[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Malaria remains a major public health problem due to the emergence and spread of Plasmodium falciparum drug resistance. There is an urgent need to investigate new sources of antimalarial drugs which are more effective against Plasmodium falciparum. One of the potential sources of antimalarial drugs is traditional medicinal plants. In this work, we studied the in vitro antiplasmodial activity of chloromethylenic, methanolic, and MeOH/H2O (1/1) crude extracts and decoction obtained from eight medicinal plants collected in Burkina Faso and of total alkaloids for five plants. Extracts were evaluated in vitro for efficacy against Plasmodium falciparum strain K1, which is resistant to chloroquine, pyrimethamine and proguanil using the fluorescence-based SYBR Green I assay. The antiproliferative activity on human-derived hepatoma cell line HepG2 and Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells was evaluated using the 3-[4,5-dimethylthyazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) test in order to determine the selectivity index. Among the plant extracts tested for in vitro antiplasmodial activity, 16 were considered to be inactive (with IC50 > 10 μg/ml), six showed a moderate activity (5 < IC50 ≤ 10 μg/ml), and six were found to have a good in vitro activity with IC50 value ≤ 5 μg/ml. The highest antiplasmodial activity was found for extracts from: the alkaloid leaf extract and the chloromethylenic extracts of Combretum fragrans (IC50 = 3 μg/ml, IC50 = 5 μg/ml), the total alkaloids and the chloromethylenic leaf extracts of Combretum collinum (IC50 = 4 μg/ml), the MeOH/H2O leaf extract of Terminalia avicennioides (IC50 = 3.5 μg/ml), and the alkaloid leaf extract of Pavetta crassipes (IC50 = 5 μg/ml). Three other extracts showed moderate antiplasmodial activity (5 < IC50 ≤ 10 μg/ml): Terminalia avicennioides and Combretum fragrans methanolic extracts and Acacia kirkii alkaloid leaf extract (IC50 = 6.5, 9 and 10 μg/ml respectively). The Terminalia avicennioides crude MeOH/H2O (80:20 v/v) extract of the leaves was submitted to a successive liquid/liquid extraction with ethylacetate and n-butanol respectively. The extracts were investigated for in vitro antiplasmodial activity and antioxidant properties using DPPH([Symbol: see text]), ABTS(+) and FRAP methods. The ethylacetate extract showed the best antiplasmodial activity (7 μg/ml) and the active constituent was isolated as ellagic acid by bioguided fractionation with an IC50 = 0.2 μM on Plasmodium falciparum and SI = 152. Besides, Terminalia avicennioides leaf extract and ellagic acid showed a good antioxidant activity. Our finding confirms the importance of investigating the antimalarial activity of plant species used in traditional medicine. Overall, two plants belonging to the Combretaceae family, Combretum fragrans and Combretum collinum appeared to be the best candidates and will be further investigated for their antiplasmodial properties, in order to isolate the molecules responsible for the antiplasmodial activity.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2013 · Parasitology Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ad35.CS.01 is a pre-erythrocytic malaria candidate vaccine. It is a codon optimized nucleotide sequence representing the P. falciparum circumsporozoite (CS) surface antigen inserted in a replication deficient Adenovirus 35 backbone. A Phase 1a trial has been conducted in the USA in naïve adults and showed that the vaccine was safe. The aim of this study is to assess the safety and immunogenicity of ascending dosages in sub Saharan Africa.
A double blind, randomized, controlled, dose escalation, phase Ib trial was conducted in a rural area of Balonghin, the Saponé health district (Burkina Faso). Forty-eight healthy adults aged 18-45 years were randomized into 4 cohorts of 12 to receive three vaccine doses (day 0, 28 and 84) of 10(9), 10(10), 5X10(10), 10(11) vp of Ad35.CS.01 or normal saline by intra muscular injection. Subjects were monitored carefully during the 14 days following each vaccination for non serious adverse events. Severe and serious adverse events were collected throughout the participant study duration (12 months from the first vaccination). Humoral and cellular immune responses were measured on study days 0, 28, 56, 84, 112 and 140.
