Robert F Tamburro

National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, 베서스다, Maryland, United States

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Publications (63)171.45 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: To determine the incidence of cardiopulmonary resuscitation in PICUs and subsequent outcomes. Design, setting, and patients: Multicenter prospective observational study of children younger than 18 years old randomly selected and intensively followed from PICU admission to hospital discharge in the Collaborative Pediatric Critical Care Research Network December 2011 to April 2013. Results: Among 10,078 children enrolled, 139 (1.4%) received cardiopulmonary resuscitation for more than or equal to 1 minute and/or defibrillation. Of these children, 78% attained return of circulation, 45% survived to hospital discharge, and 89% of survivors had favorable neurologic outcomes. The relative incidence of cardiopulmonary resuscitation events was higher for cardiac patients compared with non-cardiac patients (3.4% vs 0.8%, p <0.001), but survival rate to hospital discharge with favorable neurologic outcome was not statistically different (41% vs 39%, respectively). Shorter duration of cardiopulmonary resuscitation was associated with higher survival rates: 66% (29/44) survived to hospital discharge after 1-3 minutes of cardiopulmonary resuscitation versus 28% (9/32) after more than 30 minutes (p < 0.001). Among survivors, 90% (26/29) had a favorable neurologic outcome after 1-3 minutes versus 89% (8/9) after more than 30 minutes of cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Conclusions: These data establish that contemporary PICU cardiopulmonary resuscitation, including long durations of cardiopulmonary resuscitation, results in high rates of survival-to-hospital discharge (45%) and favorable neurologic outcomes among survivors (89%). Rates of survival with favorable neurologic outcomes were similar among cardiac and noncardiac patients. The rigorous prospective, observational study design avoided the limitations of missing data and potential selection biases inherent in registry and administrative data.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Critical care medicine

  • No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Critical care medicine

  • No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Critical care medicine

  • No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Critical care medicine

  • No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Critical care medicine
  • Valerie Maholmes · Robert F Tamburro · Tammara L Jenkins

