[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To report on a simple and rapid method of urinary diversion. This method was applied successfully in different clinical scenarios when primary reconstruction of the ureters was not possible.
The disconnected ureter is catheterized by a feeding tube. The tube is secured with sutures and brought out to the lateral abdominal wall as cutaneous tube ureterostomy (CTU).
This method was applied in three different clinical scenarios: a 40-year-old man who sustained multiple high-velocity gunshots to the pelvis with combined rectal and bladder trigone injuries and massive bleeding from a comminuted pubic fracture. Damage control included colostomy and bilateral CTUs. A 26-year-old woman had transection of the right lower ureter during abdominal hysterectomy. Diagnosis was delayed for 3 weeks when the patient developed sepsis. The right kidney was diverted with a CTU. A 37-year-old male suffered from bladder perforation and hemorrhagic shock. Emergency cystectomy was done and urinary diversion was accomplished with bilateral CTUs. In all cases, effective drainage of the urinary system was achieved with normalization of kidney function.
When local or systemic conditions preclude definitive repair and damage control surgery is needed, CTU provides fast and effective urinary diversion.
Preview · Article · Jun 2015 · Research and Reports in Urology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose: To minimize stent-related symptoms, the proximal part of the Polaris((TM)) stent is composed of a firm material and its distal part is composed of a soft material. The aim of this study was to compare stent-related symptoms of Polaris and Percuflex (R) stents and to assess the impacts of these stents on quality of life. Patients and Methods: A total of 144 patients were randomized to a "test" group (Polaris; n=64) or a "conventional" group (Percuflex; n=80) at the time of ureteral stent insertion after ureteroscopic stone removal surgery. Stents were allocated using a randomization program. At 1 week postoperatively, patient symptoms were evaluated using the Ureteral Stent Symptom Questionnaire (USSQ), and patients were asked complete a 10 cm visual analogue scale (VAS). Mean scores for USSQ domains and mean VAS scores were compared. Results: Mean patient age was 50.3 years, and the male-to-female ratio was 1:0.85. No significant intergroup differences were found in the domain scores of urinary symptoms (P=0.58), pain (P=0.87), general health (P=0.20), work (P=0.24), sexual activity (P=0.64), or additional problems (P=0.24). In addition, VAS scores were nonsignificantly different (P=0.11). Analysis of USSQ item scores, however, revealed the test group had better results for "presence of pain," "frequency of pain killer use," "difficulties with respect to hard physical activity," "fatigue," "frequency of rest," "stent-related impact on work," "antibiotics use" than the conventional group except for "outpatient department visits". Conclusion: Compared with the conventional Percuflex ureteral stent, the new Polaris ureteral stent with a soft tail was not found to offer significant advantages in terms of voiding symptoms, pain, general health, sexual matters, or additional problems as determined by the USSQ or in VAS determined pain. Sub-analysis, however, showed that the Polaris has some advantages with respect to pain, physical activities, impact on work, and additional problems. Accordingly, the soft-tipped Polaris stent was found to have some clinical advantages over the conventional Percuflex stent.
No preview · Article · Mar 2015 · Journal of Endourology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Partial cystectomy provides oncological results comparable with those of radical cystectomy in selected patients with invasive bladder cancer without the morbidity associated with radical cystectomy and urinary diversion. We describe a novel technique of partial cystectomy that allows accurate identification of tumor margins while minimizing damage to the rest of the bladder.
During the study period, 30 patients underwent partial cystectomy for invasive high-grade cancer. In 19 patients, the traditional method of tumor identification was used, ie, identifying the tumor by palpation and cystotomy. In eleven patients, after mobilization of the bladder, flexible cystoscopy was done and the light of the cystoscope was pointed toward one edge of the planned resected ellipse around the tumor, thus avoiding cystotomy.
Patients who underwent partial cystectomy using the novel method were similar in all characteristics to patients operated on using the traditional technique except for tumor diameter which was significantly larger in patients operated on using the novel method (4.3±1.5 cm versus 3.11±1.18 cm, P=0.032). Complications were rare in both types of surgery. The 5-year local recurrence-free survival was marginally superior using the novel method (0.8 versus 0.426, P=0.088). Overall, disease-specific and disease-free survival rates were similar.
