Elizabeth M Badley

University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada

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Publications (202)713.86 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: To assess the association between glaucoma severity and participation in diverse social roles. Design: Cross-sectional survey. Patients and methods: Individuals with glaucoma, 50+, with visual acuity in the better eye >20/50 were enrolled. They were classified into 3 groups based on visual field loss in the better eye: mild [mean deviation (MD)>-6 dB], moderate (MD, -6 to -12 dB), and severe (MD<-12 dB). The validated Social Role Participation Questionnaire assessed respondents' perceptions of the importance, difficulty, and satisfaction with participation in 11 social role domains (eg, community events, travel). Differences between groups were examined using multivariate linear regression analyses. Results: A total of 118 participants (52% female) were included: 60 mild, 29 moderate, and 29 severe. All social role domains were rated as important by all participants except for education and employment. Women (P<0.01), those with a partner (P<0.01), and those who were less depressed (P=0.03) reported higher scores of perceived importance of participating in social activities. Compared with those with mild glaucoma, individuals with severe glaucoma reported significantly more difficulty participating in community/religious/cultural events (P<0.01), travelling (P<0.01), and relationships with family members (P=0.01). They also reported less satisfaction with travelling (P=0.01) and social events (P=0.04). Conclusions: Participation in diverse social roles is valued by individuals with glaucoma. Severe visual field loss impedes involvement in and satisfaction with activities in community/religious/cultural events, travelling, and relationships with family members. Appropriate community and targeted interventions are needed to allow people with severe glaucoma to maintain active social participation-a key component to successful aging.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Journal of glaucoma
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: To estimate gender-specific effects of arthritis and activity limitation on incident heart disease in a nationally representative Canadian longitudinal population-based survey. Methods: Information on sociodemographic variables, self-reported physician-diagnosed chronic conditions (including arthritis and heart disease), activity limitation, and traditional risk factors, was collected every 2 years from 1994/95 through 2010/11 as part of the longitudinal Canadian National Population Health Survey (NPHS). Deaths due to ischemic heart disease (ICD-10 codes I20-I25) and heart failure (ICD-10 codes I50.0- I50.9) were confirmed against the Canadian Vital Statistics Database. Discrete-time survival analysis stratified by gender was used to estimate effects of arthritis and activity limitation on first heart disease event occurrence. Results: The study included 12, 591 participants with no prior history of heart disease and 1,783 incident heart disease events. After adjusting for common risk factors, arthritis was associated with a significant increased risk of incident heart disease in women (Adjusted OR: 1.58, 95% CI: 1.23-2.02). Even higher risks were reported in women with arthritis and activity limitation (OR: 2.19, 95% CI: 1.61-2.97). Arthritis was not associated with incident heart disease in men, except for when also reported with activity limitation (OR: 1.60, 95% CI: 1.14-2.26). Conclusion: Women with arthritis and men with arthritis and activity limitation have significant excess risks for developing heart disease in the general population. These findings point to the need for improved access to arthritis care, cardiovascular prevention strategies particularly in women with arthritis, and directed interventions towards prevention of activity limitation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: The purpose of this study is to examine the perceptions of primary care physicians (PCPs) regarding indications, contraindications, risks and benefits of total joint arthroplasty (TJA) and their confidence in selecting patients for referral for TJA. Design: PCPs recruited from among those providing care to participants in an established community cohort with hip or knee osteoarthritis (OA). Self-completed questionnaires were used to collect demographic and practice characteristics and perceptions about TJA. Confidence in referring appropriate patients for TJA was measured on a scale from 1-10; respondents scoring in the lowest tertile were considered to have 'low confidence'. Descriptive analyses were conducted and multiple logistic regression was used to determine key predictors of low confidence. Results: 212 PCPs participated (58% response rate) (65% aged 50+ years, 45% female, 77% > 15 years of practice). Perceptions about TJA were highly variable but on average, PCPs perceived that a typical surgical candidate would have moderate pain and disability, identified few absolute contraindications to TJA, and overestimated both the effectiveness and risks of TJA. On average, PCPs indicated moderate confidence in deciding who to refer. Independent predictors of low confidence were female physicians (OR = 2.18, 95%CI: 1.06-4.46) and reporting a 'lack of clarity about surgical indications' (OR = 3.54, 95%CI: 1.87-6.66). Conclusions: Variability in perceptions and lack of clarity about surgical indications underscore the need for decision support tools to inform PCP - patient decision making regarding referral for TJA.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2015 · Osteoarthritis and Cartilage
