[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Obesity has long been linked with prostate cancer progression, although the underlying mechanism is still largely unknown. Here, we report that adipocytes promote the enrichment of prostate cancer stem cells (CSCs) through a vicious cycle of autocrine amplification. In the presence of adipocytes, prostate cancer cells actively secrete the peptide hormone cholecystokinin (CCK), which not only stimulates prostate CSC self-renewal, but also induces cathepsin B (CTSB) production of the adipocytes. In return, CTSB facilitates further CCK secretion by the cancer cells. More importantly, inactivation of CCK receptor not only suppresses CTSB secretion by the adipocytes, but also synergizes the inhibitory effect of CTSB inhibitor on adipocyte-promoted prostate CSC self-renewal. In summary, we have uncovered a novel mechanism underlying the mutual interplay between adipocytes and prostate CSCs, which may help explaining the role of adipocytes in prostate cancer progression and provide opportunities for effective intervention.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The mass spectrometry technique of multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) was used to quantify and compare the expression level of lactoferrin in tear films between control, prostate cancer (CaP) and benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) groups. Tear samples from 14 males with CaP, 15 with BPH and 14 controls were analysed in the study. Collected tears (2 μL) of each sample were digested with trypsin overnight at 37 °C without any pre-treatment, and tear lactoferrin was quantified using a lactoferrin specific peptide, VPSHAVVAR, both using natural/light and isotopic labelled/heavy peptides with MRM. The average tear lactoferrin concentration in control samples was 1.01 ± 0.07 μg/μL, in the BPH group it was 0.96 ± 0.07 μg/μL, and in CaP, it was 0.98 ± 0.07 μg/μL. Our study is the first study quantifying tear proteins using a total of 43 individual (non-pooled) tear samples, and showed that direct digestion of tear samples is suitable for MRM studies. The calculated average lactoferrin concentration in the control group matched that in the published range of human tear lactoferrin concentration measured by ELISA. Moreover the lactoferrin was stably expressed across all the samples with no significant differences being observed between control, BPH and CaP groups.
No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Analytical Biochemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Targeted nanomedicines offer a strategy for greatly enhancing accumulation of a therapeutic within a specific tissue in animals. In this study, we report on the comparative targeting efficiency toward prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) of a number of different ligands that are covalently attached by the same chemistry to a polymeric nanocarrier. The targeting ligands included a small molecule (glutamate urea), a peptide ligand, and a monoclonal antibody (J591). A hyperbranched polymer (HBP) was utilized as the nanocarrier and contained a fluorophore for tracking/analysis, whereas the pendant functional chain-ends provided a handle for ligand conjugation. Targeting efficiency of each ligand was assessed in vitro using flow cytometry and confocal microscopy to compare degree of binding and internalization of the HBPs by human prostate cancer (PCa) cell lines with different PSMA expression status (PC3-PIP (PSMA+) and PC3-FLU (PSMA-). The peptide ligand was further investigated in vivo, in which BALB/c nude mice bearing subcutaneous PC3-PIP and PC3-FLU PCa tumors were injected intravenously with the HBP-peptide conjugate and assessed by fluorescence imaging. Enhanced accumulation in the tumor tissue of PC3-PIP compared to PC3-FLU highlighted the applicability of this system as a future imaging and therapeutic delivery vehicle.