Of the forty-eight subjects enrolled, forty-four (91.7%) received all three scheduled vaccine doses. Local reactions, all of mild severity, occurred in thirteen (27.1%) subjects. Severe (grade 3) laboratory abnormalities occurred in five (10.4%) subjects. One serious adverse event was reported and attributed to infection judged unrelated to vaccine. The vaccine induced both antibody titers and CD8 T cells producing IFNγ and TNFα with specificity to CS while eliciting modest neutralizing antibody responses against Ad35.
Study vaccine Ad35.CS.01 at four different dose levels was well-tolerated and modestly immunogenic in this population. These results suggest that Ad35.CS.01 should be further investigated for preliminary efficacy in human challenge models and as part of heterologous prime-boost vaccination strategies.
ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01018459 http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01018459.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: During the season of high malaria transmission, most children are infected by Plasmodium, which targets red blood cells (RBCs), affecting haematological parameters. To describe these variations, we examined the haematological profiles of two groups of children living in a malaria-endemic area. A cross-sectional survey was conducted at the peak of the malaria transmission season in a rural area of Burkina Faso. After informed consent and clinical examination, blood samples were obtained from the participants for malaria diagnosis and a full blood count. Of the 414 children included in the analysis, 192 were not infected with Plasmodium, whereas 222 were asymptomatic carriers of Plasmodium infection. The mean age of the infected children was 41.8 months (range of 26.4-57.2) compared to 38.8 months (range of 22.4-55.2) for the control group (p = 0.06). The asymptomatic infected children tended to have a significantly lower mean haemoglobin level (10.8 g/dL vs. 10.4 g/dL; p < 0.001), mean lymphocyte count (4592/µL vs. 5141/µL; p = 0.004), mean platelet count (266 x 103/µL vs. 385 x 103/µL; p < 0.001) and mean RBC count (4.388 x 106/µL vs. 4.158 x 106/µL; p < 0.001) and a higher mean monocyte count (1403/µL vs. 1192/µL; p < 0.001) compared to the control group. Special attention should be applied when interpreting haematological parameters and evaluating immune responses in asymptomatic infected children living in malaria-endemic areas and enrolled in vaccine trials.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2013 · Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In malaria-endemic countries, large proportions of infected individuals are asymptomatic, constituting a reservoir of parasites for infection of newly hatched mosquitoes. This study evaluated the impact of screening and treatment of asymptomatic carriers of Plasmodium falciparum.
Eighteen villages were randomized (1:1) to study arms and inhabitants participated in four community screening campaigns: three before the rainy season ~1 month apart, and the fourth after the rains at ~12 months. On day 1 of campaigns 1–3, asymptomatic carriers in the intervention arm were identified by rapid diagnostic test and treated with artemether-lumefantrine. Outcomes were symptomatic malaria with parasite density >5,000/μL per person-year in children < 5 years and change in haemoglobin between days 1 and 28 of campaign 1.
At 12 months, the number of symptomatic malaria episodes with a parasite density >5,000/μL per person-year in children < 5 years was not significantly different between arms (1.69 vs 1.60, p = 0.3482). Mean haemoglobin change in asymptomatic carriers during campaign 1 was greater in the intervention vs control arm (+0.53 g/dL vs -0.21 g/dL, p < 0.0001). ANCOVA demonstrated that mean asymptomatic carriage at the cluster level was lower in the intervention vs control arm at day 1 of campaigns 2 (5.0% vs 34.9%, p < 0.0001) and 3 (3.5% vs 31.5%, p < 0.0001), but showed only a small difference at day 1 of campaign 4 (34.6% vs 37.6%, p = 0.2982). Mean gametocyte carriage was lower in the intervention vs control arm at day 1 of campaigns 2 and 3 (0.7% vs 5.4%, p < 0.0001; 0.5% vs 5.8%, p < 0.0001), but was similar at day 1 of campaign 4 (4.9% vs 5.1%, p = 0.7208).