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    ABSTRACT: Background: There is a perception that the impacts of arthritis are greatest among older adults. However, the effect of age on health-related outcomes in individuals with arthritis has not been explicitly studied. This study examined whether the physical and mental health impacts of arthritis are greater in older (75+ years) versus younger (20-44, 45-64 and 65-74 years) Canadian adults. Methods: Data were from the arthritis component of the 2009 Survey on Living with Chronic Diseases in Canada. The responses were weighted to be representative of Canadians (≥20 years) with arthritis. Associations between age and the prevalence of severe/frequent joint pain, severe/frequent fatigue, sleep limitations, instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs) limitations, high levels of stress, suboptimal general and suboptimal mental health, were examined descriptively prior to conducting multivariate log-binomial regression analyses. Results: A total of 4565 respondents completed the survey (78 % response rate). Individuals with arthritis were mostly female (63 %), of working age (57 %) and overweight or obese (67 %). Upon adjusting for covariates, younger (20-44 years) and/or middle aged (45-64 years) adults were more likely than those older (75+ years) to report severe/frequent joint pain, sleep limitations, high levels of stress and suboptimal mental health. After adjusting for covariates, age was not associated with IADL limitations, severe/frequent fatigue or suboptimal general health. Conclusions: Contrary to the belief that older adults with arthritis experience more severe physical and mental health outcomes, we found that older adults were less likely to report worse outcomes than younger adults. In light of these findings, public health messaging should stress that arthritis does not just affect the elderly and emphasize the importance of timely diagnosis and management at all ages in order to prevent or, minimize arthritis-related impairment.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2015 · BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
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    ABSTRACT: The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) published in 2001 describes the consequences of health conditions with three components of impairments in body structures or functions, activity limitations and participation restrictions. Two of the new features of the conceptual model were the possibility of feedback effects between each ICF component and the introduction of contextual factors conceptualized as moderators of the relationship between the components. The aim of this longitudinal study is to provide empirical evidence of these two kinds of effect. Structural equation modeling was used to analyze data from a French population-based cohort of 548 patients with knee osteoarthritis recruited between April 2007 and March 2009 and followed for three years. Indicators of the body structure and function, activity and participation components of the ICF were derived from self-administered standardized instruments. The measurement model revealed four separate factors for body structures impairments, body functions impairments, activity limitations and participation restrictions. The classic sequence from body impairments to participation restrictions through activity limitations was found at each assessment time. Longitudinal study of the ICF component relationships showed a feedback pathway indicating that the level of participation restrictions at baseline was predictive of activity limitations three years later. Finally, the moderating role of personal (age, sex, mental health, etc.) and environmental factors (family relationships, mobility device use, etc.) was investigated. Three contextual factors (sex, family relationships and walking stick use) were found to be moderators for the relationship between the body impairments and the activity limitations components. Mental health was found to be a mediating factor of the effect of activity limitations on participation restrictions.
    Full-text · Article · May 2015 · Social Science [?] Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: The CAT-5D-QOL is a previously reported item response theory (IRT)-based computerized adaptive tool to measure five domains (attributes) of health-related quality of life. The objective of this study was to develop and validate a multiattribute health utility (MAHU) scoring method for this instrument. Study design and setting: The MAHU scoring system was developed in two stages. In phase I, we obtained standard gamble (SG) utilities for 75 hypothetical health states in which only one domain varied (15 states per domain). In phase II, we obtained SG utilities for 256 multiattribute states. We fit a multiplicative regression model to predict SG utilities from the five IRT domain scores. The prediction model was constrained using data from phase I. We validated MAHU scores by comparing them with the Health Utilities Index Mark 3 (HUI3) and directly measured utilities and by assessing between-group discrimination. Results: MAHU scores have a theoretical range from -0.842 to 1. In the validation study, the scores were, on average, higher than HUI3 utilities and lower than directly measured SG utilities. MAHU scores correlated strongly with the HUI3 (Spearman ρ = 0.78) and discriminated well between groups expected to differ in health status. Conclusion: Results reported here provide initial evidence supporting the validity of the MAHU scoring system for the CAT-5D-QOL.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2015 · Journal of clinical epidemiology