No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Biomacromolecules
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ample evidence supports that prostate tumor metastasis originates from a rare population of cancer cells, known as cancer stem cells (CSCs). Unfortunately, little is known about the identity of these cells, making it difficult to target the metastatic prostate tumor. Here, for the first time, we report the identification of a rare population of prostate cancer cells that express the Tie-2 protein. We found that this Tie-2High population exists mainly in prostate cancer cell lines that are capable of metastasizing to the bone. These cells not only express a higher level of CSC markers but also demonstrate enhanced resistance to the chemotherapeutic drug Cabazitaxel. In addition, knockdown of the expression of the Tie-2 ligand angiopoietin (Ang-1) led to suppression of CSC markers, suggesting that the Ang-1/Tie-2 signaling pathway functions as an autocrine loop for the maintenance of prostate CSCs. More importantly, we found that Tie-2High prostate cancer cells are more adhesive than the Tie-2Low population to both osteoblasts and endothelial cells. Moreover, only the Tie-2High, but not the Tie-2Low cells developed tumor metastasis in vivo when injected at a low number. Taken together, our data suggest that Tie-2 may play an important role during the development of prostate tumor metastasis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Obesity and metabolic syndrome are associated with several cancers, however, the molecular mechanisms remain to be fully elucidated. Recent studies suggest that hypercholesterolemia increases intratumoral androgen signaling in prostate cancer, but it is unclear whether androgen-independent mechanisms also exist. Since hypercholesterolemia is associated with advanced, castrate-resistant prostate cancer, in this study, we aimed to determine whether and how hypercholesterolemia affects prostate cancer progression in the absence of androgen signaling. We demonstrate that diet-induced hypercholesterolemia promotes orthotopic xenograft PC-3 cell metastasis, concomitant with elevated expression of caveolin-1 and IQGAP1 in xenograft tumor tissues. In vitro cholesterol treatment of PC-3 cells stimulated migration and increased IQGAP1 and caveolin-1 protein level and localization to a detergent-resistant fraction. Down-regulation of caveolin-1 or IQGAP1 in PC-3 cells reduced migration and invasion in vitro, and hypercholesterolemia-induced metastasis in vivo. Double knock-down of caveolin-1 and IQGAP1 showed no additive effect, suggesting that caveolin-1 and IQGAP1 act via the same pathway. Taken together, our data show that hypercholesterolemia promotes prostate cancer metastasis independent of the androgen pathway, in part by increasing IQGAP1 and caveolin-1. These results have broader implications for managing metastasis of cancers in general as IQGAP1 and hypercholesterolemia are implicated in the progression of several cancers.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The divergent TGF-β superfamily member, macrophage inhibitory cytokine-1 (MIC-1/GDF15), is overexpressed by most cancers, including prostate cancer (PCa). Whilst its circulating levels are linked to cancer outcome, the role MIC-1/GDF15 plays in cancer development and progression is incompletely understood. To investigate its effect on PCa development and spread, we have used TRAMP prostate cancer prone mice bearing a germline deletion of MIC-1/GDF15 (TRAMPMIC-/-). On average TRAMPMIC-/- mice died about 5 weeks earlier and had larger prostatic tumors compared with TRAMP mice that were wild type for MIC-1/GDF15 (TRAMPMIC+/+). Additionally, at the time of death or ethical end point, even when adjusted for lifespan, there were no significant differences in the number of mice with metastases between the TRAMPMIC+/+ and TRAMPMIC-/- groups. However, consistent with our previous data, more than twice as many TRAMP mice overexpressing MIC-1/GDF15 (TRAMPfmsmic-1) had metastases than TRAMPMIC+/+ mice (p<0.0001). We conclude that germ line gene deletion of MIC-1/GDF15 leads to increased local tumor growth resulting in decreased survival consistent with an overall protective role for MIC-1/GDF15 in early primary tumor development. However, in advancing disease, as we have previously noted, MIC-1/GDF15 overexpression may promote local invasion and metastatic spread.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aim:
To evaluate the potential of newly-developed, biocompatible iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) conjugated with J591, an antibody to an extracellular epitope of PSMA, to enhance MRI of prostate cancer.
Materials & methods:
Specific binding to PSMA by J591-MNP was investigated in vitro. MRI studies were performed on orthotopic tumor-bearing NOD.SCID mice 2 h and 24 h after intravenous injection of J591-MNPs, or non-targeting MNPs.
