[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dulanermin (rhApo2L/TRAIL) induces apoptosis by binding to death receptors DR4 and DR5, leading to caspase activation and subsequent cell death. A Phase1a trial evaluated the safety and tolerability of dulanermin in patients with advanced tumours. One aim was to develop and validate pharmacodynamic biomarkers to monitor dulanermin activity in patient serum.
We optimised assays to measure the cell-death markers caspase 3/7, cytokeratin 18 and genomic DNA in serum. Mice bearing Colo205 xenografts were treated with dulanermin and sera were collected and assayed for apoptotic markers. Upon validating these assays, we monitored apoptotic markers in patients who received dulanermin.
We detected transient increases in apoptotic markers in mouse sera 8-24 h after dulanermin treatment. This increase was dose-dependent and correlated with active caspase 3 detected by IHC in Colo205 tumours. A statistically significant increase in serum caspase 3/7 was detected in cohorts of colorectal and sarcoma patients 24 h after receiving dulanermin dosed above 4 mg kg(-1).
Owing to limited responses in the Phase 1a study, the changes in circulating cell-death markers were not evaluable. Future studies with dulanermin are needed to determine the utility of these assays with respect to providing evidence of activity or predicting overall response.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2011 · British Journal of Cancer
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Apoptosis ligand 2/tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (Apo2L/TRAIL)-a member of the tumor necrosis factor cytokine family-induces apoptosis by activating the extrinsic pathway through the proapoptotic death receptors DR4 and DR5. Recombinant human Apo2L/TRAIL (rhApo2L/TRAIL) has broad potential as a cancer therapy. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first in-human clinical trial to assess the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics, and antitumor activity of multiple intravenous doses of rhApo2L/TRAIL in patients with advanced cancer.
This phase I, open-label, dose-escalation study treated patients with advanced cancer with rhApo2L/TRAIL doses ranging from 0.5 to 30 mg/kg/d, with parallel dose escalation for patients without liver metastases and with normal liver function (cohort 1) and for patients with liver metastases and normal or mildly abnormal liver function (cohort 2). Doses were given daily for 5 days, with cycles repeating every 3 weeks. Assessments included adverse events (AEs), laboratory tests, pharmacokinetics, and imaging to evaluate antitumor activity.
Seventy-one patients received a mean of 18.3 doses; seven patients completed all eight treatment cycles. The AE profile of rhApo2L/TRAIL was similar in cohorts 1 and 2. The most common AEs were fatigue (38%), nausea (28%), vomiting (23%), fever (23%), anemia (18%), and constipation (18%). Liver enzyme elevations were concurrent with progressive metastatic liver disease. Two patients with sarcoma (synovial and undifferentiated) experienced serious AEs associated with rapid tumor necrosis. Two patients with chondrosarcoma experienced durable partial responses to rhApo2L/TRAIL.
At the tested schedule and dose range, rhApo2L/TRAIL was safe and well tolerated. Dose escalation achieved peak rhApo2L/TRAIL serum concentrations equivalent to those associated with preclinical antitumor efficacy.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2010 · Journal of Clinical Oncology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mutations of the K-ras gene were identified as a prognostic marker in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). In addition, emerging data suggest that K-ras mutations are a negative predictor of clinical benefit from anti-epidermal growth factor receptor treatment in mCRC. Previously reported data suggest that the longer overall survival (OS) observed with bevacizumab treatment in mCRC is independent of alterations in the Ras/Raf/Mek/Erk pathway. We conducted additional analyses to better describe the clinical benefit of bevacizumab treatment in mCRC relative to K-ras mutation status.
Additional statistical analyses were done with data from K-ras mutation analyses in 230 patients who were treated with irinotecan, fluorouracil, and leucovorin (IFL) in combination with either bevacizumab or placebo in a randomized phase III study. Following microdissection, tissue was subject to DNA sequencing to identify K-ras mutations in codons 12 and 13. Hazard ratios for the bevacizumab group relative to the control group were estimated from an unstratified Cox regression model. The median progression-free survival (PFS), OS times, and objective response rates were compared.