  • No preview · Article · Apr 2015 · Osteoarthritis and Cartilage
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    Crystal MacKay · Joanna Sale · Elizabeth M Badley · Susan B Jaglal · Aileen M Davis
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    ABSTRACT: While osteoarthritis (OA) has mainly been viewed as a disease affecting older people, the prevalence in younger adults is substantial. However, there is limited research on how younger adults understand knee symptoms. This paper explores the meaning of knee symptoms to adults aged 35-65 years. This qualitative study comprised six focus groups and 10 one-on-one interviews with 51 participants (median age 49; 61% female) who self-reported knee OA or reported knee symptoms (i.e. pain, aching or stiffness) on most days of the past month. Constructivist grounded theory guided sampling, data collection and analysis. Data were analyzed using a constant comparative method. Central to participants' understanding of knee symptoms was a perception that symptoms were preventable, meaning there was the potential to prevent the onset of symptoms and to alter the course of symptoms. This understanding was demonstrated in how participants explained symptoms. Participants commented on the cause, prevention, and course of symptoms. Moreover, participants reflected on their experience with symptoms, indicating that symptoms made them feel older than their current age. However, they did not perceive their symptoms as normal or acceptable. Participants interpreted knee symptoms as potentially preventable, suggesting they may be open to primary and secondary prevention strategies. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2015, American College of Rheumatology.
    Preview · Article · Apr 2015 · Osteoarthritis and Cartilage
  • E.M. Badley · C. Nagamuthu · L. Moore · M.A. Gignac