    No preview · Article · Nov 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: Severity of illness measures have long been used in pediatric critical care. The Pediatric Risk of Mortality is a physiologically based score used to quantify physiologic status, and when combined with other independent variables, it can compute expected mortality risk and expected morbidity risk. Although the physiologic ranges for the Pediatric Risk of Mortality variables have not changed, recent Pediatric Risk of Mortality data collection improvements have been made to adapt to new practice patterns, minimize bias, and reduce potential sources of error. These include changing the outcome to hospital survival/death for the first PICU admission only, shortening the data collection period and altering the Pediatric Risk of Mortality data collection period for patients admitted for "optimizing" care before cardiac surgery or interventional catheterization. This analysis incorporates those changes, assesses the potential for Pediatric Risk of Mortality physiologic variable subcategories to improve score performance, and recalibrates the Pediatric Risk of Mortality score, placing the algorithms (Pediatric Risk of Mortality IV) in the public domain. Design: Prospective cohort study from December 4, 2011, to April 7, 2013. Measurements and Main Results: Among 10,078 admissions, the unadjusted mortality rate was 2.7% (site range, 1.3-5.0%). Data were divided into derivation (75%) and validation (25%) sets. The new Pediatric Risk of Mortality prediction algorithm (Pediatric Risk of Mortality IV) includes the same Pediatric Risk of Mortality physiologic variable ranges with the subcategories of neurologic and nonneurologic Pediatric Risk of Mortality scores, age, admission source, cardiopulmonary arrest within 24 hours before admission, cancer, and low-risk systems of primary dysfunction. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for the development and validation sets was 0.88 +/- 0.013 and 0.90 +/- 0.018, respectively. The Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness of fit statistics indicated adequate model fit for both the development (p = 0.39) and validation (p = 0.50) sets. Conclusions: The new Pediatric Risk of Mortality data collection methods include significant improvements that minimize the potential for bias and errors, and the new Pediatric Risk of Mortality IV algorithm for survival and death has excellent prediction performance. (C)2015The Society of Critical Care Medicine and the World Federation of Pediatric Intensive and Critical Care Societies
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2015 · Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
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    Chris O'Hara · Robert F Tamburro · Gary D Ceneviva
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    ABSTRACT: Agents used to control end-of-life suffering are associated with troublesome side effects. The use of dexmedetomidine for sedation during withdrawal of support in pediatrics is not yet described. An adolescent female with progressive and irreversible pulmonary deterioration was admitted. Despite weeks of therapy, she did not tolerate weaning of supplemental oxygen or continuous bilevel positive airway pressure. Given her condition and the perception that she was suffering, the family requested withdrawal of support. Despite opioids and benzodiazepines, she appeared to be uncomfortable after support was withdrawn. Ketamine was initiated. Relief from ketamine was brief, and its use was associated with a "wide-eyed" look that was distressing to the family. Ketamine was discontinued and a dexmedetomidine infusion was initiated. The patient's level of comfort improved greatly. The child died peacefully 24 hours after initiating dexmedetomidine from her underlying disease rather than the effects of the sedative.
    Preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Palliative Care: Research and Treatment
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    ABSTRACT: To provide additional details and evidence behind the recommendations for outcomes assessment of patients with pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome from the Pediatric Acute Lung Injury Consensus Conference. Consensus conference of experts in pediatric acute lung injury. A panel of 27 experts met over the course of 2 years to develop a taxonomy to define pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome and to make recommendations regarding treatment and research priorities. The outcomes subgroup comprised four experts. When published data were lacking, a modified Delphi approach emphasizing strong professional agreement was used. The Pediatric Acute Lung Injury Consensus Conference experts developed and voted on a total of 151 recommendations addressing the topics related to pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome, seven of which related to outcomes after pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome. All seven recommendations had strong agreement. Children with acute respiratory distress syndrome continue to have a high mortality, specifically, in relation to certain comorbidities and etiologies related to pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome. Comorbid conditions, such as an immunocompromised state, increase the risk of mortality even further. Likewise, certain etiologies, such as non-pulmonary sepsis, also place children at a higher risk of mortality. Significant long-term effects were reported in adult survivors of acute respiratory distress syndrome: diminished lung function and exercise tolerance, reduced quality of life, and diminished neurocognitive function. Little knowledge of long-term outcomes exists in children who survive pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome. Characterization of the longer term consequences of pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome in children is vital to help identify opportunities for improved therapeutic and rehabilitative strategies that will lessen the long-term burden of pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome and improve the quality of life in children. The Consensus Conference developed pediatric-specific recommendations for pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome regarding outcome measures and future research priorities. These recommendations are intended to promote optimization and consistency of care for children with pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome and identify areas of uncertainty requiring further investigation.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2015 · Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: To determine the impact of patient-specific and disease-related characteristics on the severity of illness and on outcome in pediatric patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome with the intent of guiding current medical practice and identifying important areas for future research. Electronic searches of PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, Cochrane, and Scopus were conducted. References were reviewed for relevance and features included in the following section. Not applicable. PICU patients with evidence of acute lung injury, acute hypoxemic respiratory failure, and acute respiratory distress syndrome. Not applicable. The comorbidities associated with outcome in pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome can be divided into 1) patient-specific factors and 2) factors inherent to the disease process. The primary comorbidity associated with poor outcome is preexisting congenital or acquired immunodeficiency. Severity of disease is often described by factors identifiable at admission to the ICU. Many measures that are predictive are influenced by the underlying disease process itself, but may also be influenced by nutritional status, chronic comorbidities, or underlying genetic predisposition. Of the measures available at the bedside, both PaO2/FIO2 ratio and oxygenation index are fairly consistent and robust predictors of disease severity and outcomes. Multiple organ system dysfunction is the single most important independent clinical risk factor for mortality in children at the onset of acute respiratory distress syndrome. The assessment of oxygenation and ventilation indices simultaneously with genetic and biomarker measurements holds the most promise for improved risk stratification for pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome patients in the very near future. The next phases of pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome pathophysiology and outcomes research will be enhanced if 1) age group differences are examined, 2) standardized datasets with adequately explicit definitions are used, 3) data are obtained at standardized times after pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome onset, and 4) nonpulmonary organ failure scores are created and implemented.