[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ephrin receptor A10 (EphA10), a transmembrane receptor that binds to ephrin, is a newly identified breast cancer marker protein that has also been detected in HER2-negative tissue. In this study, we report creation of a novel bispecific antibody (BsAb) binding both EphA10 and CD3, thereby forming a bridge between antigens expressed on both tumor and immune cells and promoting recognition of tumor cells by immune cells and redirection of cytotoxic T cells (CTL). This BsAb (EphA10/CD3) was expressed in supernatants of BsAb gene-transfected cells as monomeric and dimeric molecules. Redirected T-cell lysis was observed when monomeric and dimeric BsAb were added to EphA10-overexpressing tumor cells in vitro. Furthermore, dimeric BsAb (EphA10/CD3) was more cytotoxic than monomeric BsAb, with efficient tumor cell lysis elicited by lower concentrations (≤10−1 μg/mL) and a lower effector to target (E/T) cell ratio (E/T = 2.5). Dimeric BsAb (EphA10/CD3) also showed significant anti-tumor effects in human xenograft mouse models. Together, these results revealed opportunities to redirect the activity of CTL towards tumor cells that express EphA10 using the BsAb (EphA10/CD3), which could be tested in future clinical trials as a novel and potent therapeutic for breast cancer tumors.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hypoxia-adapted cancer cells in tumors contribute to the pathological progression of cancer. Cancer research has therefore focused on the identification of molecules responsible for hypoxia adaptation in cancer cells, as well as the development of new compounds with action against hypoxia-adapted cancer cells. The marine natural product furospinosulin-1 (1) displays hypoxia-selective growth inhibition against cultured cancer cells, and showed in vivo anti-tumor effects, whereas its precise in vivo mode of action and molecular targets remain unclear. In this study, we found that 1 is selectively effective against hypoxic regions of tumors, and also showed that it directly binds to the transcriptional regulators p54nrb and LEDGF/p75, which have not been previously identified as mediators of hypoxia adaptation in cancer cells.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recently, 7-substituted 7-deazapurine nucleoside triphosphates and 5-substituted pyrimidine nucleoside triphosphates (dN(am)TPs) were synthesized to extend enzymatically using commercially available polymerase. However, extension was limited when we attempted to incorporate the substrates consecutively. To address this, we have produced a mutant polymerase that can efficiently accept the modified nucleotide with amphiphilic groups as substrates. Here we show that the KOD polymerase mutant, KOD exo(-)/A485L, had the ability to incorporate dN(am)TP continuously over 50nt, indicating that the mutant is sufficient for generating functional nucleic acid molecules.
No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry letters
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The skin is a key route of human exposure to nanomaterials, which typically occurs simultaneously with exposure to other chemical and environmental allergen. However, little is known about the hazards of nanomaterial exposure via the skin, particularly when accompanied by exposure to other substances.
Repeated topical treatment of both ears and the shaved upper back of NC/Nga mice, which are models for human atopic dermatitis (AD), with a mixture of mite extract and silica nanoparticles induced AD-like skin lesions. Measurements of ear thickness and histologic analyses revealed that cutaneous exposure to silica nanoparticles did not aggravate AD-like skin lesions. Instead, concurrent cutaneous exposure to mite allergens and silica nanoparticles resulted in the low-level production of allergen-specific IgGs, including both the Th2-related IgG1 and Th1-related IgG2a subtypes, with few changes in allergen-specific IgE concentrations and in Th1 and Th2 immune responses. In addition, these changes in immune responses increased the sensitivity to anaphylaxis. Low-level IgG production was induced when the mice were exposed to allergen-silica nanoparticle agglomerates but not when the mice exposed to nanoparticles applied separately from the allergen or to well-dispersed nanoparticles.
