Furthermore, T4C and MT4C significantly enhanced trophozoite growth and reduced intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels when it was added to cultures, suggesting that 2-(R)-thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acids are involved in the defense against oxidative stress. Importance: Amebiasis is a human parasitic disease caused by the protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica. In this parasite, L-cysteine is the principal low-molecular-weight thiol and is assumed to play a significant role in supplying the amino acid during trophozoite invasion, particularly when the parasites move from the anaerobic intestinal lumen to highly oxygenated tissues in the intestine and the liver. It is well known that E. histolytica needs a comparatively high concentration of L-cysteine for its axenic cultivation. However, the reason for and the metabolic fate of L-cysteine in this parasite are not well understood. Here, using a metabolomic and stable-isotope-labeled approach, we investigated the metabolic fate of this amino acid in these parasites. We found that L-cysteine inside the cell rapidly reacts with aldehydes to form 2-(R)-thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid. We showed that these 2-(R)-thiazolidine-4-carboxylic derivatives serve as an L-cysteine source, promote growth, and protect cells against oxidative stress by scavenging aldehydes and reducing the ROS level. Our findings represent the first demonstration of 2-(R)-thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acids and their roles in protozoan parasites.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2014 · mBio
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    ABSTRACT: The structural dynamics of chromatin have been implicated in the regulation of fundamental eukaryotic processes, such as DNA transcription, replication and repair. Although previous studies have revealed that the chromatin landscape, nucleosome remodeling and histone modification events are intimately tied into cellular energetics and redox state, few studies undertake defined time-resolved measurements of these state variables. Here, we use metabolically synchronous, continuously-grown yeast cultures to measure DNA occupancy and track global patterns with respect to the metabolic state of the culture. Combined with transcriptome analyses and ChIP-qPCR experiments, these paint an intriguing picture where genome-wide nucleosome focusing occurs during the recovery of energy charge, followed by clearance of the promoter regions and global transcriptional slowdown , thus indicating a nucleosome-mediated " reset point " for the cycle. The reset begins at the end of the catabolic and stress-response transcriptional programs and ends prior to the start of the anabolic and cell-growth transcrip-tional program, and the histones on genes from both the catabolic and ana-bolic superclusters are deacetylated.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2014
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    ABSTRACT: Gastric mucosal ulceration and gastric hemorrhage are frequently associated with treatment by non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs); however, no convenient biomarker-based diagnostic methods for these adverse reactions are currently available, requiring the use of endoscopic evaluation. We recently reported five biomarker candidates in serum which predict gastric injury induced by NSAIDs in rats, but were unable to clarify the mechanism of change in the levels of these biomarker candidates. In this study, we performed capillary electrophoresis–mass spectrometry-based metabolomic profiling in stomach and serum from rats in which gastric ulcer was induced by aspirin and prevented by co-administration of omeprazole and famotidine. Results showed drug-induced decreases in the levels of citrate, cis-aconitate, succinate, 3-hydroxy butanoic acid, and O-acetyl carnitine in all animals administered aspirin. In contrast, aspirin-induced decreases in the level of 4-hydroxyproline were suppressed by co-administration of omeprazole and famotidine. We consider that these changes were due to the prevention of gastric ulcer and decrease in the amount of collagen in stomach tissue by omeprazole and famotidine, without prevention of the NSAID-induced depression of mitochondrial function. In addition, the decreases in 4-hydroxyproline in the stomach was also detectable as changes in the serum. While further study is needed to clarify limitations of indications and extrapolation to humans, this new serum biomarker candidate of gastric injury may be useful in the monitoring of NSAID-induced tissue damage.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2014 · Metabolomics