F M Balis

The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Filadelfia, Pennsylvania, United States

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Publications (284)2201.99 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Purpose Dinutuximab (Unituxin™; ch14.18), a monoclonal antibody against disialoganglioside, improved survival as part of post-consolidation therapy for high-risk neuroblastoma. United Therapeutics Corporation (UTC) assumed ch14.18 production from the National Cancer Institute (NCI); this study evaluates pharmacokinetic comparability, safety, and tolerability of UTC and NCI products. Methods In this randomized, two-sequence crossover study, 28 patients aged ≤8 years with high-risk neuroblastoma received equivalent ch14.18-UTC or ch14.18-NCI doses. Despite comparable protein content, nominal doses differed: 17.5 mg/m2/day (ch14.18-UTC) and 25 mg/m2/day (ch14.18-NCI). Patients received one product during therapy cycles 1 and 2, the other during cycles 3–5. Ch14.18 pharmacokinetic profile characterization used population modeling (NONMEM® version 7.2). A two-compartment model with first-order distribution and elimination processes described pharmacokinetic data. Estimated product parameters were normalized to UTC nominal dose. For pharmacokinetic comparability, the final model was used to estimate exposure ratios (UTC/NCI) and associated 90 % confidence intervals (CIs) for area under the curve from time zero to infinity (AUCinf) and maximum concentration (C max). All comparisons were based on a standardized single-dose regimen (17.5 mg/m2 over 10 h). Results Final-model pharmacokinetic parameters were similar to previously published ch14.18-NCI parameters and comparable for UTC and NCI products. Products’ systemic exposures were comparable, with 90 % CIs around ratios for AUCinf (0.96; 90 % CI 0.88–1.04) and C max (1.04; 90 % CI 0.98–1.11) within standard bioequivalence bounds (90 % CI 0.80–1.25). Products’ adverse events were similar and consistent with those previously reported. Conclusions Equivalent actual ch14.18-UTC and ch14.18-NCI doses produced comparable exposures, with no notable safety or tolerability differences.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: P-glycoprotein (Pgp), an ATP-dependent transport protein, confers multidrug resistance in cancer cells. Tariquidar binds and inhibits Pgp. To assess the toxicity, pharmacokinetics (PK), and pharmacodynamics of tariquidar, we conducted a phase I trial of tariquidar in combination with doxorubicin, docetaxel, or vinorelbine in children and adolescents with recurrent or refractory solid tumors. Methods: Patients less than 19 years of age with refractory or recurrent solid tumors were eligible. Tariquidar (1, 1.5, or 2 mg/kg) was administered alone and in combination with doxorubicin, docetaxel, or vinorelbine. PK of tariquidar and cytotoxic drugs was performed. Pgp function was assessed by a rhodamine efflux assay and (99m)Tc-sestamibi scintigraphy. Tumor Pgp expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry. Response was assessed using Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors. Results: Twenty-nine subjects were enrolled. No tariquidar-related dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) was observed. DLT related to cytotoxic drugs occurred in 12 % of subjects receiving tariquidar 2 mg/kg. When administered in combination with tariquidar, the clearance of docetaxel and vinorelbine was reduced compared to prior studies. Inhibition of rhodamine efflux was dose dependent. After tariquidar administration, (99m)Tc-sestamibi accumulation in tumor increased by 22 %. Objective responses (1 complete, 2 partial) were observed. There was no association between tumor Pgp expression and response. Conclusion: A tolerable and biologically active dose of tariquidar was established in children and adolescents. This trial demonstrates that modulators of resistance can be evaluated in combination with chemotherapy, and pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic endpoints can be useful in determination of recommended dose in children and adolescents.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology
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    ABSTRACT: Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) have been associated with elevated TSH as a drug class effect. Prior studies of vandetanib in adults with medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) described an increase in levothyroxine (LT) requirement. We studied TSH, free T4, and LT dosing in children and adolescents enrolled in the phase I/II trial of vandetanib for medullary thyroid cancer (MTC). Data from 13 patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2B (MEN 2B) and MTC were analyzed [6 M, 7 F, median age 13.0 y (9.1-17.3)] Eleven patients (85%) had undergone prior thyroidectomy and all received single-drug therapy with vandetanib for > 6 months. Confirmed compliance with vandetanib (67-150 mg/m(2)/day) and LT was a necessary inclusion criterion. While on vandetanib treatment, all 11 athyerotic patients exhibited significantly increased TSH levels. The baseline TSH level was 4.37 mclU/ml (0.08 - 23.30); in comparison, the first peak TSH concentration on vandetanib was 15.70 mclU/ml (12.50 - 137.00, p = 0.0010). The median time to reach the initial peak of elevated TSH was 1.8 months (0.3 - 9.3). Free T4 levels remained within the normal reference range. An increase from a baseline LT dose of 91 mcg/m(2)/day (±24) to 116 mcg/m(2)/day (±24) was required in order to resume normative TSH levels (p = 0.00005), equal to an increase of 36.6% (±16.56) in the dosage of LT in mcg/day. For the 2 patients with intact thyroid glands, free T4 and TSH remained normal over a combined 6 patient years of follow up. In our cohort of pediatric MTC patients, athyreotic patients with preexisting hypothyroidism developed increased TSH and reduced free T4 during the first few months of treatment with vandetanib, necessitating an increase in LT dosage. Additional patients with normal thyroid function before treatment and intact glands (n = 2) maintained normal thyroid function tests during treatment. Elevated TSH in athyreotic patients may be due to an indirect effect of vandetanib on the metabolism of thyroid hormone, or to altered TSH sensitivity at the pituitary. Proper recognition and management of abnormal thyroid hormone levels is critical in growing children on TKIs. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00514046.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2015 · International Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology
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    ABSTRACT: Background Juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML) is not durably responsive to chemotherapy, and approximately 50% of patients relapse after hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT). Here we report the activity and acute toxicity of the farnesyl transferase inhibitor tipifarnib, the response rate to 13-cis retinoic acid (CRA) in combination with cytoreductive chemotherapy, and survival following HSCT in children with JMML.ProcedureEighty-five patients with newly diagnosed JMML were enrolled on AAML0122 between 2001 and 2006. Forty-seven consented to receive tipifarnib in a phase II window before proceeding to a phase III trial of CRA in combination with fludarabine and cytarabine followed by HSCT and maintenance CRA. Thirty-eight patients enrolled only in the phase III trial.ResultsOverall response rate was 51% after tipifarnib and 68% after fludarabine/cytarabine/CRA. Tipifarnib did not increase pre-transplant toxicities. Forty-six percent of the 44 patients who received protocol compliant HSCT relapsed. Five-year overall survival was 55 ± 11% and event-free survival was 41 ± 11%, with no significant difference between patients who did or did not receive tipifarnib.Conclusions Administration of tipifarnib in the window setting followed by HSCT in patients with newly diagnosed JMML was safe and yielded a 51% initial response rate as a single agent, but failed to reduce relapse rates or improve long-term overall survival. Pediatr Blood Cancer © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2014 · Pediatric Blood & Cancer
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: Ch14.18 improves survival in children with high-risk neuroblastoma but is associated with substantial toxicity. Ch14.18 pharmacokinetics were previously reported to be highly variable and characterized by a higher clearance in children than in adults, and a large volume of distribution. Identifying factors responsible for its variability could lead to alternative dosing strategies that reduce toxicity. Methods: Plasma sampling was performed prior to, during, and for 25 days after four daily 10-h infusions of 25 mg/m(2) of ch14.18 administered with sargramostim. Ch14.18 concentrations were quantified with an electrochemiluminescence immunoassay, and pharmacokinetic parameters were derived using non-compartmental methods and from fitting a two-compartment model. Human anti-chimeric antibody (HACA) was measured before each course. Results: Fourteen subjects (median age, 4.3 years) were enrolled; seven had sampling on two courses to assess intra-subject variability. Mean peak ch14.18 plasma concentration was 11 µg/mL, and disappearance was biexponential with half-life of 7 days. Mean trough (day 28) concentration was 0.2 µg/mL. Mean AUC0-∞ was 1,380 µg h/mL and was less variable than previously reported (CV 29 %). Intra-patient variability was also minimal, but one subject who developed HACA had a 41 % decrease in AUC 0-tlast from courses 1 to 3. Clearance (2 L/day m(2)) was fourfold higher in children than in adults and appeared to be age dependent. Steady state volume of distribution was 0.4 L/kg. Two-compartment model parameters were used to simulate alternative dosing schedules. Conclusions: Ch14.18 disposition in children is less variable than previously reported. Clearance is age dependent and more rapid in younger children.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2014 · Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology
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    ABSTRACT: Background Pirfenidone, an oral anti-inflammatory, antifibrotic agent with activity in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, may mediate anti-tumor activity in neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) and plexiform neurofibromas (PN) by inhibition of fibroblast proliferation and collagen synthesis. The primary objective of this open label, single arm phase II trial was to evaluate the activity of pirfenidone in children and young adults with inoperable PN.ProcedurePatients (3–21 years) with NF1-related progressive PN received pirfenidone at the previously determined optimal dose (500 mg/m2 orally, q8h) on a continuous dosing schedule (one cycle = 28 days). Volumetric MRI analysis was used to assess response. Progression was defined as ≥20% PN volume increase compared to baseline. Pirfenidone would be considered active if it doubled the median time to progression (TTP) compared to the TTP on the placebo arm of a phase II trial with the farnesyltransferase inhibitor tipifarnib, which used near identical eligibility criteria. Toxicities, objective response rate, and quality of life (QOL) also were evaluated.ResultsThirty-six patients were enrolled and tolerated pirfenidone well with intermittent nausea and vomiting as the most frequent toxicities. A dose reduction was required in only three patients. The median TTP for pirfenidone was 13.2 months compared to 10.6 months for the placebo control group from the tipifarnib trial (two-tailed P = 0.92; one-tailed P = 0.46). No objective responses were observed.Conclusions Pirfenidone was well tolerated, but did not demonstrate activity as defined in this trial and does not warrant further evaluation in children with NF1 and progressive PN. Pediatr Blood Cancer © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2014 · Pediatric Blood & Cancer
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    ABSTRACT: ABT-751, an orally bioavailable sulfonamide binds the colchicine site of beta-tubulin and inhibits microtubule polymerizaton. Prior phase I studies established the recommended dose in children with solid tumors as 200 mg/m(2) PO daily × 7 days every 21 days and subjects with neuroblastoma experienced prolonged stable disease. We conducted a phase 2 study (NCT00436852) in children and adolescents with progressive neuroblastoma to determine if ABT-751 prolonged the time to progression (TTP) compared to a hypothesized standard based on a historical control population. Children and adolescents (n = 91) with a median (range) age 7.7 (2.3-21.5) years and progressive neuroblastoma were enrolled and stratified by disease status into disease measureable by CT/MRI (n = 47) or disease assessable by (123) I-metaiodobenzylguanine scintigraphy (MIBG, n = 44). Response was evaluated using RECIST for measureable disease and the Curie score for MIBG-avid disease. ABT-751 was well tolerated. The objective response rate was 7%. The median TTP was 42 days (95% CI: 36, 56) in the measureable disease stratum and 45 days (95% CI: 42, 85) in the MIBG-avid disease stratum. TTP was similar to the historical control group (n = 136, median TTP 42 days). For the combined strata (n = 91), 1-year progression free survival (PFS) was 13 ± 4% and overall survival (OS) was 48 ± 5%. The low objective response rate and failure to prolong TTP indicate that ABT-751 is not sufficiently active to warrant further development for neuroblastoma. However, this trial demonstrates the utility of TTP as the primary endpoint in phase 2 trials in children and adolescents with neuroblastoma. Pediatr Blood Cancer © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2014 · Pediatric Blood & Cancer