The use of a flexible cystoscope during partial cystectomy is a simple, low-cost maneuver that assists in planning the bladder incision and minimizes injury to the remaining bladder by avoiding the midline cystotomy. Initial oncological results show a trend toward a lower rate of local recurrence compared with the standard method.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2014 · Research and Reports in Urology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction:
Bones represent the most common metastatic sites in prostate cancer (PCa) patients, and in addition with androgen deprivation therapy, they represent the causative reasons of bone mineral density loss and the onset of skeletal-related events.
An extensive search of PubMed/Medline was performed to identify randomized, Phase II/III controlled trials reporting results regarding the prevention of skeletal morbidity in patients with PCa.
Preventing bone health is an imperative issue for preserving quality of life and elongate survival and, thus, a concerted effort should be made to monitor skeletal changes and to apply treatment for preventing bone loss. Although several agents have received approval for routine use, it is of paramount importance to identify the appropriate patients who would mostly be benefited by the use of these agents with attention to documenting the toxicity and economic implications. Additionally, it remains to be justified the frequency of administration in order to balance the efficacy and the potential complications.
No preview · Article · Sep 2014 · Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective:
To create a model for prediction of stone radiopacity based on computed tomography (CT) parameters.
We reviewed the medical records of 513 patients referred to our department for consultation for urolithiasis between March 2011 and December 2012. CT scan and kidney-ureter-bladder (KUB) film were reviewed to identify the value of scout film in revealing radiopaque stones and to identify parameters predicting radiopacity in scout-negative stones.
Of 375 patients who met inclusion criteria and were finally analyzed, all 206 visible stones in scout film were KUB radiopaque. Analyzing scout-negative stones, we found that 92 stones (54.4%) were radiopaque in KUB. Multivariate analysis showed that stone size >9.7 mm, non-midureteral stone location, anterior abdominal wall fat thickness ≤23.9 mm, and Hounsfield units >772 are all independent predictors of stone radiopacity in stones that were not visible in scout film, and the aforementioned parameters were used for the creation of a Web-based calculator.
Scout film can identify radiopaque stones in KUB with high specificity, and thus, KUB can be used for following-up stones which are visible in CT scout film. For stones that are not visible in scout film, the probability of a stone to be radiopaque in KUB can be calculated trough our predictive model.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective:
To analyze the epidemiological and clinical characteristics and therapeutic outcomes of patients with cystine stones and to compare them with the characteristics of patients with calcium oxalate stones.
Patients and methods:
We identified 30 patients with cystine stones who were consulted in our department from January 1972 until December 2013. These patients were matched and paired, based on age and gender, to 30 calcium oxalate stone formers who were diagnosed and treated in our department from January 2011 until December 2013.
Cystine stones were significantly large in size (p<0.001) and most of them were found in the kidney (p=0.002). Patients with cystinuria had their first stone episode at an early age (p<0.001) compared with patients with calcium oxalate stones. No significant differences were observed regarding the frequency and the severity of symptoms. Both groups had similar visits per year in outpatient clinics, emergency room admissions, and episodes of febrile urinary tract infections. Cystine stone formers had undergone significantly higher number of procedures for stone removal (p<0.001). No statistical differences were found in the compliance rates between the groups. Patients with cystine stones had significantly higher serum creatinine levels (p=0.005).
Cystine stones present in an earlier age and have the likelihood to be large in size. Patients with cystine stones undergo a greater number of procedures, and they have a greater risk to develop chronic renal impairment.
No preview · Article · Aug 2014 · Journal of endourology / Endourological Society
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We describe an unusual presentation of metastatic lung adenocarcinoma as malignant retroperitoneal fibrosis (MRPF). The diagnostic challenge, due to the small solitary lung mass and absence of a discrete retroperitoneal mass, was overcome by diagnostic laparoscopy. Molecular analysis of tissue acquired was positive for ALK gene rearrangement. Treatment of the patient with crizotinib reversed MRPF. He was weaned off the nephrostomy tubes and is with stable renal function 11 months after diagnosis.
No preview · Article · Jul 2013 · Canadian Urological Association journal = Journal de l'Association des urologues du Canada
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
The management of patients with high-grade non muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) brings diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. In the current study, we sought to study the natural history of progression to "secondary" muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC)-cancer that developed during follow up of patients presenting with non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC).