Systematic screening and treatment of asymptomatic carriers at the community level did not reduce clinical malaria incidence in the subsequent transmission season, indicating greater levels of parasite clearance are required to achieve a sustained impact in this setting.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Malariometric parameters are often primary endpoints of efficacy trials of malaria vaccine candidates. This study aims to describe the epidemiology of malaria prior to the conduct of a series of drug and vaccine trials in a rural area of Burkina Faso.
Malaria incidence was prospectively evaluated over one year follow-up among two cohorts of children aged 0-5 years living in the Saponé health district. The parents of 1089 children comprising a passive case detection cohort were encouraged to seek care from the local health clinic at any time their child felt sick. Among this cohort, 555 children were randomly selected for inclusion in an active surveillance sub-cohort evaluated for clinical malaria during twice weekly home visits. Malaria prevalence was evaluated by cross-sectional survey during the low and high transmission seasons.
Number of episodes per child ranged from 0 to 6 per year. Cumulative incidence was 67.4% in the passive and 86.2% in the active cohort and was highest among children 0-1 years. Clinical malaria prevalence was 9.8% in the low and 13.0% in the high season (p>0.05). Median days to first malaria episode ranged from 187 (95% CI 180-193) among children 0-1 years to 228 (95% CI 212, 242) among children 4-5 years. The alternative parasite thresholds for the malaria case definition that achieved optimal sensitivity and specificity (70-80%) were 3150 parasites/µl in the high and 1350 parasites/µl in the low season.
Clinical malaria burden was highest among the youngest age group children, who may represent the most appropriate target population for malaria vaccine candidate development. The pyrogenic threshold of parasitaemia varied markedly by season, suggesting a value for alternative parasitaemia levels in the malaria case defintion. Regional epidemiology of malaria described, Sapone area field centers are positioned for future conduct of malaria vaccine trials.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGOUND: Treatment of confirmed malaria patients with Artemisinin-based Combination Therapy (ACT) at remote areas is the goal of many anti-malaria programs. Introduction of effective and affordable malaria Rapid Diagnosis Test (RDT) in remote areas could be an alternative tool for malaria case management. This study aimed to assess performance of the OptiMAL dipstick for rapid malaria diagnosis in children under five.
Malaria symptomatic and asymptomatic children were recruited in a passive manner in two community clinics (CCs). Malaria diagnosis by microscopy and RDT were performed. Performance of the tests was determined.
RDT showed similar ability (61.2%) to accurately diagnose malaria as microscopy (61.1%). OptiMAL showed a high level of sensitivity and specificity, compared with microscopy, during both transmission seasons (high & low), with a sensitivity of 92.9% vs. 74.9% and a specificity of 77.2% vs. 87.5%.
By improving the performance of the test through accurate and continuous quality control of the device in the field, OptiMAL could be suitable for use at CCs for the management and control of malaria.