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    ABSTRACT: BackgroundRAS is dysregulated in neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) related plexiform neurofibromas (PNs). The activity of tipifarnib, which blocks RAS signaling by inhibiting its farnesylation, was tested in children and young adults with NF1 and progressive PNs.Methods Patients aged 3-25 years with NF1-related PNs and imaging evidence of tumor progression were randomized in a double-blinded fashion to receive tipifarnib (200 mg/m(2) orally every 12 h) or placebo (phase A) and crossed over to the opposite treatment arm at the time of tumor progression (phase B). PN volumes were measured with MRI, and progression was defined as ≥20% volume increase. Time to progression (TTP) in phase A was the primary endpoint, and the trial was powered to detect whether tipifarnib doubled TTP compared with placebo. Toxicity, response, and quality of life were also monitored.ResultsSixty-two patients were enrolled. Tipifarnib and placebo were well tolerated. On phase A, the median TTP was 10.6 months on the placebo arm and 19.2 months on the tipifarnib arm (P = .12; 1-sided). Quality of life improved significantly compared with baseline on the tipifarnib arm but not on the placebo arm. Volumetric tumor measurement detected tumor progression earlier than conventional 2-dimensional (WHO) and 1-dimensional (RECIST) methods.Conclusions Tipifarnib was well tolerated but did not significantly prolong TTP of PNs compared with placebo. The randomized, flexible crossover design and volumetric PN assessment provided a feasible and efficient means of assessing the efficacy of tipifarnib. The placebo arm serves as an historical control group for phase 2 single-arm trials directed at progressive PNs.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2014 · Neuro-Oncology
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is a manifestation of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (MEN2) syndromes caused by germline, activating mutations in the RET (REarranged during Transfection) proto-oncogene. Vandetanib, a VEGF and EGF receptor inhibitor, blocks RET tyrosine kinase activity and is active in adults with hereditary MTC. Experimental design: We conducted a phase I/II trial of vandetanib for children (5-12 years) and adolescents (13-18 years) with MTC to define a recommended dose and assess antitumor activity. The starting dose was 100 mg/m(2) administered orally, once daily, continuously for 28-day treatment cycles. The dose could be escalated to 150 mg/m(2)/d after two cycles. Radiographic response to vandetanib was quantified using RECIST (v1.0), biomarker response was measured by comparing posttreatment serum calcitonin and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) levels to baseline, and a patient-reported outcome was used to assess clinical benefit. Results: Sixteen patients with locally advanced or metastatic MTC received vandetanib for a median (range) 27 (2-52) cycles. Eleven patients remain on protocol therapy. Diarrhea was the primary dose-limiting toxicity. In subjects with M918T RET germline mutations (n = 15) the confirmed objective partial response rate was 47% (exact 95% confidence intervals, 21%-75%). Biomarker partial response was confirmed for calcitonin in 12 subjects and for CEA in 8 subjects. Conclusion: Using an innovative trial design and selecting patients based on target gene expression, we conclude that vandetanib 100 mg/m(2)/d is a well-tolerated and highly active new treatment for children and adolescents with MEN2B and locally advanced or metastatic MTC.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2013 · Clinical Cancer Research
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Various human cancers have ALK gene translocations, amplifications, or oncogenic mutations, such as anaplastic large-cell lymphoma, inflammatory myofibroblastic tumours, non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), and neuroblastoma. Therefore, ALK inhibition could be a useful therapeutic strategy in children. We aimed to determine the safety, recommended phase 2 dose, and antitumour activity of crizotinib in children with refractory solid tumours and anaplastic large-cell lymphoma. METHODS: In this open-label, phase 1 dose-escalation trial, patients older than 12 months and younger than 22 years with measurable or evaluable solid or CNS tumours, or anaplastic large-cell lymphoma, refractory to therapy and for whom there was no known curative treatment were eligible. Crizotinib was given twice daily without interruption. Six dose levels (100, 130, 165, 215, 280, 365 mg/m(2) per dose) were assessed in the dose-finding phase of the study (part A1), which is now completed. The primary endpoint was to estimate the maximum tolerated dose, to define the toxic effects of crizotinib, and to characterise the pharmacokinetics of crizotinib in children with refractory cancer. Additionally, patients with confirmed ALK translocations, mutations, or amplification (part A2 of the study) or neuroblastoma (part A3) could enrol at one dose level lower than was currently given in part A1. We assessed ALK genomic status in tumour tissue and used quantitative RT-PCR to measure NPM-ALK fusion transcript in bone marrow and blood samples of patients with anaplastic large-cell lymphoma. All patients who received at least one dose of crizotinib were evaluable for response; patients completing at least one cycle of therapy or experiencing dose limiting toxicity before that were considered fully evaluable for toxicity. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00939770. FINDINGS: 79 patients were enrolled in the study from Oct 2, 2009, to May 31, 2012. The median age was 10·1 years (range 1·1-21·4); 43 patients were included in the dose escalation phase (A1), 25 patients in part A2, and 11 patients in part A3. Crizotinib was well tolerated with a recommended phase 2 dose of 280 mg/m(2) twice daily. Grade 4 adverse events in cycle 1 were neutropenia (two) and liver enzyme elevation (one). Grade 3 adverse events that occurred in more than one patient in cycle 1 were lymphopenia (two), and neutropenia (eight). The mean steady state peak concentration of crizotinib was 630 ng/mL and the time to reach this peak was 4 h (range 1-6). Objective tumour responses were documented in 14 of 79 patients (nine complete responses, five partial responses); and the anti-tumour activity was enriched in patients with known activating ALK aberrations (eight of nine with anaplastic large-cell lymphoma, one of 11 with neuroblastoma, three of seven with inflammatory myofibroblastic tumour, and one of two with NSCLC). INTERPRETATION: The findings suggest that a targeted inhibitor of ALK has antitumour activity in childhood malignancies harbouring ALK translocations, particularly anaplastic large-cell lymphoma and inflammatory myofibroblastic tumours, and that further investigation in the subset of neuroblastoma harbouring known ALK oncogenic mutations is warranted. FUNDING: Pfizer and National Cancer Institute grant to the Children's Oncology Group.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2013 · The Lancet Oncology
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Sorafenib targets multiple pathways thought to be crucial in growth of plexiform neurofibroma (PN) in children with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). Sorafenib has been tolerated with manageable toxicities in adults and children with refractory cancer. We conducted a separate study in this population. Monitoring long-term toxicities such as effects on growth and obtaining additional pharmacokinetic data were of importance due to the young age and long duration of therapy seen in previous phase I trials in children with NF1. Procedure: Children ≥3 and ≤18-year-old with NF1 and inoperable PN were eligible. Sorafenib was administered orally twice daily for consecutive 28-day cycles. Maximum tolerated dose (MTD) was determined from toxicities observed during the first three cycles. Results: Nine children enrolled, median age 8 (6-12) years. At the starting 115 mg/m(2) /dose (n = 5), two experienced dose-limiting grade 3 pain in their PN. At the de-escalated 80 mg/m(2) /dose (n = 4), approximately 40% of the pediatric solid tumor MTD, two had dose-limiting toxicity (grade 3 rash and grade 4 mood alteration), exceeding the MTD. At 80 mg/m(2) /dose, the median AUC(0-12 hours) at steady-state was 39.5 µg hours/ml. Toxicities appeared to correspond with decreases in quality of life (QOL). No tumor shrinkage was observed. Conclusions: Children with NF1 and PN did not tolerate sorafenib at doses substantially lower than the MTD in children and adults with malignant solid tumors. Future trials with targeted agents for children with NF1 may require a more conservative starting dose and separate definitions of dose limiting toxicities (DLT) than children with cancer.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2013 · Pediatric Blood & Cancer
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    ABSTRACT: The objectives of this phase I study were to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD), toxicity profile, and pharmacokinetics of a 24-hour continuous intravenous infusion of trabectedin administered to children and adolescents with refractory or relapsed solid tumors. Patients between the ages of 4 and 16 years old with refractory solid tumors received trabectedin as a 24-hour infusion every 21 days. Dexamethasone and prophylactic growth factor support were administered with each cycle. Pharmacokinetic studies were conducted during cycle 1. Patients (n = 12) median (range) age 14.5 (8-16) years received trabectedin at 1.1 (n = 3), 1.5 (n = 6), or 1.7 (n = 3) mg/m(2) . At the 1.5 mg/m(2) dose level, one patient had dose limiting anorexia and fatigue. At 