    No preview · Article · Apr 2015 · Osteoarthritis and Cartilage
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    ABSTRACT: To examine work absenteeism, job disruptions and perceived productivity loss and factors associated with each outcome in young adults living with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and juvenile arthritis (JA). One hundred and forty three young adults, ages 18 to 30 years, with SLE (54.5%) and JA (45.5%) completed an online survey of work experiences. Demographic, health (e.g., fatigue, disease activity), psychosocial (e.g., independence, social support) and work context (e.g., career satisfaction, job control, self-disclosure) information were collected. Participants were asked about absenteeism, job disruptions and perceived productivity loss in the last six months. Log-Poisson regression analyses examined factors associated with work outcomes. A majority of participants were employed (59%) and reported a well-managed health condition. Employed respondents were satisfied with their career progress and indicated moderate job control. Over forty percent of participants reported absenteeism, job disruptions and productivity loss. Greater job control and self-disclosure, and less social support were related to a higher likelihood of absenteeism; more disease activity was related to a greater likelihood of reporting job disruptions; lower fatigue and higher job control was associated with a reduced likelihood of a productivity loss. Young adult respondents with rheumatic disease experienced challenges with employment including absenteeism, job disruptions and productivity loss. While related to greater absenteeism, job control could play a role in a young person's ability to manage their health condition and sustain productive employment. Greater attention should also be paid to understanding health factors, and social support in early work experiences. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2015 American College of Rheumatology.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Despite beliefs that baby boomers are healthier than previous generations, we found no evidence that the health of baby boomers is substantially different from that of the previous or succeeding cohorts.The effects of increased education, higher income, and lower smoking rates on improving self-rated health were nearly counterbalanced by the adverse effect of increasing body mass index (BMI).Assumptions that baby boomers will require less health care as they age because of better education, more prosperity, and less propensity to smoke may not be realized because of increases in obesity.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2015 · Milbank Quarterly
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    Christina H Chan · Graham E Trope · Elizabeth M Badley · Yvonne M Buys · Ya-Ping Jin
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose:To determine the impact of lack of government insured routine eye examinations on the incidence of self-reported glaucoma, cataracts and vision loss. Methods:We analyzed data from the Canadian longitudinal National Population Health Survey (1994-2011). White respondents aged 65+ in 1994/1995 were included (n=2618). Three cohorts were established at baseline: those free of glaucoma, cataracts and vision loss (i.e. unable to see close or distance when wearing glasses or contact lenses). Incident cases were identified through self-reporting of these conditions during the follow-up period. Results:The incidence (per 1000 person-years) of glaucoma was lower in uninsured provinces (8.1, 95% confidence interval [CI] 5.5-10.7) than in insured provinces (12.8, 95% CI 10.5-15.1). The incidence of cataracts was also lower in the uninsured (67.2, 95% CI 55.7-78.6) versus insured provinces (75.7, 95% CI 69.2-82.2). The incidence of vision loss was higher in the uninsured (26.6, 95% CI 20.2-33.0) versus insured provinces (22.5, 95% CI 20.0-25.5). Adjusting for confounders, seniors in insured provinces had a 59% increased risk of glaucoma (incidence rate ratio [IRR] 1.59; 95% CI 1.07-2.37), a 13% greater risk of cataracts (IRR 1.13, 95% CI 0.93-1.37) and a 12% reduced risk of vision loss (IRR 0.88, 95% CI 0.67-1.16). Conclusions:Lack of government-funded routine eye examinations is associated with a reduced incidence of self-reported glaucoma and cataracts, likely due to reduced detection. Lack of insurance is also associated with a higher incidence of self-reported vision loss, likely due to poorer access to eye care and late treatment. Copyright © 2014 by Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2014 · Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
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    Crystal MacKay · Susan B Jaglal · Joanna Sale · Elizabeth M Badley · Aileen M Davis
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives To explore the perceived consequences of knee symptoms on the lives of people aged 35–65 years who had diagnosed osteoarthritis (OA) or OA-like symptoms. Design A qualitative study with six focus groups and 10 one-on-one interviews. Constructivist grounded theory guided data collection and analysis. Data were analysed using the constant comparative method. Setting Toronto, Canada. Participants 51 participants (median age 49; 61% female) who self-reported knee OA or reported knee pain, aching or stiffness on most days of the past month participated in the study. Results The core finding, disruption and change, illustrates the range of perceived consequences of knee symptoms in peoples’ lives. Participants described the consequences of symptoms on their physical activity (giving up high-level activities or changing how or how much they performed activities), social life (leisure, family and work) and emotional life. Knee symptoms also altered the way participants thought about their bodies and themselves. They reported that they had a new awareness of their knee and that they no longer trusted their knee. They also conveyed that their sense of self was altered. Conclusions This study illuminates the significant and varied consequences that mild to moderate knee symptoms have on the lives of adults age 35–65 years. Findings highlight the need for clinicians to tailor advice and support to the individual's needs considering their symptoms, the consequences of symptoms on their lives and their personal context.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2014 · BMJ Open
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: To examine perceived independence, overprotection, and support, and their association with the employment participation of young adults with rheumatic disease. Methods: One hundred and forty-three young adults, ages 18 to 30 years, with systemic lupus erythematosus (54.5%) and juvenile arthritis (45.5%) completed a 30-min online questionnaire of their work and education experiences. Information collected was demographic, health (e.g., pain, fatigue, disease activity), work context (e.g., career satisfaction, helpfulness of job accommodation/benefits, and workplace activity limitations), and psychosocial (e.g., independence, social support, and overprotection). Log-Poisson regression analysis examined factors associated with employment status. Results: Over half of respondents were employed (59%) and 26% were enrolled in school. Respondents reported moderate to high perceptions of independence and social support. However, 27% reported that "quite a bit" to "a great deal" of overprotection characterized their relationships with those closest to them. At the bivariate level, employed participants and those indicating greater perceived independence reported greater social support and less overprotection. Multivariable analysis revealed that being employed was associated with older age, more job accommodations/benefits perceived as being helpful, and greater perceived independence. Conclusion: This is one of the first studies examining the employment of young adults with rheumatic diseases. Findings highlight the importance of psychosocial perceptions such as independence and overprotection, in addition to support related to working. Additional research is needed to better understand the role of those close to young adults with rheumatic diseases in supporting independence and encouraging employment.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2014 · The Journal of Rheumatology