Full-text · Article · May 2012 · Parasites & Vectors
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Asexual blood stages antigens of malaria parasites are critical in the development of protective immunity. It's believed that protection against malaria involves mainly humoral immune responses elicited by pre-erythrocytic and blood-stage antigens. Study aimed to investigate seasonal variation and risk of clinical malaria episodes to selected P. falciparum antigens in study population. 529 children were visited during two cross sectional surveys (January 2007 and September 2007). 5 mL of venous blood were obtained from each child during each visit to measure antibody levels by ELISA. Children were then actively followed up clinically to record the malaria episodes. Blood smears were made when child had fever or history of fever to assess parasite load and malaria infection prevalence. Antibody levels against assessed antigens increased faster in older children than in younger. No evidence of an association between the levels of antibody and parasite density was noticed. Strong seasonal variation in antibody levels for the majority of the antigens was noticed. Only antibodies to LSA1 and AS155.4 were associated with protection against clinical malaria. Seasonal variation was noticed for all assessed antigens, but few of them were reported to play a protective role.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We recently reported a one-step transesterification of cyclodextrins (CDs) by vinyl-acyl fatty esters catalyzed by thermolysin. By using the solvent displacement method and depending on the experimental conditions, the CD derivatives grafted with decanoic alkyl chains (CD-C(10)) yielded either nanosphere or nanoreservoir-type systems with a size ranging from 70 to 220 nm. Both types of nanostructures were able to associate artemisinin (ART), a well-known antimalarial lipophilic drug. The formulation parameters were optimized to reach stable and high ART dosage corresponding to drug levels of 0.3 and 1.6 mg mL(-1) in the colloidal suspension, for the spherical and reservoir-type nanosystems, respectively. PEG surface-decorated nanoparticles were also prepared by co-nanoprecipitation of PEG fatty acid esters and CD-C(10) molecules. The integration of the PEGylated amphiphiles within the CD-C(10) nanostructures did not influence the ART lyoavailability. Both types of ART-loaded nanosystems showed a sustained in vitro release profile over 96 (nanoreservoirs) and 240 h (nanospheres). Finally, the in vitro antimalarial activity was evaluated using the lactate dehydrogenase assay. ART-containing colloidal suspensions inhibited the growth of cultured Plasmodium falciparum, both multi-resistant K1 and susceptible 3D7 strains with IC(50) values (2.8 and 7.0 ng mL(-1)) close to those of reference ART solution. These colloidal nanosystems based on CD derivatives and containing ART may provide a promising alternative formulation for injectable use of ART.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2011 · European journal of pharmaceutics and biopharmaceutics: official journal of Arbeitsgemeinschaft fur Pharmazeutische Verfahrenstechnik e.V
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Interventions that reduce exposure to malaria infection may lead to delayed malaria morbidity and mortality. We investigated whether intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in children (IPTc) was associated with an increase in the incidence of malaria after cessation of the intervention.
An individually randomised, trial of IPTc, comparing three courses of sulphadoxine pyrimethamine (SP) plus amodiaquine (AQ) with placebos was implemented in children aged 3-59 months during the 2008 malaria transmission season in Burkina Faso. All children in the trial were given a long lasting insecticide treated net; 1509 children received SP+AQ and 1505 received placebos. Passive surveillance for malaria was maintained until the end of the subsequent malaria transmission season in 2009, and active surveillance for malaria infection, anaemia and malnutrition was conducted.
On thousand, four hundred and sixteen children (93.8%) and 1399 children (93.0%) initially enrolled in the intervention and control arms of the trial respectively were followed during the 2009 malaria transmission season. During the period July 2009 to November 2009, incidence rates of clinical malaria were 3.84 (95%CI; 3.67-4.02) and 3.45 (95%CI; 3.29-3.62) episodes per child during the follow up period in children who had previously received IPT or placebos, indicating a small increase in risk for children in the former intervention arm (IRR = 1.12; 95%CI 1.04-1.20) (P = 0.003). Children who had received SP+AQ had a lower prevalence of malaria infection (adjusted PR: 0.88 95%CI: 0.79-0.98) (P = 0.04) but they had a higher parasite density (P = 0.001) if they were infected. There was no evidence that the risks of moderately severe anaemia (Hb<8 g/dL), wasting, stunting, or of being underweight in children differed between treatment arms.
IPT with SP+AQ was associated with a small increase in the incidence of clinical malaria in the subsequent malaria transmission season.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in children (IPTc) is a promising new approach to the control of malaria in areas of seasonal malaria transmission but it is not known if IPTc adds to the protection provided by an insecticide-treated net (ITN).