Between 1998 and 2008, 760 patients were treated for bladder cancer. Primary MIBC (>=T2) tumors (present upon presentation) were diagnosed in 114 patients. All patients with high-grade NMIBC were treated with intravesical BCG. Mean follow-up was 44 months.
Forty patients (6.1%) developed secondary MIBC after a mean period of 21 months from initial diagnosis of bladder cancer. The 2- and 5-year disease-specific survival rates were better for patients with secondary MIBC (90% and 56% compared to 69% and 42% for patients with primary disease, p=0.03). The Kaplan-Meier curves of the two groups were parallel but displaced by approximately 2 years.
In the current series, MIBC progression occurred among initially presenting patients with NMIBC in 6.1%. In most patients, the initial diagnosis of NMIBC is correct and muscle invasion occurs after a mean period of about 2 years. This supports a non-radical approach in patients with high-grade T1, Ta or Tis. Meticulous follow-up with liberal biopsy of any suspicious lesion may provide early diagnosis of invasive disease.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective of the study is to assess the etiology and prognosis of gross hematuria (GH) in patients with carcinoma of the prostate (CAP). From 1991 to 2011, 81 men (mean age 74.3 years, SD 6.5) with CAP were hospitalized with GH. Primary treatment of CAP was radical surgery in 13 patients (group 1) and nonsurgical therapy in 68 (group 2), mostly radiotherapy (35 cases) and hormonal treatment (25 cases). The common etiologies of GH in group 1 were bladder cancer (38.5%) and urinary infection (23%). In contrast, CAP itself caused GH in 60% of the patients in group 2. Thirty-nine patients (48%) required transurethral surgery to manage GH which was effective in all cases; nevertheless, the prognosis of group 2 patients was dismal with median overall survival of 13 months after sustaining hematuria, compared to 50 months in group 1 (P = 0.0015). We conclude that the etiology of GH in patients with CAP varies according to primary treatment. After radical prostatectomy, it is habitually caused by bladder cancer or infection. When the primary treatment is not surgical, GH is most commonly due to CAP itself. Although surgical intervention is effective in alleviating hematuria of these patients, their prognosis is dismal.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective:
To evaluate the importance of stone composition and crystallite size in the formation of ultimate stone burden. Crystallite is the smallest building block, which is unique in size and architecture for each type of stone component. Currently, the knowledge about the clinical importance of crystallite size is very limited.
The results of quantitative X-ray diffraction phase analysis performed on 286 kidney stones extracted during endourological surgery or expelled spontaneously were retrospectively analyzed. Stone composition and crystallite size were determined and were compared to the burden occupying the pelvicalyceal system.
A total of 286 renal stones were analyzed. Stones were low burden and high burden in 242 and 44 of cases, respectively. We observed statistically significant association of phosphates and urates with high-burden stones in contrast to oxalates, which formed mainly low-burden stones. Crystallite sizes were available for 179 stones. Large-sized crystallites of calcium oxalate monohydrate and hydroxyl apatite formed low-burden stones, whereas small-sized crystallites formed staghorn stones. Struvite and urates had a uniform average size of crystallites.
Oxalate stones have statistically significant association with smaller stones, whereas high-burden calculi are significantly associated with urates and phosphates, especially the struvite type. The smaller the crystallite size is to start with, the larger will be the ultimate stone burden. This rule is followed by calcium oxalate monohydrate and Apatite minerals.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
The aim of radical prostatectomy (RP) is the complete removal of the prostate gland with negative surgical margins. The presence of cancer at the surgical margin is associated with higher probability of disease progression. Current methods of intraoperative margin assessment are inaccurate or time-consuming.The study goal was to evaluate the ability of a novel device (Dune Medical Devices) to differentiate between cancer and BPH.
A total of 49 patients undergoing RP in four medical centers between November 2007 and May 2008 were enrolled in this study.The device was applied to numerous intra- and extra-capsular sites of freshly excised RP specimens. Measurement sites were accurately marked and analyzed histologically. The ability of the device to differentiate between malignant and nonmalignant sites was assessed.