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2015 · Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: To describe the recommendations from the Pediatric Acute Lung Injury Consensus Conference on nonpulmonary treatments in pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome. Consensus conference of experts in pediatric acute lung injury. A panel of 27 experts met over the course of 2 years to develop a taxonomy to define pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome and to make recommendations regarding treatment and research priorities. The nonpulmonary subgroup comprised three experts. When published data were lacking, a modified Delphi approach emphasizing strong professional agreement was utilized. The Pediatric Acute Lung Injury Consensus Conference experts developed and voted on a total of 151 recommendations addressing the topics related to pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome, 30 of which related to nonpulmonary treatment. All 30 recommendations had strong agreement. Patients with pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome should receive 1) minimal yet effective targeted sedation to facilitate mechanical ventilation; 2) neuromuscular blockade, if sedation alone is inadequate to achieve effective mechanical ventilation; 3) a nutrition plan to facilitate their recovery, maintain their growth, and meet their metabolic needs; 4) goal-directed fluid management to maintain adequate intravascular volume, end-organ perfusion, and optimal delivery of oxygen; and 5) goal-directed RBC transfusion to maintain adequate oxygen delivery. Future clinical trials in pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome should report sedation, neuromuscular blockade, nutrition, fluid management, and transfusion exposures to allow comparison across studies. The Consensus Conference developed pediatric-specific definitions for pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome and recommendations regarding treatment and future research priorities. These recommendations for nonpulmonary treatment in pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome are intended to promote optimization and consistency of care for patients with pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome and identify areas of uncertainty requiring further investigation.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2015 · Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: Although there are similarities in the pathophysiology of acute respiratory distress syndrome in adults and children, pediatric-specific practice patterns, comorbidities, and differences in outcome necessitate a pediatric-specific definition. We sought to create such a definition. A subgroup of pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome investigators who drafted a pediatric-specific definition of acute respiratory distress syndrome based on consensus opinion and supported by detailed literature review tested elements of the definition with patient data from previously published investigations. International PICUs. Children enrolled in published investigations of pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome. None. Several aspects of the proposed pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome definition align with the Berlin Definition of acute respiratory distress syndrome in adults: timing of acute respiratory distress syndrome after a known risk factor, the potential for acute respiratory distress syndrome to coexist with left ventricular dysfunction, and the importance of identifying a group of patients at risk to develop acute respiratory distress syndrome. There are insufficient data to support any specific age for "adult" acute respiratory distress syndrome compared with "pediatric" acute respiratory distress syndrome. However, children with perinatal-related respiratory failure should be excluded from the definition of pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome. Larger departures from the Berlin Definition surround 1) simplification of chest imaging criteria to eliminate bilateral infiltrates; 2) use of pulse oximetry-based criteria when PaO2 is unavailable; 3) inclusion of oxygenation index and oxygen saturation index instead of PaO2/FIO2 ratio with a minimum positive end-expiratory pressure level for invasively ventilated patients; 4) and specific inclusion of children with preexisting chronic lung disease or cyanotic congenital heart disease. This pediatric-specific definition for acute respiratory distress syndrome builds on the adult-based Berlin Definition, but has been modified to account for differences between adults and children with acute respiratory distress syndrome. We propose using this definition for future investigations and clinical care of children with pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome and encourage external validation with the hope for continued iterative refinement of the definition.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2015 · Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: Extracorporeal life support has undergone a revolution in the past several years with the advent of new, miniaturized equipment and success in supporting patients with a variety of illnesses. Most experience has come with the use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, a modified form of cardiopulmonary bypass that can support the heart, lungs, and circulation for days to months at a time. To describe the recommendations for the use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in children with pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome based on a review of the literature and expert opinion. Consensus conference of experts in pediatric acute lung injury. A panel of 27 experts met over the course of 2 years to develop a taxonomy to define pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome and to make recommendations regarding treatment and research priorities. The extracorporeal support subgroup comprised two international experts. When published data were lacking, a modified Delphi approach emphasizing strong professional agreement was used. The Pediatric Acute Lung Injury Consensus Conference experts developed and voted on a total of 151 recommendations addressing the topics related to pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome, 11 of which related to extracorporeal support. All recommendations had agreement, with 10 recommendations (91%) achieving strong agreement. These recommendations included the utilization of extracorporeal support for reversible causes of pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome, consideration of quality of life when making the decision to use extracorporeal support, and the use of the Extracorporeal Life Support Organization registry to report all extracorporeal support activity, among others. Pediatric extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome could benefit from more specific data collection and collaboration of focused investigators to establish validated criteria for optimal application of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and patient management protocols. Until that time, consensus opinion offers some insight into guidelines.