K-ras status was assessed in 230 patients (28.3%). The median PFS was significantly longer in bevacizumab-treated patients with wild-type (wt)- (13.5 versus 7.4 months; hazard ratio 0.44, p < .0001) and mutant (m)-K-ras (9.3 versus 5.5 months; hazard ratio 0.41, p = .0008). A significantly higher response rate for IFL plus bevacizumab was observed only in wt-K-ras patients (60.0% versus 37.3%, p = .006) compared with 43.2% versus 41.2% in the m-K-ras group.
Bevacizumab provides significant clinical benefit in patients with mCRC expressing either mutant or wild-type K-ras.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To characterize the population pharmacokinetics of bevacizumab and the influence of demographic factors, disease severity, and concomitantly used chemotherapy agents on it's pharmacokinetic behavior.
Data from eight clinical trials with bevacizumab administered by intravenous infusion were included. A total of 4,629 bevacizumab concentrations from 491 patients with solid tumors, who received bevacizumab doses ranging from 1 to 20 mg/kg at a dosing frequency ranging from weekly to every 3 weeks, were analyzed using a nonlinear mixed-effects modeling approach (NONMEM).
The best structural model was a two-compartment model with first-order elimination. In the final model, estimated clearance (CL) and central compartment volume of distribution (Vc) were 0.207 L/day and 2.39 L for a typical female. The terminal half-life estimate was approximately 20 days for both men and women. Body weight and gender were the most significant covariates to explain interpatient variability for CL and Vc. Clearance was 26% faster in men than in women. Patients with low serum albumin and high serum alkaline phosphatase had 19 and 23% faster CL, respectively, than a typical patient. Consistent with the long elimination half life, simulations showed that similar steady-state exposures can be maintained when the weekly mg/kg dose rate is maintained, therefore allowing administration of bevacizumab to coincide with the frequency of administration of the cytotoxic agents.
The PK parameters were consistent with those of other IgG molecules. The results support dosing bevacizumab on a once every 2 weeks or once every 3 weeks dosing schedule on a mg/kg basis.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2008 · Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bevacizumab is a monoclonal antibody to vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF). In the pivotal trial in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC), addition of bevacizumab to first-line irinotecan, fluorouracil, and leucovorin (IFL) significantly prolonged median survival. The aim of these retrospective subset analyses was to evaluate VEGF, thrombospondin-2 (THBS-2), and microvessel density (MVD) as prognostic factors and/or predictors of benefit from bevacizumab.
In the pivotal trial, 813 patients with untreated mCRC were randomly assigned to receive IFL plus bevacizumab or placebo. Of 312 tissue samples collected (285 primaries, 27 metastases), outcome data were available for 278 (153 bevacizumab, 125 placebo). Epithelial and stromal VEGF expression were assessed by in situ hybridization (ISH) and immunohistochemistry on tissue microarrays and whole sections. Stromal THBS-2 expression was examined by ISH on tissue microarrays. MVD was quantified by Chalkley count. Overall survival was associated with these variables in retrospective subset analyses.
In all subgroups, estimated hazard ratios (HRs) for risk of death were < 1 for bevacizumab-treated patients regardless of the level of VEGF or THBS-2 expression or MVD. Patients with a high THBS-2 score showed a nonsignificant improvement in survival following bevacizumab treatment (HR = 0.11; 95% CI, 0.02 to 0.51) compared to patients with a low score (HR = 0.65; 95% CI, 0.41 to 1.02); interaction analysis P = .22. VEGF or THBS-2 expression and MVD were not significant prognostic factors.
These exploratory analyses suggest that in patients with mCRC addition of bevacizumab to IFL improves survival regardless of the level of VEGF or THBS-2 expression, or MVD.
Preview · Article · Feb 2006 · Journal of Clinical Oncology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bevacizumab (Avastin; rhuMab VEGF), a humanized monoclonal antibody against vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), significantly prolongs survival when added to intravenous 5-fluorouracil-based chemotherapy in first-line metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC) treatment. Because antiangiogenic agents might inhibit wound healing, we assessed postoperative wound healing complications in two randomized trials of 5 mg/kg bevacizumab in CRC treatment.
We assessed the wound healing complications in patients who: (1) underwent cancer surgery 28-60 days before study treatment and (2) underwent major surgery during study treatment. Cases were reviewed for wound healing complications occurring < or = 60 days after surgery.
With cancer surgery 28-60 days before study treatment, wound healing complications occurred in 3/230 (1.3%) bevacizumab-treated patients and 1/194 (0.5%) control patients. With major surgery during study treatment, 10/75 bevacizumab-treated patients (13%) and 1/29 control patients (3.4%) had wound healing complications. Bevacizumab-treated patients experienced complications with surgery < or = 30 and 31-60 days after the last dose.
Bevacizumab administered in combination with 5-fluorouracil/leucovorin-based chemotherapy 28-60 days after primary cancer surgery caused no increased risk of wound healing complications compared with chemotherapy alone. While wound healing complications were increased in patients who had major surgery during bevacizumab therapy, the majority of bevacizumab-treated patients experienced no complications.
No preview · Article · Sep 2005 · Journal of Surgical Oncology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is an endothelial cell-specific mitogen in vitro and an angiogenic inducer in vivo. The tyrosine kinases Flt-1 (VEGFR-1) and Flk-1/KDR (VEGFR-2) are high affinity VEGF receptors. VEGF plays an essential role in developmental angiogenesis and is important also for reproductive and bone angiogenesis. Substantial evidence also implicates VEGF as a mediator of pathological angiogenesis. Anti-VEGF monoclonal antibodies and other VEGF inhibitors block the growth of several tumor cell lines in nude mice. Clinical trials with VEGF inhibitors in a variety of malignancies are ongoing. Recently, a humanized anti-VEGF monoclonal antibody (bevacizumab; Avastin) has been approved by the FDA as a first-line treatment for metastatic colorectal cancer in combination with chemotherapy. Furthermore, VEGF is implicated in intraocular neovascularization associated with diabetic retinopathy and age-related macular degeneration.
Preview · Article · Aug 2005 · Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A recent phase III trial showed that the addition of bevacizumab, a monoclonal antibody to vascular endothelial growth factor-A, to first-line irinotecan, 5-fluorouracil, and leucovorin (IFL) prolonged median survival in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer. We carried out a retrospective analysis of patients in the trial to evaluate whether mutation status of k-ras, b-raf, or p53 or P53 expression could predict which patients were more likely to respond to bevacizumab.
Microdissected tumors from 295 patients (274 primary tumors, 21 metastases) were subject to DNA sequence analysis to identify mutations in k-ras, b-raf, and p53. Nuclear P53 expression was determined by immunohistochemistry. Hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for overall survival were estimated using Cox regression analysis.
In all biomarker subgroups, estimated hazard ratios for risk of death were less than 1 for bevacizumab-treated patients as compared with those for placebo-treated patients. Mutations in k-ras and/or b-raf were observed in 88 of 213 patients (41%). Hazard ratios for death among patients with tumors with wild-type k-ras/b-raf status, as compared with those of patients with mutations in one or both genes, were 0.51 (95% CI = 0.28 to 0.95) among those treated with IFL plus bevacizumab and 0.66 (95% CI = 0.37 to 1.18) among those treated with IFL plus placebo. Mutations in p53 were found in 139 of 205 patients (68%), and P53 was overexpressed in 191 of 266 patients (72%); neither p53 mutation nor P53 overexpression was statistically significantly associated with survival.
We did not find a statistically significant relationship between mutations of k-ras, b-raf, or p53 and the increase in median survival associated with the addition of bevacizumab to IFL in metastatic colorectal cancer.
Preview · Article · Aug 2005 · Journal of the National Cancer Institute
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bevacizumab, a monoclonal antibody against vascular endothelial growth factor, increases survival when combined with irinotecan-based chemotherapy in first-line treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC). This randomized, phase II trial compared bevacizumab plus fluorouracil and leucovorin (FU/LV) versus placebo plus FU/LV as first-line therapy in patients considered nonoptimal candidates for first-line irinotecan.
Patients had metastatic CRC and one of the following characteristics: age > or = 65 years, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status 1 or 2, serum albumin < or = 3.5 g/dL, or prior abdominal/pelvic radiotherapy. Patients were randomly assigned to FU/LV/placebo (n = 105) or FU/LV/bevacizumab (n = 104). The primary end point was overall survival. Secondary end points were progression-free survival, response rate, response duration, and quality of life. Safety was also assessed.
Median survival was 16.6 months for the FU/LV/bevacizumab group and 12.9 months for the FU/LV/placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.79; P = .16). Median progression-free survival was 9.2 months (FU/LV/bevacizumab) and 5.5 months (FU/LV/placebo); hazard ratio was 0.50; P = .0002. Response rates were 26.0% (FU/LV/bevacizumab) and 15.2% (FU/LV/placebo) (P = .055); duration of response was 9.2 months (FU/LV/bevacizumab) and 6.8 months (FU/LV/placebo); hazard ratio was 0.42; P = .088. Grade 3 hypertension was more common with bevacizumab treatment (16% v 3%) but was controlled with oral medication and did not cause study drug discontinuation.
Addition of bevacizumab to FU/LV as first-line therapy in CRC patients who were not considered optimal candidates for first-line irinotecan treatment provided clinically significant patient benefit, including statistically significant improvement in progression-free survival.
No preview · Article · Jul 2005 · Journal of Clinical Oncology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In a phase III trial, combining bevacizumab (BV)--a recombinant, humanized, monoclonal antibody targeting vascular endothelial growth factor--with irinotecan, bolus fluorouracil (FU), and leucovorin (LV; IFL) increased survival compared with IFL alone in first-line treatment of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC). Results for the parent study of IFL/BV versus IFL/placebo are reported elsewhere. Here, we describe efficacy and safety results for the third patient cohort in this trial, who received BV combined with FU/LV, and compare them with results for concurrently enrolled patients who received IFL.
Patients (N = 923) were randomly assigned to receive IFL/placebo (control), IFL/BV, or FU/LV/BV. Bevacizumab (Avastin; Genentech Inc, South San Francisco, CA) 5 mg/kg was administered intravenously every 2 weeks. Before an interim analysis confirmed acceptable safety for IFL/BV, 313 patients were concurrently randomly assigned to these three arms; after this analysis, the FU/LV/BV arm was discontinued.
Median overall survivals were 18.3 and 15.1 months with FU/LV/BV (n = 110) and IFL/placebo (n = 100), respectively. Median progression-free survivals were 8.8 and 6.8 months, respectively. Overall response rates were 40.0% and 37.0%, and median response durations were 8.5 and 7.2 months, respectively. Adverse events consistent with those expected from FU/leucovorin- or IFL-based regimens were seen, as were modest increases in hypertension and bleeding in the bevacizumab arm, which were generally easily managed.
The FU/LV/BV regimen seems as effective as IFL and has an acceptable safety profile. FU/LV/BV is an active alternative treatment regimen for patients with previously untreated metastatic CRC.
Preview · Article · Jun 2005 · Journal of Clinical Oncology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the efficacy and safety of bevacizumab plus carboplatin and paclitaxel in patients with advanced or recurrent non-small-cell lung cancer.
In a phase II trial, 99 patients were randomly assigned to bevacizumab 7.5 (n = 32) or 15 mg/kg (n = 35) plus carboplatin (area under the curve = 6) and paclitaxel (200 mg/m(2)) every 3 weeks or carboplatin and paclitaxel alone (n = 32). Primary efficacy end points were time to disease progression and best confirmed response rate. On disease progression, patients in the control arm had the option to receive single-agent bevacizumab 15 mg/kg every 3 weeks.
Compared with the control arm, treatment with carboplatin and paclitaxel plus bevacizumab (15 mg/kg) resulted in a higher response rate (31.5% v 18.8%), longer median time to progression (7.4 v 4.2 months) and a modest increase in survival (17.7 v 14.9 months). Of the 19 control patients that crossed over to single-agent bevacizumab, five experienced stable disease, and 1-year survival was 47%. Bleeding was the most prominent adverse event and was manifested in two distinct clinical patterns; minor mucocutaneous hemorrhage and major hemoptysis. Major hemoptysis was associated with squamous cell histology, tumor necrosis and cavitation, and disease location close to major blood vessels.
Bevacizumab in combination with carboplatin and paclitaxel improved overall response and time to progression in patients with advanced or recurrent non-small-cell lung cancer. Patients with nonsquamous cell histology appear to be a subpopulation with improved outcome and acceptable safety risks.
No preview · Article · Jul 2004 · Journal of Clinical Oncology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fibrin formation is required for tumor angiogenesis, metastasis, and invasion. D-dimer, a fibrin degradation product, is produced when crosslinked fibrin is degraded by plasmin. The current study prospectively examined D-dimer levels in patients with metastatic colorectal carcinoma treated in a Phase II randomized trial comparing bevacizumab (Avastin, Genentech, South San Francisco, CA) plus 5-fluorouracil/leucovorin (5-FU/LV) with 5-FU/LV alone.
At least one circulating D-dimer level was evaluable in 98 of the 104 previously untreated patients with metastatic colorectal carcinoma in the current trial. Plasma D-dimer levels were determined using a quantitative immunoassay kit at enrollment, before each treatment, and at the time of trial completion or disease progression.
At trial enrollment, 86 of 104 patients (88%) had elevated D-dimer levels (> 20 ng/mL), and 86 of 102 patients (84%) had elevated carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) levels (> 3 ng/mL). Baseline D-dimer levels were correlated with the following baseline characteristics: CEA (Pearson coefficient, 0.31; P = 0.002), albumin levels (Pearson coefficient, −0.32; P = 0.002), tumor burden (Pearson coefficient, 0.30; P = 0.003), and number of metastatic sites (Pearson coefficient, 0.21; P = 0.04). At the time of progression, plasma D-dimer levels reached a maximum postbaseline value in 51 of 61 patients (84%), whereas the CEA level was at its maximum postbaseline value in 39 of 55 patients (71%). Baseline D-dimer levels were a strong predictor of overall survival on univariate analysis (P = 0.008) and multivariate analysis (P = 0.03). Overall, treatment with bevacizumab (5 mg/kg) and baseline D-dimer levels were the only predictors of overall survival (P < 0.05).
The current study indicates that fibrin remodeling is an important prognostic feature in metastatic colorectal carcinoma. D-dimer levels should be incorporated into prognostic models, and D-dimer may represent a useful biomarker for patients treated with antiangiogenic agents. Cancer 2004.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The existence of factors that stimulate blood vessel growth, thereby recruiting a neovascular supply to nourish a growing tumour, was postulated many decades ago, although the identification and isolation of these factors proved elusive. Now, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), which was identified in the 1980s, is recognized as an essential regulator of normal and abnormal blood vessel growth. In 1993, it was shown that a monoclonal antibody that targeted VEGF results in a dramatic suppression of tumour growth in vivo, which led to the development of bevacizumab (Avastin; Genentech), a humanized variant of this anti-VEGF antibody, as an anticancer agent. The recent approval of bevacizumab by the US FDA as a first-line therapy for metastatic colorectal cancer validates the ideas that VEGF is a key mediator of tumour angiogenesis and that blocking angiogenesis is an effective strategy to treat human cancer.
Preview · Article · Jun 2004 · Nature Reviews Drug Discovery
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bevacizumab, a monoclonal antibody against vascular endothelial growth factor, has shown promising preclinical and clinical activity against metastatic colorectal cancer, particularly in combination with chemotherapy.
Of 813 patients with previously untreated metastatic colorectal cancer, we randomly assigned 402 to receive irinotecan, bolus fluorouracil, and leucovorin (IFL) plus bevacizumab (5 mg per kilogram of body weight every two weeks) and 411 to receive IFL plus placebo. The primary end point was overall survival. Secondary end points were progression-free survival, the response rate, the duration of the response, safety, and the quality of life.
The median duration of survival was 20.3 months in the group given IFL plus bevacizumab, as compared with 15.6 months in the group given IFL plus placebo, corresponding to a hazard ratio for death of 0.66 (P<0.001). The median duration of progression-free survival was 10.6 months in the group given IFL plus bevacizumab, as compared with 6.2 months in the group given IFL plus placebo (hazard ratio for disease progression, 0.54; P<0.001); the corresponding rates of response were 44.8 percent and 34.8 percent (P=0.004). The median duration of the response was 10.4 months in the group given IFL plus bevacizumab, as compared with 7.1 months in the group given IFL plus placebo (hazard ratio for progression, 0.62; P=0.001). Grade 3 hypertension was more common during treatment with IFL plus bevacizumab than with IFL plus placebo (11.0 percent vs. 2.3 percent) but was easily managed.
The addition of bevacizumab to fluorouracil-based combination chemotherapy results in statistically significant and clinically meaningful improvement in survival among patients with metastatic colorectal cancer.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2004 · New England Journal of Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BV, a recombinant humanized IgG1 monoclonal antibody against vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was demonstrated to improve survival in previously untreated metastatic colorectal cancer when added to standard chemotherapy. Pooled data (total 4629 BV concentration from 491 subjects) from 8 Phase I to Phase III clinical trials were analyzed using NONMEM and a two-compartment structural model. Body weight and gender were the most significant covariates for both CL and Vc. The change in BV CL for extreme body weights (49 and 114 kg) was 30% around the typical value. After adjusting the weight, men had a 26% faster CL than females. In the final model, CL and Vc were 0.207 L/day and 2.66 L, respectively for the typical (female) patient. The inter-patient variability (%CV) in CL and Vc was 26% and 17%, respectively. BV terminal half-life was 19.9 and 19.3 days for a typical male and female patient. Low albumin and high alkaline phosphatase serum concentrations were associated with a faster CL (+19% and 23%, respectively). Concomitant administration of the combination irinotecan/5-fluorouracil in patients with colon cancer did not influence BV CL. The effect of various dosing regimen on bevacizumab exposure will be explored using simulations.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Vascular endothelial growth factor promotes angiogenesis, an important mediator of growth and metastasis in human breast cancer. Bevacizumab, a monoclonal antibody to vascular endothelial growth factor, is under investigation as an anti-angiogenic agent. This phase I/II trial evaluated the safety and efficacy of bevacizumab in patients with previously treated metastatic breast cancer. Seventy-five patients were treated with escalating doses of bevacizumab ranging from 3 mg/kg to 20 mg/kg administered intravenously every other week. Tumor response was assessed before the sixth (70 days) and 12th (154 days) doses. Safety was evaluated during every cycle. Eighteen patients were treated at 3 mg/kg, 41 at 10 mg/kg, and 16 at 20 mg/kg. Four patients discontinued study treatment because of an adverse event. Hypertension was reported as an adverse event in 17 patients (22%). The overall response rate was 9.3% (confirmed response rate, 6.7%). The median duration of confirmed response was 5.5 months (range, 2.3 to 13.7 months). At the final tumor assessment on day 154, 12 of 75 patients (16%) had stable disease or an ongoing response. The optimal dose of bevacizumab in this trial was 10 mg/kg every other week and toxicity was acceptable. These data support the initiation of trials in metastatic breast cancer combining bevacizumab with chemotherapy.
No preview · Article · Nov 2003 · Seminars in Oncology