1.7 mg/m(2) , two patients experienced dose limiting toxicity, dehydration, and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase elevation. Non-dose limiting toxicities included elevated serum transaminases, myelosuppression, nausea, emesis, and fatigue. Plasma pharmacokinetic parameters were similar to historical data in adults. One partial response was observed in a patient with neuroendocrine carcinoma. Stable disease (≥6 cycles) was achieved in three patients (osteosarcoma n = 2, desmoplastic small round cell tumor n = 1). The MTD of trabectedin in pediatric patients with refractory solid tumors is 1.5 mg/m(2) IV over 24 hours every 21 days. Dexamethasone to ameliorate hepatic toxicity and prophylactic growth factor support are required. Pediatr Blood Cancer 2012; 59: 865-869. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2012 · Pediatric Blood & Cancer
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: To determine the dose-limiting toxicities (DLT), maximum tolerated dose (MTD), pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of sorafenib in children with refractory extracranial solid tumors and evaluate the tolerability of the solid tumor MTD in children with refractory leukemias. Experimental design: Sorafenib was administered orally every 12 hours for consecutive 28-day cycles. Pharmacokinetics (day 1 and steady-state) and pharmacodynamics were conducted during cycle 1. Results: Of 65 patients enrolled, 60 were eligible. In the solid tumor cohort (n = 49), 4 of 6 patients experienced a DLT [hypertension, pain, rash/urticaria, thrombocytopenia, alanine aminotransferase (ALT)/aspartate aminotransferase (AST)] at the starting dose (150 mg/m(2)/dose) which resulted in de-escalation to 105 mg/m(2)/dose. After eligibility criteria modification and dose re-escalation, the MTD was 200 mg/m(2)/dose for solid tumors and 150 mg/m(2)/dose for leukemias. Sorafenib exposure was highly variable between patients but was within the ranges reported in adults. The apparent sorafenib clearance increased with patient age. Diarrhea, rash, fatigue, and increased ALT/AST were the most common sorafenib-related toxicities. Stable disease for 4 or more cycles was observed in 14 solid tumor patients, and 2 patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and FLT3 internal tandem duplication (FLT3ITD) experienced a decrease in bone marrow blasts to less than 5%. Conclusions: The recommended phase II dose of sorafenib administered every 12 hours continuously for children with solid tumors is 200 mg/m(2)/dose and 150 mg/m(2)/dose for children with leukemias. Sorafenib toxicities and distribution in children are similar to adults. The activity of sorafenib in children with AML and FLT3ITD is currently being evaluated, and a phase II study for select solid tumors is ongoing.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2012 · Clinical Cancer Research

  • No preview · Article · Jul 2012 · Pediatric Blood & Cancer
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    ABSTRACT: Despite the clinical success of platinum-containing drugs in the treatment of solid tumors, acquired resistance remains a major obstacle. We previously identified a group of novel transplanaramine or transplatinum compounds based on distinct activity profiles in the NCI-60 panel. In the present study, parental KB-3.1 cells with wild-type p53 and its cisplatin- and oxaliplatin-resistant sublines harboring mutant p53 proteins were used to contrast several transplatinum compounds with cisplatin and oxaliplatin. The transplatinum compounds retained cytotoxic activity in the resistant cell lines. While intracellular accumulation and DNA platination of cisplatin and oxaliplatin was decreased in the resistant cells, the transplatinum compounds both accumulated intracellularly and platinated DNA at comparable levels in all cell lines. Cytoflow analysis confirmed that cisplatin and oxaliplatin alter the cell cycle distribution and result in apoptosis; however, at comparably toxic concentrations, the transplatinum compounds did not alter the cell cycle distribution. Analysis of the cytoplasmic fraction treated with acetone showed that cisplatin and oxaliplatin readily bound to macromolecules in the pellet, whereas a larger percentage of the transplatinum compounds remained in the supernatant. We concluded that, distinct from platinum compounds currently in use, transplatinum compounds accumulate intracellularly in resistant cells at levels comparable to those in drug-sensitive cells, do not affect the cell cycle and thus retain cytotoxicity independent of p53 status and likely have cytoplasmic targets that are important in their activity.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2012 · Cell cycle (Georgetown, Tex.)