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2015 · Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: To describe the final recommendations of the Pediatric Acute Lung Injury Consensus Conference. Design: Consensus conference of experts in pediatric acute lung injury. Setting: Not applicable. Subjects: PICU patients with evidence of acute lung injury or acute respiratory distress syndrome. Interventions: None. Methods: A panel of 27 experts met over the course of 2 years to develop a taxonomy to define pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome and to make recommendations regarding treatment and research priorities. When published, data were lacking a modified Delphi approach emphasizing strong professional agreement was used. Measurements and Main Results: A panel of 27 experts met over the course of 2 years to develop a taxonomy to define pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome and to make recommendations regarding treatment and research priorities. When published data were lacking a modified Delphi approach emphasizing strong professional agreement was used. The Pediatric Acute Lung Injury Consensus Conference experts developed and voted on a total of 151 recommendations addressing the following topics related to pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome: 1) Definition, prevalence, and epidemiology; 2) Pathophysiology, comorbidities, and severity; 3) Ventilatory support; 4) Pulmonary-specific ancillary treatment; 5) Nonpulmonary treatment; 6) Monitoring; 7) Noninvasive support and ventilation; 8) Extracorporeal support; and 9) Morbidity and long-term outcomes. There were 132 recommendations with strong agreement and 19 recommendations with weak agreement. Once restated, the final iteration of the recommendations had none with equipoise or disagreement. Conclusions: The Consensus Conference developed pediatric-specific definitions for acute respiratory distress syndrome and recommendations regarding treatment and future research priorities. These are intended to promote optimization and consistency of care for children with pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome and identify areas of uncertainty requiring further investigation. (C)2015The Society of Critical Care Medicine and the World Federation of Pediatric Intensive and Critical Care Societies
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2015 · Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
  • Robert F. Tamburro · Martin C. J. Kneyber · C. L. Carroll
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    ABSTRACT: To provide an overview of the current literature on pulmonary-specific therapeutic approaches to pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome to determine recommendations for clinical practice and/or future research. PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, SCOPUS, and the Cochrane Library were searched from inception until January 2013 using the following keywords in various combinations: ARDS, treatment, nitric oxide, heliox, steroids, surfactant, etanercept, prostaglandin therapy, inhaled beta adrenergic receptor agonists, N-acetylcysteine, ipratroprium bromide, dornase, plasminogen activators, fibrinolytics or other anticoagulants, and children. No language restrictions were applied. References from identified articles were searched for additional publications. All clinical studies pertaining to pulmonary-specific therapeutic approaches to pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome were reviewed. If clinical pediatric data were sparse or unavailable, the findings from studies of adult acute respiratory distress syndrome and animal models that might be relevant to pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome were examined. All relevant studies were reviewed and pertinent data abstracted. Over the course of three international meetings, the pertinent findings of the literature review were discussed by a panel of 24 experts in the field representing 21 academic institutions and 8 countries. Recommendations developed and the supporting literature were distributed to all panel members without a conflict of interest and were scored by using the Research ANd Development/University of California, Los Angeles Appropriateness method. The modified Delphi approach was used as the methodology to achieve consensus among the panel. Overall, the routine use of surfactant, inhaled nitric oxide, glucocorticoids, prone positioning, endotracheal suctioning, and chest physiotherapy cannot be recommended. Inhaled nitric oxide should only be used for patients with documented pulmonary hypertension and/or right ventricular failure. Prone positioning may be considered in patients with severe pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome. Future studies are definitely warranted to establish the role, if any, of these ancillary treatment modalities in pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2015 · Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: Assessments of care including quality assessments adjusted for physiological status should include the development of new morbidities as well as mortalities. We hypothesized that morbidity, like mortality, is associated with physiological dysfunction and could be predicted simultaneously with mortality. Prospective cohort study from December 4, 2011, to April 7, 2013. General and cardiac/cardiovascular PICUs at seven sites. Randomly selected PICU patients from their first PICU admission. None. Among 10,078 admissions, the unadjusted morbidity rates (measured with the Functional Status Scale and defined as an increase of ≥ 3 from preillness to hospital discharge) were 4.6% (site range, 2.6-7.7%) and unadjusted mortality rates were 2.7% (site range, 1.3-5.0%). Morbidity and mortality were significantly (p < 0.001) associated with physiological instability (measured with the Pediatric Risk of Mortality III score) in dichotomous (survival and death) and trichotomous (survival without new morbidity, survival with new morbidity, and death) models without covariate adjustments. Morbidity risk increased with increasing Pediatric Risk of Mortality III scores and then decreased at the highest Pediatric Risk of Mortality III values as potential morbidities became mortalities. The trichotomous model with covariate adjustments included age, admission source, diagnostic factors, baseline Functional Status Scale, and the Pediatric Risk of Mortality III score. The three-level goodness-of-fit test indicated satisfactory performance for the derivation and validation sets (p > 0.20). Predictive ability assessed with the volume under the surface was 0.50 ± 0.019 (derivation) and 0.50 ± 0.034 (validation) (vs chance performance = 0.17). Site-level standardized morbidity ratios were more variable than standardized mortality ratios. New morbidities were associated with physiological status and can be modeled simultaneously with mortality. Trichotomous outcome models including both morbidity and mortality based on physiological status are suitable for research studies and quality and other outcome assessments. This approach may be applicable to other assessments presently based only on mortality.
    No preview · Article · May 2015 · Critical care medicine