Results & conclusion:
In vitro, MNPs did not affect prostate cancer cell viability, and conjugation to J591 did not compromise antibody specificity and enhanced cellular iron uptake. Magnetic resonance contrast of tumors was increased in vivo using PSMA-targeting MNPs, but not by non-targeting MNPs. This provides proof-of-concept that PSMA-targeting MNPs have potential to enhance magnetic resonance detection/localization of prostate cancer.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Despite monolayer cultures being widely used for cancer drug development and testing, 2D cultures tend to be hypersensitive to chemotherapy and are relatively poor predictors of whether a drug will provide clinical benefit. Whilst generally more complicated, three dimensional (3D) culture systems often better recapitulate true cancer architecture and provide a more accurate drug response. As a step towards making 3D cancer cultures more accessible, we have developed a microwell platform and surface modification protocol to enable high throughput manufacture of 3D cancer aggregates. Herein we use this novel system to characterize prostate cancer cell microaggregates, including growth kinetics and drug sensitivity. Our results indicate that prostate cancer cells are viable in this system, however some non-cancerous prostate cell lines are not. This system allows us to consistently control for the presence or absence of an apoptotic core in the 3D cancer microaggregates. Similar to tumor tissues, the 3D microaggregates display poor polarity. Critically the response of 3D microaggregates to the chemotherapeutic drug, docetaxel, is more consistent with in vivo results than the equivalent 2D controls. Cumulatively, our results demonstrate that these prostate cancer microaggregates better recapitulate the morphology of prostate tumors compared to 2D and can be used for high-throughput drug testing.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Theranostics offers an improved treatment strategy for prostate cancer by facilitating simultaneous targeting of tumour cells with subsequent drug delivery and imaging. In this report we describe the synthesis of hyperbranched polymers that are biocompatible, can specifically target and be internalised by prostate cancer cells (through targeting of prostate-specific membrane antigen – PSMA) and ultimately facilitate controlled delivery of a model drug. The theranostic also incorporates a far-red fluorescent dye that allows tracking of the polymer via optical imaging. Controlled synthesis of the polymer is achieved via reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer polymerisation of polyethylene glycol monomethyl methacrylate, with ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as the branching agent. Incorporation of 20 mol% of an hydrazide-methacrylate monomer allows post-ligation of a model drug, fluorene-2-carboxaldehyde, through a hydrolytically-degradable hydrazone linkage. The rate of degradation of this particular linker was enhanced at endosomal pH (pH = 5.5) where 95% of the model drug was released in 4 hours compared to less than 5% released over the same period at physiological pH. The theranostic showed high uptake into prostate cancer cells expressing prostate-specific membrane antigen, while minimal uptake was observed in PC3 cells negative for PSMA, highlighting the enhanced efficacy of the targeting ligand.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The development of effective therapeutic strategies against prostate cancer bone metastases has been impeded by the lack of adequate animal models that are able to recapitulate the biology of the disease in humans. Bioengineered approaches allow researchers to create sophisticated experimentally and physiologically relevant in vivo models to study interactions between cancer cells and their microenvironment under reproducible conditions. The aim of this study was to engineer a morphologically and functionally intact humanized organ bone which can serve as a homing site for human prostate cancer cells. Transplantation of biodegradable tubular composite scaffolds seeded with human mesenchymal progenitor cells and loaded with rhBMP-7 resulted in the development of a chimeric bone construct including a large number of human mesenchymal cells which were shown to be metabolically active and capable of producing extracellular matrix components. Micro-CT analysis demonstrated that the newly formed ossicle recapitulated the morphological features of a physiological organ bone with a trabecular network surrounded by a cortex-like outer structure. This microenvironment was supportive of the lodgement and maintenance of murine haematopoietic cell clusters, thus mimicking a functional organ bone. Bioluminescence imaging demonstrated that luciferase-transduced human PC3 cells reproducibly homed to the humanized tissue engineered bone constructs, proliferated, and developed macro-metastases. This model allows the analysis of interactions between human prostate cancer cells and a functional humanized bone organ within an immuno-incompetent murine host. The system can serve as a reproducible platform to study effects of therapeutics against prostate cancer bone metastases within a humanized microenvironment.