Our data suggest that silica nanoparticles themselves do not directly affect the allergen-specific immune response after concurrent topical application of nanoparticles and allergen. However, when present in allergen-adsorbed agglomerates, silica nanoparticles led to a low IgG/IgE ratio, a key risk factor of human atopic allergies. We suggest that minimizing interactions between nanomaterials and allergens will increase the safety of nanomaterials applied to skin.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2015 · Particle and Fibre Toxicology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recently, nanomaterial-mediated biological effects have been shown to be governed by the interaction of nanomaterials with some kinds of proteins in biological fluids, and the physical characteristics of the nanomaterials determine the extent and type of their interactions with proteins. Here, we examined the relationships between the surface properties of amorphous silica nanoparticles with diameters of 70 nm (nSP70), their interactions with some proteins in biological fluids, and their toxicity in mice after intravenous administration. The surface modification of nSP70 with amino groups (nSP70-N) prevented acute lethality and abnormal activation of the coagulation cascade found in the nSP70-treated group of mice. Since our previous study showed that coagulation factor XII played a role in the nSP70-mediated abnormal activation of the coagulation cascade, we examined the interaction of nSP70 and nSP70-N with coagulation factor XII. Coagulation factor XII bonded to the surface of nSP70 to a greater extent than that observed for nSP70-N, and consequently more activation of coagulation factor XII was observed for nSP70 than for nSP70-N. Collectively, our results suggest that controlling the interaction of nSP70 with blood coagulation factor XII by modifying the surface properties would help to inhibit the nSP70-mediated abnormal activation of the blood coagulation cascade.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Metastasis is an important prognosis factor in lung cancer, therefore, it is imperative to identify target molecules and elucidate molecular mechanism of metastasis for developing new therapeutics and diagnosis methods. We searched for metastasis-related proteins by utilizing a novel antibody proteome technology developed in our laboratory that facilitated efficient screening of useful target proteins. Two-dimensional differential in-gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) analysis identified sixteen proteins, which were highly expressed in metastatic lung cancer cells, as protein candidates. Monoclonal single-chain variable fragments (scFvs) binding to candidates were isolated from a scFv-displaying phage library by affinity selection. Tissue microarray analysis of scFvs binding to candidates revealed that oxysterol binding protein-like 5 (OSBPL5) and calumenin (CALU) were expressed at a significantly higher levels in the lung tissues of metastasis-positive cases than that in the metastasis-negative cases (OSBPL5; p=0.0156, CALU; p=0.0055). Furthermore, 80% of OSBPL5 and CALU double-positive cases were positive for lymph node metastasis. Consistent with these observations, overexpression of OSBPL5 and CALU promoted invasiveness of lung cancer cells. Conversely, knockdown of these proteins using respective siRNAs reversed the invasiveness of the lung cancer cells. Moreover, these proteins were expressed in lung tumor tissues, but not in normal lung tissues. In conclusion, OSBPL5 and CALU are related to metastatic potential of lung cancer cells, and they could be useful targets for cancer diagnosis and also for development of drugs against metastasis.
No preview · Article · May 2015 · International Journal of Oncology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nucleic acids that change their properties upon photo-irradiation could be powerful materials for molecular sensing with high spatiotemporal resolution. Recently, we reported a photo-isomeric nucleoside bearing azobenzene at the C5 position of 2'-deoxyuridine (dU Az), whose hybridization ability could be reversibly controlled by the appropriate wavelength of light. In this paper, we synthesized and evaluated dU Az analogues that have various para-substitutions on the azobenzene moiety. Spectroscopic measurements and HPLC analyses revealed that the para-substitutions of the azobenzene moiety strongly affect the photo-isomerization ability and thermal stability of the cis-form. The results suggest that proper substitution of the azobenzene moiety can improve the properties of dU Az as a light-responsive nucleic acid probe.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Oligonucleotides (ONs) modified with locked nucleic acid (LNA) are widely used in the fields of therapeutics, diagnosis, and nanotechnology. There has been significant effort towards developing LNA analogues bearing modified bridges to improve hybridization ability, nuclease resistance, and pharmacokinetic profiles. Moreover, nucleobase modifications of LNA are useful strategies for the functionalization of ONs. Modifications of the C5-position of pyrimidine nucleobases are particularly interesting because they enable predictable positioning of functional groups in the major groove of the duplex. Here we report the synthesis of C5-azobenzene-functionalized LNA uridine (LNA-UAz) and properties of LNA-UAz-modified ONs, including isomerization property, hybridization ability, and enzyme stability. LNA-UAz in ON is photo-isomerized effectively and reversibly by irradiation at 365 nm (trans to cis) and 450 nm (cis to trans). LNA-UAz-modified ONs show RNA-selective hybridization ability despite the large hydrophobic azobenzene moiety extending into the major groove of the duplex. The enzymatic stability of LNA-UAz-modified ONs is higher than that of natural and LNA-modified ONs with or without photo-irradiation. Our results indicate that LNA-UAz holds promise for RNA targeting and photo-switchable technologies.
No preview · Article · Mar 2015 · Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is an important mediator that triggers onset of autoimmune diseases and exerts its biological effects by interacting through two types of receptors, TNFR1 and TNFR2. The TNFR2 signaling has significant potential to exert pro-survival and protective roles in several disorders. Unlike TNFR1 signaling, however, the mechanism of TNFR2 signal transduction is poorly understood, and few of its adapter molecules are known. The present study utilized a proteomics approach to search for adapter molecules in the TNFR2 signaling complex and identified aminopeptidase P3 (APP3) to be a key molecule. One of its two isoforms, mitochondrial APP3 (APP3m) but not cytosolic APP3 (APP3c), was recruited to TNFR2 and shown to regulate TNF/TNFR2-dependent JNK phosphorylation. Furthermore, APP3m was released from mitochondria upon TNF stimulation in the absence of mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization (MOMP). The observation of increased cell death by down-regulation of APP3m also suggested that APP3m exerts an anti-apoptotic function. These findings reveal that APP3m is a new member of the TNF/TNFR2 signaling complex and characterize an APP3-mediated TNFR2 signal transduction mechanism that induces JNK activation.