An individually randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of seasonal IPTc was conducted in Burkina Faso in children aged 3 to 59 months who were provided with a long-lasting insecticide-treated bednet (LLIN). Three rounds of treatment with sulphadoxine pyrimethamine plus amodiaquine or placebos were given at monthly intervals during the malaria transmission season. Passive surveillance for malaria episodes was established, a cross-sectional survey was conducted at the end of the malaria transmission season, and use of ITNs was monitored during the intervention period. Incidence rates of malaria were compared using a Cox regression model and generalized linear models were fitted to examine the effect of IPTc on the prevalence of malaria infection, anaemia, and on anthropometric indicators. 3,052 children were screened and 3,014 were enrolled in the trial; 1,505 in the control arm and 1,509 in the intervention arm. Similar proportions of children in the two treatment arms were reported to sleep under an LLIN during the intervention period (93%). The incidence of malaria, defined as fever or history of fever with parasitaemia ≥ 5,000/µl, was 2.88 (95% confidence interval [CI] 2.70-3.06) per child during the intervention period in the control arm versus 0.87 (95% CI 0.78-0.97) in the intervention arm, a protective efficacy (PE) of 70% (95% CI 66%-74%) (p<0.001). There was a 69% (95% CI 6%-90%) reduction in incidence of severe malaria (p = 0.04) and a 46% (95% CI 7%-69%) (p = 0.03) reduction in the incidence of all-cause hospital admissions. IPTc reduced the prevalence of malaria infection at the end of the malaria transmission season by 73% (95% CI 68%-77%) (p<0.001) and that of moderately severe anaemia by 56% (95% CI 36%-70%) (p<0.001). IPTc reduced the risks of wasting (risk ratio [RR] = 0.79; 95% CI 0.65-1.00) (p = 0.05) and of being underweight (RR = 0.84; 95% CI 0.72-0.99) (p = 0.03). Children who received IPTc were 2.8 (95% CI 2.3-3.5) (p<0.001) times more likely to vomit than children who received placebo but no drug-related serious adverse event was recorded.
IPT of malaria provides substantial protection against malaria in children who sleep under an ITN. There is now strong evidence to support the integration of IPTc into malaria control strategies in areas of seasonal malaria transmission.
ClinicalTrials.govNCT00738946. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of the study is to investigate through traditional medicinal plants the possibility for discovery and development of new active and safe antimalarial drugs. For ecological reasons, bark of trunk of Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides instead to roots was used by traditional healers in Burkina Faso to treat malaria or fever and recent study showed that crude alkaloid extract from the bark of trunk displayed good antiplasmodial activity. The bio-guided chromatographic fractionation of this crude alkaloid extract with solvents yielded 11 semi purified fractions which were tested for their antiplasmodial activity and cytotoxicity, respectively against Plasmodium falciparum W<SUB>2</SUB> strains and K562S cells maintained in continuous culture and using flow cytometer. Non polar fractions 2, 3 and 4 displayed good antiplasmodial activity with IC<SUB>50</SUB> ranging from 1.91 to 4.32 μg mL<SUP>-1</SUP> and little toxicity with selectivity index ranging from 3.03 to 6.15. These data allow further investigations in terms of purification, isolation and development of new antiplasmodial compounds from these semi purified fractions and development of improved phytomedicine.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2010 · International Journal of Pharmacology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In order to prevent the destruction of the ecology and to sustain the flora mainly for medicinal plants, we investigated on alternative parts taken from four plants already known to display antiplasmodial activities and largely used by traditional healers in sub-Saharan Africa. The evaluated parts are bark of trunk for Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides and leaves for Sarcocephalus latifolius instead of roots, and leaves for Combretum molle and Anogeissus leiocarpus instead of stem bark. The antiplasmodial activity of extracts of these plants was evaluated in vitro using the multi-resistant strain (W2) of Plasmodium falciparum. Antiproliferative activity was also assessed, using K562S human monocyte cell lines, along with calculation of the selectivity index (SI) of each extract. The highest in vitro antiplasmodial activity was found in the alkaloid extract of trunk bark from Z. zanthoxyloides and from the MeOH extract of A. leiocarpus leaves (IC(50) = 1.2 microg/mL and 4.9 microg/mL, respectively) with good selectivity index. Moderate activity was found in the MeOH extract (IC(50) = 5.7 microg/mL) and MeOH/H2O extract (IC(50) = 7.9 microg/mL) of C. molle leaves. Moderate activity was also found in the MeOH/H20 extract (IC(50) = 5.2 microg/mL) and the decoction (IC(50) = 8.2 microg/mL) from leaves of A. leiocarpus. No good activity was found with extracts from roots of S. latifolius. All extracts tested displayed low levels of cytotoxicity against K562S cells. The data generated clearly show that the trunk bark for Z. zanthoxyloides and the leaves for A. leiocarpus and C. molle could be used for the treatment of malaria instead of roots and stem bark.