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Exosomes have been shown to act as mediators for cell to cell communication and as a potential source of biomarkers for many diseases, including prostate cancer. Exosomes are nanosized vesicles secreted by cells and consist of proteins normally found in multivesicular bodies, RNA, DNA and lipids. As a potential source of biomarkers, exosomes have attracted considerable attention, as their protein content resembles that of their cells of origin, even though it is noted that the proteins, miRNAs and lipids found in the exosomes are not a reflective stoichiometric sampling of the contents from the parent cells. While the biogenesis of exosomes in dendritic cells and platelets has been extensively characterized, much less is known about the biogenesis of exosomes in cancer cells. An understanding of the processes involved in prostate cancer will help to further elucidate the role of exosomes and other extracellular vesicles in prostate cancer progression and metastasis. There are few methodologies available for general isolation of exosomes, however validation of those methodologies is necessary to study the role of exosomal-derived biomarkers in various diseases. In this review, we discuss "exosomes" as a member of the family of extracellular vesicles and their potential to provide candidate biomarkers for prostate cancer.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There is a large body of evidence showing that prostate cancer and its progression to castrate resistant disease is driven by the action of androgens and the androgen receptor. Exosomes, nanosize vesicles secreted by cells, are shown to be involved in cell to cell communication, and evidence from studies in other types of cancer, suggests that the exosomes and microvesicles are regulators which mediate adaptive cancer processes including metastatic progression. We aim to investigate the involvement of androgens in the exosome secretion process in prostate cancer. Our data support the hypothesis that androgens through the androgen receptor play a regulatory role in the secretion process, both qualitatively and quantitatively determining exosome size, content, and number in the context of the androgen sensitive prostate cancer cell, LNCaP. We isolated the exosomes from LNCaP cells conditioned medium by serial ultracentrifugation and confirmed the presence of exosomes by electron microscopy. Treatment with dihydrotestosterone (DHT) changes the composition of protein content, as characterised by mass spectrometry. The presence of androgen receptor antagonist drug, MDV3100, alters the population of exosomes secreted by LNCaP cells. These data indicate that androgens not only mediate prostate cancer progression through regulating gene transcription, but also alter cell to cell communications between prostate cancer cells via exosomes. The data supports that exosome analysis has the potential to detect and differentiate prostate cancer response to androgen targeted therapies. Exosome isolation and characterisation from advanced prostate cancer patients undergoing systemic therapy could provide an indicator of treatment response and treatment resistance.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tumour necrosis factor (TNF) is a pleiotropic cytokine with dual roles in cancer biology including prostate cancer (PCa). On the one hand, there is evidence that it stimulates tumour angiogenesis, is involved in the initiation of PCa from an androgen-dependent to a castrate resistant state, plays a role in epithelial to mesenchymal plasticity, and may contribute to the aberrant regulation of eicosanoid pathways. On the other hand, TNF has also been reported to inhibit neovascularisation, induce apoptosis of PCa cells, and stimulate antitumour immunity. Much of the confusion surrounding its seemingly paradoxical roles in cancer biology stems from the dependence of its effects on the biological model within which TNF is investigated. This paper will address some of these issues and also discuss the therapeutic implications.