  • No preview · Article · May 2015 · Clinical Pediatrics
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: To evaluate the incidence and associated risk factors of difficult tracheal intubations (TI) in pediatric intensive care units (PICUs). Methods: Using the National Emergency Airway Registry for Children (NEAR4KIDS), TI quality improvement data were prospectively collected for initial TIs in 15 PICUs from July 2010 to December 2011. Difficult pediatric TI was defined as TIs by direct laryngoscopy which failed or required more than two laryngoscopy attempts by fellow/attending-level physician providers. Results: A total of 1,516 oral TIs were reported with a median age of 2 years. A total of 97% of patients were intubated with direct laryngoscopy. The incidence of difficult TI was 9%. In univariate analysis, patients with difficult TI were younger [median 1 year (0-4) vs. 2 (0-8) years, p = 0.046], and had a reported history of difficult TI (22 vs. 8%, p < 0.001). Multivariate analysis showed that history of difficult airway and signs of upper airway obstruction are significantly associated with difficult TI. The advanced airway provider was more involved as a first provider in difficult TI (81 vs. 58%, p < 0.001). The presence of difficult TI was associated with higher incidence of oxygen desaturation below 80% (48 vs. 15%, p < 0.001), adverse TI associated events (53 vs. 20%, p < 0.001), and severe TI associated events (13 vs. 6%, p = 0.003). Conclusions: Difficult TI was reported in 9% of all TIs and was associated with increased adverse TI events. History of difficult airway and sign of upper airway obstruction were associated with difficult TIs.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2014 · Intensive Care Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: Advanced airway management in the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) is hazardous, with associated adverse outcomes. This report describes a methodology to develop a bundle to improve quality and safety of tracheal intubations. A prospective observational cohort study was performed with expert consensus opinion of 1715 children undergoing tracheal intubation at 15 PICUs. Baseline process and outcomes data in tracheal intubation were collected using the National Emergency Airway Registry for Children reporting system. Univariate analysis was performed to identify risk factors associated with adverse tracheal intubation–associated events. A multidisciplinary quality improvement committee was formed. Workflow analysis of tracheal intubation and pilot testing were performed to develop the Airway Bundle Checklist with 4 parts: (1) risk factor assessment, (2) plan generation, (3) preprocedure time-out to ensure that providers, equipment, and plans are prepared, (4) postprocedure huddle to identify improvement opportunities. The Airway Bundle Checklist developed may lead to improvement in airway management.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2014 · American Journal of Medical Quality
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Aminophylline, an established bronchodilator, is also purported to be an effective diuretic and anti-inflammatory agent. However, the data to support these contentions are scant. We conducted a prospective, open-label, single arm, single center study to assess the hypothesis that aminophylline increases urine output and decreases inflammation in critically ill children. Methods: Children less than 18 years of age admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit who were prescribed aminophylline over a 24-h period were eligible for study. The use and dosing of aminophylline was independent of the study and was at the discretion of the clinical team. Data analyzed consisted of demographics, diagnoses, medications, and markers of pulmonary function, renal function, and inflammation. Data were collected at baseline and at 24-h after aminophylline initiation with primary outcomes of change in urine output and inflammatory cytokine concentrations. Results: Thirty-five patients were studied. Urine output increased significantly with aminophylline use [median increase 0.5 mL/kg/h (IQR: −0.3, 1.3), p = 0.05] while blood urea nitrogen and creatinine concentrations remained unchanged. Among patients with elevated C-reactive protein concentrations, levels of both interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-10 decreased at 24 h of aminophylline therapy. There were no significant differences in pulmonary compliance or resistance among patients invasively ventilated at both time points. Side effects of aminophylline were detected in 7 of 35 patients. Conclusion: Although no definitive conclusions can be drawn from this study, aminophylline may be a useful diuretic and effective anti-inflammatory medication in critically ill children. Given the incidence of side effects, the small sample size and the uncontrolled study design, further study is needed to inform the appropriate use of aminophylline in these children.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2014 · Frontiers in Pediatrics

Publication Stats

326 Citations
171.45 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2015
    • National Institute of Child Health and Human Development
      베서스다, Maryland, United States
    • Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development
      Роквилл, Maryland, United States
  • 2008-2015
    • William Penn University
      Worcester, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2005-2015
    • Penn State Hershey Medical Center and Penn State College of Medicine
      • • Pediatrics
      • • Department of Medicine
      هرشي، بنسيلفانيا, Pennsylvania, United States
    • Cornell University
      Итак, New York, United States
  • 2011
    • Helen DeVos Children's Hospital
      Grand Rapids, Michigan, United States
    • Pennsylvania State University
      University Park, Maryland, United States
  • 1999-2008
    • St. Jude Children's Research Hospital
      • Division of Critical Care Medicine
      Memphis, Tennessee, United States

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