A total of 15,156 measurements from 45 patients were analyzed. Differentiation of the intra-capsular malignant sites from extra-capsular nonmalignant sites (bladder neck and apex regions) depends on the cancer feature size. Differentiation was achieved with sensitivity and specificity of 93.6 (95% confidence interval (CI): 88-98) and 94.1 (95% CI: 93-95), respectively, at feature sizes at or >0.8 mm in diameter. The device was able to discriminate between all intra-capsular malignant (with feature sizes down to a few cells) and nonmalignant measurement sites, with sensitivity and specificity of 80.8 (95% CI: 73-87) and 68.4 (95% CI: 67-69), respectively.
First results from a radio-frequency near-field spectroscopy sensor look promising for differentiation between cancer and benign prostate tissue. The sensor's dimensions (radius of ~ 1 mm) and design enable use in open, laparoscopic and robotic RP to evaluate the surgical margins intraoperatively.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2012 · Prostate cancer and prostatic diseases
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Biofilms on the surfaces of urinary catheters are among the pivotal factors for recurrent and persistent infections in urology. Many techniques have been investigated and applied for eradication of these biofilms--but with no full success. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of sustained release medicated varnish, releasing chlorhexidine, on the formation of biofilm on the urinary catheter surface in an in-vitro model.
A batch model was used to test the antibacterial/antibiofilm effect of the sustained release varnish: Catheter pieces coated with sustained release varnishes were placed in bacterial growth medium that was infected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa for 96 hours. Various concentrations of chlorhexidine impregnated in the varnish were tested. After the incubation period, the catheter pieces were assessed for biofilm formation by measuring the optical density, colony-forming units, and using confocal laser scanning microscopy, and electron scanning microscopy.
Biofilm growth measurement (colony-forming units [CFU]) on the catheter surface coated with the various concentrations of chlorhexidine in sustained released varnish revealed a 94% reduction with 1% chlorhexidine (P<0.0001) and 43% reduction with 0.1% chlorhexidine (P=0.08) coated varnish in comparison with a positive control or the placebo varnish in preventing biofilm growth of P. aeruginosa. These biologic assays were confirmed using confocal and electron microscopy.
Of the various tested concentrations of sustained release varnishes, the 1% chlorhexidine concentration has demonstrated the superior antibiofilm effect on urinary catheters with P. aeruginosa. Although similar varnishes are used in dentistry, it needs extended research in animals before applying this technology in human trials.
No preview · Article · Dec 2011 · Journal of endourology / Endourological Society
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To examine the hypothesis that the risk of high-grade bladder cancer can be predicted using noninvasively obtained data.
We retrospectively analyzed the database of 431 patients that had transurethral resection of first-time bladder tumors between June 1998 and December 2009. Pre-operative parameters evaluated were: patients' age; gender; sonographic tumor diameter, number and location of tumor inside the bladder; presence of hydronephrosis, and results of urinary cytology. Parameters that showed significance in multivariate analysis were incorporated into the nomogram.
Multivariate analysis of the data showed that patient's age, the presence of hydronephrosis, sonographic tumor diameter (risk of a high-grade tumor: 14, 29, 43.3, 55.7 and 69.4% at diameters: 0.5-1.5, 1.6-2, 2.1-2.5, 2.6-3 and >3 cm, respectively), location of tumor in the bladder (risk of high-grade tumor: 28.8, 47, 67.5 and 90.5% in the lateral walls, posterior/base, anterior and dome, respectively), and urinary cytology were all highly significant and independent predictors of high-grade tumors. A nomogram constructed using these variables scored an area of 0.853 in the ROC curve.
The risk of high-grade bladder tumor can be accurately predicted using non-invasively obtained information. This prediction can help to triage patients with newly detected bladder cancer for biopsy.