  • Elizabeth M. Badley · Mayilee Canizares · Anna C. Gunz · Aileen M. Davis
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    ABSTRACT: Objective This multilevel study examines access to rheumatologists for all arthritis and inflammatory arthritis, taking into account geographic availability of rheumatologists, access to primary care physicians (PCPs), and population characteristics (e.g., socioeconomic status [SES]).Methods We analyzed data from the population (age ≥18 years) living in the 105 health planning areas in Ontario, Canada on visits to physicians for arthritis and musculoskeletal disorders. Using data from a survey of rheumatologists and Geographic Information System analysis, an index of geographic availability for rheumatologists was calculated, incorporating distance between the population and rheumatologist locations and the number of hours per week of rheumatologist care. Multilevel Poisson regression was used to examine factors associated with the rates of rheumatology visits for inflammatory arthritis and all arthritis.ResultsControlling for age and sex, the rheumatologist availability index was associated with visit rates for all arthritis, but not inflammatory arthritis. Patients living in areas with low access to PCPs or low SES were less likely to have office visits to rheumatologists for all arthritis and inflammatory arthritis.Conclusion Besides potential deficiencies in rheumatology provision, there may be access barriers to rheumatology services, particularly for populations with low access to PCPs or low SES. This is of special concern for patients with inflammatory arthritis for whom rheumatologist care is necessary. In developing models of care for arthritis, this study points to the need to pay attention to areas with low PCP resources and areas of low SES, as well as the location and amount of rheumatology services available.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2014
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    Crystal Mackay · Elizabeth M Badley · Susan B Jaglal · Joanna Sale · Aileen M Davis
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: While the prevalence of osteoarthritis (OA) increases with age, the first signs begin in the fourth or fifth decade. Little is known about how younger adults respond to OA. This study explores how people ages 35-65 years manage knee symptoms. Methods: Six focus groups were conducted with 41 participants (mean age 50.9 years, 63% women) who self-reported a diagnosis of OA or reported knee symptoms (i.e., pain, aching, or stiffness) on most days of the past month. Purposive sampling was used, seeking variation in age and sex. The principles of constructivist grounded theory guided data collection and analysis. Data were analyzed using a constant comparative method. Results: Participants engaged in a process of proactively trying to find ways to control knee symptoms and disease progression. Their approach to management was not linear, but rather a process that moved back and forth between searching for "solutions" and active management (ongoing use of strategies). During the process, participants consulted health care providers, but often perceived that medical care offered limited options and guidance. Management was constructed as a "never-ending" process that entailed effort and personal resources. Conclusion: Participants were proactive in seeking ways to manage knee OA symptoms. There is a mismatch between participants' proactive approach and the reactive approach of the health care system that has focused on late-stage disease. Programs and supports within the formal and informal health care system are required to enable people to successfully manage knee symptoms across their lifespan.
    Preview · Article · Jul 2014
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    Mayilee Canizares · Aileen M Davis · Elizabeth M Badley
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    ABSTRACT: Objective To examine the impact of access to primary care physicians (PCPs), geographic availability of orthopaedic surgeons, socioeconomic status (SES), proportion of older population (≥65 years) and proportion of rural population on orthopaedic surgeon office visits and orthopaedic surgery. Design Population multilevel study. Setting Ontario, Canada. Participants Ontario residents 18 years or older who had visits to orthopaedic surgeons or an orthopaedic surgery for musculoskeletal disorders in 2007/2008. Primary and secondary outcomes Office visits to orthopaedic surgeons and orthopaedic surgery. Results Access to PCPs and the index of geographic availability of orthopaedic surgeons, but not SES, were significantly associated with orthopaedic surgeon office visits. There was a significant interaction between access to PCPs and orthopaedic surgeon geographic availability for the rate of office visits, with access to PCPs being more important in areas of low geographic availability of orthopaedic surgeons. After controlling for office visits with orthopaedic surgeons, the index of geographic availability of orthopaedic surgeons was no longer significantly associated with orthopaedic surgery. Conclusions The findings suggest that, particularly, in areas with low access to PCPs or with fewer available orthopaedic surgeons, residents are less likely to have orthopaedic surgeon office visits and in turn are less likely to receive surgery. Efforts to address adequate access to orthopaedic surgery should also include improving and facilitating access to PCPs for referral, particularly in geographic areas with low orthopaedic surgeon availability.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2014 · BMJ Open
  • Elizabeth Badley

    No preview · Article · Apr 2014 · BMJ (online)

  • No preview · Article · Apr 2014 · Osteoarthritis and Cartilage

  • No preview · Article · Apr 2014 · Osteoarthritis and Cartilage

Publication Stats

5k Citations
713.86 Total Impact Points


  • 2015
    • University of Ottawa
      Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
  • 1995-2015
    • University of Toronto
      • • Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences
      • • Institute of Health Policy, Management and Evaluation
      • • Department of Physical Therapy
      • • Faculty of Medicine
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada
  • 2003-2014
    • University Health Network
      • Division of Healthcare and Outcomes Research
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada
  • 2013
    • JVS Toronto
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada
  • 2002-2010
    • Toronto Western Hospital
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    • Population Health Research Institute
      Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
  • 2008
    • North York General Hospital
      ノースヨーク, Ontario, Canada
  • 2007
    • University of British Columbia - Vancouver
      Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
  • 2006
    • University of Oslo
      Kristiania (historical), Oslo, Norway
  • 2001
    • The Princess Margaret Hospital
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada
  • 2000
    • St. Michael's Hospital
      • Department of Surgery
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada
  • 1999
    • Newton-Wellesley Hospital
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States