No preview · Article · Nov 2009 · Parasitology Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A Phase Ia trial in European volunteers of the candidate vaccine merozoite surface protein 3 (MSP3), a Plasmodium falciparum blood stage membrane, showed that it induces biologically active antibodies able to achieve parasite killing in vitro, while a phase Ib trial in semi-immune adult volunteers in Burkina Faso confirmed that the vaccine was safe. The aim of this study was to assess the safety and immunogenicity of this vaccine candidate in children aged 12-24 months living in malaria endemic area of Burkina Faso.
The study was a double-blind, randomized, controlled, dose escalation phase Ib trial, designed to assess the safety, reactogenicity and immunogenicity of three doses of either 15 or 30 microg of MSP3-LSP adsorbed on aluminum hydroxide in 45 children 12 to 24 months of age randomized into three equal groups. Each group received 3 vaccine doses (on days 0, 28 and 56) of either 15 microg of MSP3-LSP, 30 microg of MSP3-LSP or of the Engerix B hepatitis B vaccine. Children were visited at home daily for the 6 days following each vaccination to solicit symptoms which might be related to vaccination. Serious adverse events occurring during the study period (1 year) were recorded. Antibody responses to MSP3-LSP were measured on days 0, 28, 56 and 84.
All 45 enrolled children received three MSP3 vaccine doses. No serious adverse events were reported. Most of the adverse events reported were mild to moderate in severity. The only reported local symptoms with grade 3 severity were swelling and induration, with an apparently dose related response. All grade 3 adverse events resolved without any sequelae. Both MSP3 doses regimens were able to elicit high levels of anti-MSP3 specific IgG1 and IgG3 antibodies in the volunteers with very little or no increase in IgG2, IgG4 and IgM classes: i.e. vaccination induced predominantly the isotypes involved in the monocyte-dependent mechanism of P. falciparum parasite-killing.
Our results support the promise of MSP3-LSP as a malaria vaccine candidate, both in terms of tolerability and of immunogenicity. Further assessment of the efficacy of this vaccine is recommended.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We performed a single-blind, randomized phase 1 trial of the long synthetic peptide (LSP) of merozoite surface protein-3 (MSP3) in adults living in Burkina Faso. Thirty eligible volunteers were randomized to receive either the MSP3-LSP candidate vaccine or tetanus toxoid vaccine as a control. A dose of each vaccine was administered on days 0, 28 and 112 and the vaccine was formulated with aluminium hydroxide. Humoral immune responses were assessed by ELISA at days 0, 28, 56, 112, 140, 252 and 365 and cell-mediated immune responses by lymphoproliferation assay and by ELISA on days 0, 56 and 140. IgG responses to four peptides of MSP3 were similar in both vaccine groups. Higher IgG concentrations were recorded after the beginning of malaria high transmission season in both vaccine groups. The lymphocyte proliferation and the production of IFN-gamma in response to stimulation with the four overlapping peptides increased following vaccination in the MSP3-LSP vaccine group, but did not change appreciably in the control group. In contrast to natural infection, MSP3-LSP did not boost humoral responses to the four overlapping peptides of MSP3 to any detectable degree in our semi-immune adult. MSP3-LSP may be more immunogenic in young children with little or no acquired immunity.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pharmacokinetic (PK) data on amodiaquine (AQ) and artesunate (AS) are limited in children, an important risk group for malaria. The aim of this study was to evaluate the PK properties of a newly developed and registered fixed dose combination (FDC) of artesunate and amodiaquine.