No preview · Article · Aug 2011 · Urologia Internationalis
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Urothelial carcinomas have an established propensity for divergent differentiation. Most of these variant tumors are muscle invasive but not all. The response of non muscle invasive variant tumors to intravesical immunotherapy with BCG is not established in the literature, and is reported here. Between June 1995 and December 2007, 760 patients (mean age of 67.5 years) underwent transurethral resection of first time bladder tumors in our institution. Histologically variant tumors were found in 79 patients (10.4%). Of these 57 patients (72%) of them had muscle-invasive disease or extensive non-muscle invasive tumors and remaining 22 patients (28%) were treated with BCG immunotherapy. These included 7 patients with squamous differentiation, 4 with glandular, 6 with nested, 4 with micropapillary and 1 patient with sarcomatoid variant. The response of these patients to immunotherapy was compared with that of 144 patients having high-grade conventional urothelial carcinomas. Median follow-up was 46 months. The 2 and 5-year progression (muscle-invasion) free survival rates were 92% and 84.24% for patients with conventional carcinoma compared to 81.06% and 63.16% for patients with variant disease (P=0.02). The 2 and 5-year disease specific survival rates were 97% and 91.43% for patients with conventional carcinoma compared to 94.74 % and 82% for patients with variant disease (P=0.33). 5 patients (22.7%) of variant group and 13 patients (9.03%) of conventional group underwent cystectomy during follow-up (P=0.068).
Patients with non-muscle invasive variants of bladder cancers can be managed with intravesical immunotherapy if tumor is not bulky (>4 cm). Although progression to muscle invasive disease is more common than in conventional group and occurs in about 40% of the patients, life expectancy is similar to patients with conventional high-grade urothelial carcinomas provided that follow-up is meticulous.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Current urologic laparoscopic procedures include preservation of locoregional nerve fibers. The use of electrical coagulation is limited because of tissue conductance of current and heat production. While ultrasonic coagulation does not use electricity, heat is still produced. We designed an animal model to characterize the heat spread around ultrasonic devices and assess whether it is neurodestructive.
10 rats were anesthetized; their skin was reflected, exposing the muscles. An ultrasonic probe was introduced into the tissue, and coagulation was performed for 10 seconds. Tissue temperature was measured using four thermocouples, at distances of 4, 8, 12, and 16 mm from the probes and in a circumferential manner. Thermal mapping of the probes was performed with an infrared camera. Further, four rats were anesthetized; the skin above their inner thighs was reflected bilaterally exposing the "nervus ischiadicus." Coagulation was performed in varying distances from the nerve on one side while the other served as control. One week later, the animals were sacrificed, and the nerves were obtained. Silver staining was used to assess the vitality of the axons.
In distances of 4 to 8 mm from the device, temperatures as high as 81°C were recorded, and silver staining showed severe axonal damage.
Although ultrasonic coagulation is efficient, local heat production may reach neurodestructive levels with a typical tissue distribution pattern. These features should be addressed during laparoscopic dissection and when considering nerve-sparing procedures.
No preview · Article · Oct 2010 · Journal of endourology / Endourological Society
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: From 1985 to August 2007 we have performed 15,324 shockwave lithotripsy (SWL) treatments using the Dornier HM3 lithotripter. We studied trends in the characteristics of treatments and patients.
Patient data were recorded in a computerized database. Changes in characteristics of patients and stones treated during this period were reviewed.
A total of 15,324 treatments were performed on 10,734 patients. The following trends were observed: (1) Stone size: A significant increase in the proportion of patients treated for stones up to 10 mm in diameter, no change for stone size of 10 to 20 mm, and a decrease in stones larger than 20 mm in diameter. (2) Stone location: A significant increase in the proportion of patients treated for proximal and distal ureteral calculi, whereas a significant decrease in those with renal pelvic and staghorn stones. (3) Auxiliary procedures: A significant increase in the use of perioperative procedures (stents or ureteral catheters) ranging from 20% during the mid-1980s up to 60% in the year 2007. (4) Presenting symptoms: A significant increase in the percentage of patients referred with pain and a significant decrease in the percentage of patients referred with signs of infection. (5) Repeat SWL: A total of 13% of the patients required a second SWL for the same stone within 90 days of the first procedure. (6) Complication rate: This rate was relatively low, ranging from 1% to 6% per year.
The evolvement of endourological procedures and techniques resulted in a decreased referral of large kidney stones for SWL. Advanced diagnostic modalities increased the diagnosis of renal colic in patients presenting with pain, and consequently their referral rate and timing for SWL treatment. The use of stents increased because of referral of patients with obstructing stones and infection or for prevention of posttreatment obstruction.
No preview · Article · Apr 2010 · Journal of endourology / Endourological Society