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Macrophage inhibitory cytokine-1 (MIC-1/GDF15), a divergent member of the TGF-β superfamily, is over-expressed by many common cancers including those of the prostate (PCa) and its expression is linked to cancer outcome. We have evaluated the effect of MIC-1/GDF15 overexpression on PCa development and spread in the TRAMP transgenic model of spontaneous prostate cancer. TRAMP mice were crossed with MIC-1/GDF15 overexpressing mice (MIC-1(fms)) to produce syngeneic TRAMP(fmsmic-1) mice. Survival rate, prostate tumor size, histopathological grades and extent of distant organ metastases were compared. Metastasis of TC1-T5, an androgen independent TRAMP cell line that lacks MIC-1/GDF15 expression, was compared by injecting intravenously into MIC-1(fms) and syngeneic C57BL/6 mice. Whilst TRAMP(fmsmic-1) survived on average 7.4 weeks longer, had significantly smaller genitourinary (GU) tumors and lower PCa histopathological grades than TRAMP mice, more of these mice developed distant organ metastases. Additionally, a higher number of TC1-T5 lung tumor colonies were observed in MIC-1(fms) mice than syngeneic WT C57BL/6 mice. Our studies strongly suggest that MIC-1/GDF15 has complex actions on tumor behavior: it limits local tumor growth but may with advancing disease, promote metastases. As MIC-1/GDF15 is induced by all cancer treatments and metastasis is the major cause of cancer treatment failure and cancer deaths, these results, if applicable to humans, may have a direct impact on patient care.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Over 20,000 Australian men are diagnosed with prostate cancer (PC) with more than 3500 deaths/year from this disease. Worldwide, 910,000 cases were recorded in 2008, accounting for 14% of men's cancer, and these figures are predicted to reach 1.7 million by 2030. Early PC is treated by surgery or radiation; androgen depletion therapy (ADT) is subsequently used for those who fail treatment, as PC is androgen regulated. Among these, 25–40% of cases develop castrate-resistant PC (CRPC) with a rising PSA, an androgen-regulated gene, despite low androgen levels in the serum. The underlying mechanisms for progression to CRPC are complex. PC cells that survive ADT arrest adapt to a low-androgen environment through various mechanisms, which maintain androgen receptor (AR) signaling and continue to proliferate. The chemotherapeutic drug, docetaxel, is commonly used to treat CRPC patients in the clinic, but ~30% of patients who receive docetaxel therapy relapse and suffer from severe side effects. Biomarkers, which could define whether patients will respond to ADT and drug treatments, are needed. We believe that exosomes may provide novel biomarkers that will alter with treatment, potentially providing markers that reflect PC progression and drug-resistant disease. We investigated the effects of DHT treatment on exosome secretion using AR positive LNCaP and 22RV1 cell lines as an in vitro PC model. DHT changes the protein profile of exosomes isolated from both cell lines, implying that in PC, the AR plays a role in selecting the content of exosome and confirming that exosome analysis has the potential to provide novel biomarkers for PC progression and drug resistance.
Funded by: Department of Defense US Army Prostate Cancer Program Postdoctoral Training Award, and Queensland University of Technology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Late stage Ovarian Cancer is essentially incurable primarily due to late diagnosis and its inherent heterogeneity. Single agent treatments are inadequate and generally lead to severe side effects at therapeutic doses. It is crucial to develop clinically relevant novel combination regimens involving synergistic modalities that target a wider repertoire of cells and lead to lowered individual doses. Stemming from this premise, this is the first report of two- and three-way synergies between Adenovirus-mediated Purine Nucleoside Phosphorylase based gene directed enzyme prodrug therapy (PNP-GDEPT), docetaxel and/or carboplatin in multidrug-resistant ovarian cancer cells.
The effects of PNP-GDEPT on different cellular processes were determined using Shotgun Proteomics analyses. The in vitro cell growth inhibition in differentially treated drug resistant human ovarian cancer cell lines was established using a cell-viability assay. The extent of synergy, additivity, or antagonism between treatments was evaluated using CalcuSyn statistical analyses. The involvement of apoptosis and implicated proteins in effects of different treatments was established using flow cytometry based detection of M30 (an early marker of apoptosis), cell cycle analyses and finally western blot based analyses.
Efficacy of the trimodal treatment was significantly greater than that achieved with bimodal- or individual treatments with potential for 10-50 fold dose reduction compared to that required for individual treatments. Of note was the marked enhancement in apoptosis that specifically accompanied the combinations that included PNP-GDEPT and accordingly correlated with a shift in the expression of anti- and pro-apoptotic proteins. PNP-GDEPT mediated enhancement of apoptosis was reinforced by cell cycle analyses. Proteomic analyses of PNP-GDEPT treated cells indicated a dowregulation of proteins involved in oncogenesis or cancer drug resistance in treated cells with accompanying upregulation of apoptotic- and tumour- suppressor proteins.
Inclusion of PNP-GDEPT in regular chemotherapy regimens can lead to significant enhancement of the cancer cell susceptibility to the combined treatment. Overall, these data will underpin the development of regimens that can benefit patients with late stage ovarian cancer leading to significantly improved efficacy and increased quality of life.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Stemming from its inherent heterogeneity, single-agent treatments are essentially ineffective against castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Thus, clinically relevant regimens that harness different modalities to maximize treatment efficacy without increasing cumulative toxicities are urgently needed. Based on this rationale, we investigated whether a novel combination of purine nucleoside phosphorylase-mediated, gene-directed enzyme-prodrug therapy (PNP-GDEPT) with docetaxel against CRPC has superior efficacy in comparison with individual treatments. Methods: The in vitro cell growth inhibition in differentially treated murine and human CRPC cell lines was established using a cell-viability assay. The extent of synergy, additivity, or antagonism between treatments was evaluated using CalcuSyn statistical analyses. The local and systemic effects of docetaxel and/or PNP-GDEPT were tested in both immunodeficient and immunocompetent mice against human and murine CRPC tumors, respectively. Subsequently, immunohistochemical analyses and an evaluation of serum cytokine and serum toxicity profiles were conducted to characterize the differential host responses to treatment.
The combined use of PNP-GDEPT and docetaxel led to strong synergistic cell killing in vitro. Compared with the individual modalities, a combination of the 2 led to a marked reduction in "local and distant" tumor growth in vivo, and importantly, with lowered doses and without additional toxicities. Immunomodulation was indicated by enhanced immune cell infiltration and altered serum cytokine levels. Furthermore, a lowering of T-helper type 2 cytokines, MCP-1, interleukin (IL)-4, IL-6, and IL-10 marked lower tumor burden and enhanced treatment efficacy.
PNP-GDEPT and docetaxel are a potent combination against CRPC in immunocompetent and immunodeficient settings; these outcomes have implications of translational potential for improved treatment and management of CRPC patients.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2011 · Clinical Cancer Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The bisphosphonate, zoledronic acid (ZOL), can inhibit osteoclasts leading to decreased osteoclastogenesis and osteoclast activity in bone. Here, we used a mixed osteolytic/osteoblastic murine model of bone-metastatic prostate cancer, RM1(BM), to determine how inhibiting osteolysis with ZOL affects the ability of these cells to establish metastases in bone, the integrity of the tumour-bearing bones and the survival of the tumour-bearing mice.
The model involves intracardiac injection for arterial dissemination of the RM1(BM) cells in C57BL/6 mice. ZOL treatment was given via subcutaneous injections on days 0, 4, 8 and 12, at 20 and 100 µg/kg doses. Bone integrity was assessed by micro-computed tomography and histology with comparison to untreated mice. The osteoclast and osteoblast activity was determined by measuring serum tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b (TRAP 5b) and osteocalcin, respectively. Mice were euthanased according to predetermined criteria and survival was assessed using Kaplan Meier plots.
Micro-CT and histological analysis showed that treatment of mice with ZOL from the day of intracardiac injection of RM1(BM) cells inhibited tumour-induced bone lysis, maintained bone volume and reduced the calcification of tumour-induced endochondral osteoid material. ZOL treatment also led to a decreased serum osteocalcin and TRAP 5b levels. Additionally, treated mice showed increased survival compared to vehicle treated controls. However, ZOL treatment did not inhibit the cells ability to metastasise to bone as the number of bone-metastases was similar in both treated and untreated mice.
ZOL treatment provided significant benefits for maintaining the integrity of tumour-bearing bones and increased the survival of tumour bearing mice, though it did not prevent establishment of bone-metastases in this model. From the mechanistic view, these observations confirm that tumour-induced bone lysis is not a requirement for establishment of these bone tumours.