Preview · Article · Jan 2015 · Journal of Cell Science
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We prepared an oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) bearing two 4-hydroxy-2-mercaptobenzimidazole nucleobase analogues (SB(NV) and SB(NB)) modified with different photolabile groups. This ODN enabled a light-triggered strand exchange reaction in a wavelength-selective manner.
No preview · Article · Jan 2015 · Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Because of their useful chemical and physical properties, nanomaterials are widely used around the world - for example, as additives in food and medicines - and such uses are expected to become more prevalent in the future. Therefore, collecting information about the effects of nanomaterials on metabolic enzymes is important. Here, we examined the effects of amorphous silica particles with various sizes and surface modifications on cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) activity by means of two different in vitro assays. Silica nanoparticles with diameters of 30 and 70 nm (nSP30 and nSP70, respectively) tended to inhibit CYP3A4 activity in human liver microsomes (HLMs), but the inhibitory activity of both types of nanoparticles was decreased by carboxyl modification. In contrast, amine-modified nSP70 activated CYP3A4 activity. In HepG2 cells, nSP30 inhibited CYP3A4 activity more strongly than the larger silica particles did. Taken together, these results suggest that the size and surface characteristics of the silica particles determined their effects on CYP3A4 activity and that it may be possible to develop silica particles that do not have undesirable effects on metabolic enzymes by altering their size and surface characteristics.
Preview · Article · Dec 2014 · Nanoscale Research Letters
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nanomaterials are used for various biomedical applications because they are often more effective than conventional materials. Recently, however, it has become clear that the protein corona that forms on the surface of nanomaterials when they make contact with biological fluids, such as blood, influences the pharmacokinetics and biological responses induced by the nanomaterials. Therefore, when evaluating nanomaterial safety and efficacy, it is important to analyze the interaction between nanomaterials and proteins in biological fluids and to evaluate the effects of the protein corona. Here, we evaluated the interaction of silica nanoparticles, a commonly used nanomaterial, with the human blood proteins albumin, transferrin, fibrinogen, and IgG. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis showed that the amount of albumin, transferrin, and IgG binding to the silica particles increased as the particle size decreased under conditions where the silica particle mass remained the same. However, under conditions in which the specific surface area remained constant, there were no differences in the binding of human plasma proteins to the silica particles tested, suggesting that the binding of silica particles with human plasma proteins is dependent on the specific surface area of the silica particles. Furthermore, the amount of albumin, transferrin, and IgG binding to silica nanoparticles with a diameter of 70 nm (nSP70) and a functional amino group was lower than that with unmodified nSP70, although there was no difference in the binding between nSP70 with the surface modification of a carboxyl functional group and nSP70. These results suggest that the characteristics of nanomaterials are important for binding with human blood proteins; this information may contribute to the development of safe and effective nanomaterials.
Preview · Article · Dec 2014 · Nanoscale Research Letters
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although amorphous silica nanoparticles are widely used in the production of food products (e.g., as anticaking agents), there is little information available about their absorption and biological effects after oral exposure. Here, we examined the in vitro intestinal absorption and in vivo biological effects in mice of orally administered amorphous silica particles with diameters of 70, 300, and 1,000 nm (nSP70, mSP300, and mSP1000, respectively) and of nSP70 that had been surface-modified with carboxyl or amine groups (nSP70-C and nSP70-N, respectively). Analysis of intestinal absorption by means of the everted gut sac method combined with an inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer showed that the intestinal absorption of nSP70-C was significantly greater than that of nSP70. The absorption of nSP70-N tended to be greater than that of nSP70; however, the results were not statistically significant. Our results indicate that silica nanoparticles can be absorbed through the intestine and that particle diameter and surface properties are major determinants of the degree of absorption. We also examined the biological effects of the silica particles after 28-day oral exposure in mice. Hematological, histopathological, and biochemical analyses showed no significant differences between control mice and mice treated with the silica particles, suggesting that the silica nanoparticles evaluated in this study are safe for use in food production.
Preview · Article · Sep 2014 · Nanoscale Research Letters
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ephrin receptor A10 (EphA10) is a relatively uncharacterized protein which is expressed in many breast cancers but not expressed in normal breast tissues. Here, we examined the potential of EphA10 as a drug target in breast cancer. Immunohistochemical staining of clinical tissue sections revealed that EphA10 was expressed in various breast cancer subtypes, including triple negative breast cancers (TNBCs), with no expression observed in normal tissues apart from testis. Ligand-dependent proliferation was observed in EphA10-transfected MDA-MB-435 cells (MDA-MB-435(EphA10)) and native TNBC cells (MDA-MB-436). However, this phenomenon was not observed in parental MDA-MB-435 cells which express a low level of EphA10. Finally, tumor growth was significantly suppressed by administration of an anti-EphA10 monoclonal antibody in a xenograft mouse model. These results suggest that inhibition of EphA10 signaling may be a novel therapeutic option for management of breast cancer, including TNBCs which are currently not treated with molecularly targeted agents.
No preview · Article · Jun 2014 · Journal of Controlled Release