  • Frank M Balis · Elizabeth Fox

    No preview · Article · Mar 2012
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    ABSTRACT: To estimate the sustained (≥8 weeks) objective response rate in pediatric patients with recurrent or progressive high-grade gliomas (HGG, Stratum A) or brainstem gliomas (BSG, Stratum B) treated with the combination of O6-benzylguanine (O6BG) and temozolomide(®) (TMZ). Patients received O6BG 120 mg/m(2)/d IV followed by TMZ 75 mg/m(2)/d orally daily for 5 consecutive days of each 28-day course. The target objective response rate to consider the combination active was 17%. A two-stage design was employed. Forty-three patients were enrolled; 41 were evaluable for response, including 25 patients with HGG and 16 patients with BSG. The combination of O6BG and TMZ was tolerable, and the primary toxicities were myelosuppression and gastrointestinal symptoms. One sustained (≥8 weeks) partial response was observed in the HGG cohort; no sustained objective responses were observed in the BSG cohort. Long-term (≥6 courses) stable disease (SD) was observed in 4 patients in Stratum A and 1 patient in Stratum B. Of the 5 patients with objective response or long-term SD, 3 underwent central review with 2 reclassified as low-grade gliomas. The combination of O6BG and TMZ did not achieve the target response rate for activity in pediatric patients with recurrent or progressive HGG and BSG.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2012 · Journal of Neuro-Oncology
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    ABSTRACT: Most medullary thyroid cancers (MTC) express somatostatin receptors; therefore, (111)In-octreotide somatostatin receptor scintigraphy (SRS) may be useful in detecting sites of metastases in children with MTC. The aim of the study was to evaluate tumor metastases in children and adolescents with MTC using SRS in comparison to conventional imaging. A case series was conducted as part of baseline evaluation for cancer treatment protocol at the National Institutes of Health Clinical Center. Eleven patients with a median age of 15 (range, 9-17) yr participated in the study, 10 with histologically proven, metastatic MTC due to the M918T mutation of the RET protooncogene, and one with a known RET polymorphism. After receiving 0.086 mCi/kg (111)Indium-pentreotide, patients were examined with a single photon emission computed tomography scan 4 and 24 h after injection. Baseline conventional imaging, including computed tomography (neck, chest, abdomen, ± pelvis, adrenals), magnetic resonance imaging (neck), and bone scan, was performed on all patients. SRS results were compared with conventional imaging. Five of the 11 patients had abnormal findings on SRS. Of the 53 total target lesions present in the patients, only 24.5% were accurately identified through SRS. SRS appears to be less sensitive than conventional imaging at detecting the full extent of metastatic disease in children and adolescents with hereditary MTC. SRS incompletely identified sites of tumor and failed to visualize small sites of tumor or liver and lung metastases, and it has a limited role in the evaluation of metastatic disease in pediatric MTC patients.