A prospective population pharmacokinetic study of AS and AQ was conducted in children aged six months to five years. Participants were randomized to receive the new artesunate and amodiaquine FDC or the same drugs given in separate tablets. Children were divided into two groups of 70 (35 in each treatment arm) to evaluate the pharmacokinetic properties of AS and AQ, respectively. Population pharmacokinetic models for dihydroartemisinin (DHA) and desethylamodiaquine (DeAq), the principal pharmacologically active metabolites of AS and AQ, respectively, and total artemisinin anti-malarial activity, defined as the sum of the molar equivalent plasma concentrations of DHA and artesunate, were constructed using the non-linear mixed effects approach. Relative bioavailability between products was compared by estimating the ratios (and 95% CI) between the areas under the plasma concentration-time curves (AUC).
The two regimens had similar PK properties in young children with acute malaria. The ratio of loose formulation to fixed co-formulation AUCs, was estimated as 1.043 (95% CI: 0.956 to 1.138) for DeAq. For DHA and total anti-malarial activity AUCs were estimated to be the same. Artesunate was rapidly absorbed, hydrolysed to DHA, and eliminated. Plasma concentrations were significantly higher following the first dose, when patients were acutely ill, than after subsequent doses when patients were usually afebrile and clinically improved. Amodiaquine was converted rapidly to DeAq, which was then eliminated with an estimated median (range) elimination half-life of 9 (7 to 12) days. Efficacy was similar in the two treatments groups, with cure rates of 0.946 (95% CI: 0.840-0.982) in the AS+AQ group and 0.892 (95% CI: 0.787 - 0.947) in the AS/AQ group. Four out of five patients with PCR confirmed recrudescences received AQ doses < 10 mg/kg. Both regimens were well tolerated. No child developed severe, post treatment neutropaenia (<1,000/muL). There was no evidence of AQ dose related hepatotoxicity, but one patient developed an asymptomatic rise in liver enzymes that was resolving by Day-28.
The bioavailability of the co-formulated AS-AQ FDC was similar to that of the separate tablets for desethylamodiaquine, DHA and the total anti-malarial activity. These data support the use this new AS-AQ FDC in children with acute uncomplicated falciparum malaria.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The clinical presentation of malaria, considered as the result of a complex interaction between parasite and human genetics, is described to be different between rural and urban areas. The analysis of the Plasmodium falciparum genetic diversity in children with uncomplicated malaria, living in these two different areas, may help to understand the effect of urbanization on the distribution of P. falciparum genotypes.
Isolates collected from 75 and 89 children with uncomplicated malaria infection living in a rural and an urban area of Burkina Faso, respectively, were analysed by a nested PCR amplification of msp1 and msp2 genes to compare P. falciparum diversity.
The K1 allelic family was widespread in children living in the two sites, compared to other msp1 allelic families (frequency >90%). The MAD 20 allelic family of msp1 was more prevalent (p = 0.0001) in the urban (85.3%) than the rural area (63.2%). In the urban area, the 3D7 alleles of msp2 were more prevalent compared to FC27 alleles, with a high frequency for the 3D7 300bp allele (>30%). The multiplicity of infection was in the range of one to six in the urban area and of one to seven in the rural area. There was no difference in the frequency of multiple infections (p = 0.6): 96.0% (95% C.I: 91.6-100) in urban versus 93.1% (95%C.I: 87.6-98.6) in rural areas. The complexity of infection increased with age [p = 0.04 (rural area), p = 0.06 (urban area)].