    Preview · Article · Dec 2011 · The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
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    ABSTRACT: Targeted anticancer agents have been reported to have side effects on the skeletal system such as thickening of the epiphyseal growth plate in preclinical models of juvenile, but not mature, animals. Careful evaluation of skeletal toxicity in the clinical development of targeted therapies for children is required. We validated a novel method to measure the growth plate volume using MRI. A semiautomated method of volumetric growth plate measurement was developed on the basis of the differences of pixel intensity of the growth plate from surrounding bone on T(1) sagittal MRI. Two observers measured the femoral growth plate volume and thickness on three different days using 20 pediatric knee MRIs obtained at the NIH. Five subjects had two knee MRIs obtained on the same day to evaluate intrasubject reproducibility. Volumetric analysis showed low intraobserver variability, with the coefficient of variation for the two observers ranging from 0.2% to 6.1%. Interobserver correlation was 0.99, and good concordance was shown with a mean volume difference of -1.8 mm(3). One-dimensional measurements had poorer intra and interobserver consistency. No statistically significant differences in volumetric measurements were observed between the two scans done on the same day in five subjects (P = 0.5). MRI volumetric growth plate measurement is a reproducible and sensitive method to evaluate meaningful growth plate volume changes over time. This tool, along with close monitoring of height and laboratory evaluations for bone metabolism, may be used to evaluate potential bone and growth toxicities of children enrolled in trials of investigational drugs.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2011 · Clinical Cancer Research
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    ABSTRACT: Satraplatin is an orally bioavailable platinum analog with preclinical activity in cisplatin resistant models and clinical activity in adults with refractory cancers. The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) penetration of cisplatin and carboplatin in non-human primates (NHP) is limited (3.7 and 2.6%, respectively). We evaluated the plasma and CSF pharmacokinetics (PK) of satraplatin after an intravenous (IV) dose in NHP. Satraplatin (120 mg/m(2)) was administered as 1 h IV infusion in DMSO (5%) and normal saline to 5 NHP. Serial blood and CSF samples were obtained over 48 h. Plasma ultrafiltrate (UF) was immediately prepared by centrifugation. Platinum was quantified in plasma UF and CSF using a validated atomic absorption spectroscopy assay with lower limit of quantification (LLQ) of 0.025 μM in UF and 0.006 μM after concentration in CSF. Pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated using non-compartmental analyses. CSF penetration was calculated from the CSF AUC(0-48h) : plasma UF AUC(0-48h). Satraplatin was well tolerated. Median (range) PK parameters in plasma UF were: maximum concentration (C (max)) 8.3 μM (5.7-10.6), area under the curve (AUC(0-48h)) 29.2 μM h (22.6-33.2), clearance 0.36 l/h/kg (0.31-0.37), and t (1/2) 18.8 h (13.4-25). Satraplatin was detected in the CSF of all NHP. Median (range) PK parameters in CSF were: C (max) 0.07 μM (0.02-0.12), AUC(0-48h) 1.2 μM h (0.49-2.43). The median (range) CSF penetration of satraplatin was 4.3% (2.2-7.4). Satraplatin penetration into CSF is similar to that of carboplatin and cisplatin, despite its greater lipophilicity. The development of a phase I trial of satraplatin for refractory childhood solid tumors including brain tumors is in progress.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2011 · Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology

Publication Stats

9k Citations
2,201.99 Total Impact Points


  • 2001-2015
    • The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia
      • Division of Oncology
      Filadelfia, Pennsylvania, United States
    • Northern Inyo Hospital
      BIH, California, United States
  • 1985-2011
    • National Cancer Institute (USA)
      • • Pediatric Oncology Branch
      • • Center for Cancer Research
      Maryland, United States
  • 1999-2010
    • NCI-Frederick
      Maryland, United States
  • 2009
    • Council for Chemical Research
      Concord, California, United States
  • 2008-2009
    • National Cancer Institute
      Μπογκοτά, Bogota D.C., Colombia
  • 1986-2009
    • National Institutes of Health
      • • Branch of Pediatric Oncology
      • • Branch of Medical Genetics
      베서스다, Maryland, United States
  • 2006
    • Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center
      Cincinnati, Ohio, United States
  • 2003-2005
    • Baylor College of Medicine
      • Department of Pediatrics
      Houston, Texas, United States
    • West Virginia University
      Morgantown, West Virginia, United States
    • University of Nebraska at Omaha
      Omaha, Nebraska, United States
  • 2000
    • University of Chicago
      • Section of Hematology/Oncology
      Chicago, Illinois, United States
    • Cleveland State University
      Cleveland, Ohio, United States
  • 1998
    • Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai
      Borough of Manhattan, New York, United States
  • 1991-1993
    • Walter Reed National Military Medical Center
      Washington, Washington, D.C., United States
  • 1983
    • Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center
      Seattle, Washington, United States