Urban-rural area differences were observed in some allelic families (MAD20, FC27, 3D7), suggesting a probable impact of urbanization on genetic variability of P. falciparum. This should be taken into account in the implementation of malaria control measures.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Artesunate (AS) plus amodiaquine (AQ) is one artemisinin-based combination (ACT) recommended by the WHO for treating Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Fixed-dose AS/AQ is new, but its safety and efficacy are hitherto untested.
A randomized, open-label trial was conducted comparing the efficacy (non-inferiority design) and safety of fixed (F) dose AS (25 mg)/AQ (67.5 mg) to loose (L) AS (50 mg) + AQ (153 mg) in 750, P. falciparum-infected children from Burkina Faso aged 6 months to 5 years. Dosing was by age. Primary efficacy endpoint was Day (D) 28, PCR-corrected, parasitological cure rate. Recipients of rescue treatment were counted as failures and new infections as cured. Documented, common toxicity criteria (CTC) graded adverse events (AEs) defined safety.
Recruited and evaluable children numbered 750 (375/arm) and 682 (90.9%), respectively. There were 8 (AS/AQ) and 6 (AS+AQ) early treatment failures and one D7 failure (AS+AQ). Sixteen (AS/AQ) and 12 (AS+AQ) patients had recurrent parasitaemia (PCR new infections 10 and 6, respectively). Fourteen patients per arm required rescue treatment for vomiting/spitting out study drugs. Efficacy rates were 92.1% in both arms: AS/AQ = 315/342 (95% CI: 88.7-94.7) vs. AS+AQ = 313/340 (95% CI: 88.6-94.7). Non-inferiority was demonstrated at two-sided alpha = 0.05: Delta (AS+AQ - AS/AQ) = 0.0% (95% CI: -4.1% to 4.0%). D28, Kaplan Meier PCR-corrected cure rates (all randomized children) were similar: 93.7% (AS/AQ) vs. 93.2% (AS+AQ) Delta = -0.5 (95% CI -4.2 to 3.0%). By D2, both arms had rapid parasite (F & L, 97.8% aparasitaemic) and fever (97.2% [F], 96.0% [L] afebrile) clearances.Both treatments were well tolerated. Drug-induced vomiting numbered 8/375 (2.1%) and 6/375 (1.6%) in the fixed and loose arms, respectively (p = 0.59). One patient developed asymptomatic, CTC grade 4 hepatitis (AST 1052, ALT 936). Technical difficulties precluded the assessment and risk of neutropaenia for all patients.
Fixed dose AS/AQ was efficacious and well tolerated. These data support the use of this new fixed dose combination for treating P. falciparum malaria with continued safety monitoring.
Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN07576538.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Without an effective vaccine for the prevention of malaria, a fundamental component of the strategy for the control of this disease is based on prompt and effective treatment. Due to the high resistance level of Plasmodium falciparum to the most affordable drugs such as chloroquine and sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine, artemisinin-based combination therapies are presently used in many countries or are being developed for registration. One artemisinin combination therapy that is drawing a certain degree of interest is the combination of artesunate (a short half-life drug) plus amodiaquine (a long half-life drug that is presently used in loose combination in many countries). The short half-life drug achieves substantial and rapid parasite killing, while a high concentration of the long half-life drug kills off the remaining malaria parasites. In addition to the effectiveness of 3 days of treatment (rapid clearance of fever and malaria parasites) in western and central Africa, where resistance to amodiaquine is low, the combination of artesunate plus amodiaquine may delay or prevent the emergence of resistance to both drugs. An important step is the recent registration in Morocco (the country where the drug is manufactured) of a fixed combination of artesunate plus amodiaquine by the Drugs for Neglected Diseases initiative with sanofi-aventis as the industrial partner. A prequalification dossier of this fixed combination has been submitted to the WHO. This new co-formulation will almost certainly increase its effectiveness by improving drug compliance.
No preview · Article · Aug 2007 · Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs