[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate vessel remodeling and plaque distribution in side branch (SB) of true coronary bifurcation lesions with SB disease extending from its ostium. A total of 62 patients with single de novo true bifurcation lesions with SB with severe and extensive disease were enrolled. Of that, 45 patients/lesions underwent pre-intervention intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) at the SB. Left anterior descending was the most prevalent target vessel (>85 %). All lesions had significant involvement of both branches of the bifurcation, and the majority were classified as type 1,1,1 according to the Medina classification. Considering the subset with IVUS imaging, mean lesion length, reference diameter and % diameter stenosis in the SB were 8.88 ± 4.61 mm, 2.68 ± 0.59, and 70.2 ± 16.0 %, respectively. Also, mean proximal (take-off) and distal (carina) angles were 142.3 ± 21.9° and 60.7 ± 22.4°, respectively. At minimum lumena area (MLA) site, mean external elastic membrane and MLA cross-sectional areas were 6.70 ± 2.08 and 1.87 ± 0.93 mm(2), respectively; given that the mean distance measured between the SB origin and MLA site was <1 mm. In addition, mean plaque burden was 67.9 % and mean remodeling index was 0.78 ± 0.21. Importantly, only 9 cases out of 45 presented remodeling index > 1.0. Also, plaque distribution analysis within the SB ostium demonstrated preferable plaque positioning in the opposite side to the flow divider. In conclusions, significant negative remodeling is a frequent encounter in SB of complex coronary bifurcation lesions presenting with extensive and severe disease; in addition, plaque distribution in the SB ostium appears to be asymmetric in relation to the parent vessel, as plaque burden is mostly found in regions of low wall shear stress including the opposite side to the flow divider within the bifurcation anatomy.
No preview · Article · Jul 2013 · The international journal of cardiovascular imaging
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: First generation drug-eluting stents (DES) are associated with reduced in-stent restenosis but significant increased risk of very late stent thrombosis (VLST). The absence of polymer in DES systems may reduce the occurrence of VLST. Optic coherence tomography (OCT) has been used for stent analysis as a surrogate safety endpoint. This study aimed to assess the long-term follow up of strut apposition and tissue coverage of BioMatrix™ DES by OCT. 20 patients undergoing BioMatrix™ DES (n = 15) or S-Stent™ BMS (n = 5) implantation were followed for at least 5 years and evaluated by quantitative coronary angiography, intravascular ultrasound, and OCT. The difference between the stent types was evaluated by nonparametric Mann-Whitney U test while categorical variables were evaluated by Fisher exact test. Rates of in-stent late loss were similar between groups [0.40 (0.21;0.77) vs. 0.68 (0.66; 0.82) mm, p = 0.205, for BioMatrix™ and S-Stent™, respectively]. The vessel, stent and lumen volumes did not differ between groups. Patients treated with BioMatrix™ had significantly less stent obstruction [5.6 (4.4;9.7) vs. 28.6 (24.7;29.0) %, p = 0.001]. OCT analysis of 12 stents (Biomatrix™ = 9 and S-Stent™ = 3) demonstrated 126 (8.7 %) uncovered struts in the BioMatrix™ group compared to 23 (4.0 %) in the S-Stent™ group (p = 0.297), being the majority of them well apposed (117/126 and 21/23, respectively, p = 0.292). Only 9 (0.6 %) struts in the DES and 2 (0.4 %) struts in the BMS groups were simultaneously uncovered and malapposed (p = 0.924). BioMatrix™ DES was associated with lower rates of in-stent obstruction, and similar percentage of neointimal coverage on struts and of complete strut apposition.
No preview · Article · Mar 2013 · The international journal of cardiovascular imaging
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The embolization of atheroma/thrombus fragments during percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) causes microcirculatory perfusion disturbances. The new MGuardTM, a mesh-based bare-metal stent, demonstrated efficacy in the prevention of embolic complications during primary PCI. However, the late clinical outcome of patients treated with the MGuardTM stent remains unknown. METHODS: A series of 65 patients with de novo coronary lesions treated with MGuardTM stent was analyzed. Baseline clinical data, procedure and late clinical follow-up (mean duration, 2.6 ± 1.4 years) data were collected retrospectively by a review of medical records and/or direct telephone contact. RESULTS: Mean age was 66.1 ± 13.7 years, 32.3% of patients were diabetic, 49.2% had a previous acute myocardial infarction (AMI), and 44.6% presented with acute coronary syndrome. Two thirds of the lesions were located in a saphenous vein graft, almost half of the lesions had thrombus and most were classified as type B2/C. The MGuardTM stent was successfully implanted in all cases. At the end of the procedure, TIMI 3 flow was achieved in 93.4% and angiographic success was 91.8%. In the late clinical follow-up, adverse event rates included cardiac death in 6.2%, non-fatal AMI in 9.2%, target lesion revascularization in 9.2% and definite/probable stent thrombosis in 1.5%. CONCLUSIONS: The late follow-up of patients with complex coronary lesions treated with the MGuardTM stent demonstrated low rates of target lesion revascularization and stent thrombosis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Coronary perforation is currently a rare, but potentially catastrophic complication. The aim of the study was to evaluate the incidence, predictors, management and prognosis of coronary perforations at a hospital with a large number of percutaneous coronary interventions (PCIs). Methods: Clinical, angiographic, procedural and in-hospital outcomes of patients with or without coronary perforations were compared. Univariate analysis was performed to determine the predictors of this complication. Results: From December 2007 to January 2012, 5,585 consecutive patients were submitted to PCI and 18 had coronary perforation (0.32%), of whom 55.5% were female and 38.9% were diabetic. In this group, the left anterior descending artery was the most frequently treated vessel (61.1%) as well as type C lesion (61.1%) and chronic occlusions were approached in 27.8% of these cases. Most of the coronary perforations (11/18) had a lower complexity according to the modified Ellis classification, whereas the remaining perforations were classified as grades III (6/18) or IV (1/18). The balloon-catheter device was responsible for perforation in 61.1% of the cases. Prolonged inflation with a balloon-catheter and heparin reversal with protamine was performed in 72.2% and 88.9% of the cases, respectively. Only 1 patient (5.6%) required an emergency surgery due to cardiac tamponade. There were no deaths associated with coronary perforation. According to the univariate analysis, coronary perforation predictors were: female gender (P = 0.03), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (P = 0.006) and chronic occlusion (P < 0.01). Conclusions: In our experience, coronary perforation was a rare event, which was managed conservatively in most of the cases and was associated with a good in-hospital outcome.
Preview · Article · Dec 2012 · Revista Brasileira de Cardiologia Invasiva
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The SYNTAX score was developed as an angiographic tool to grade the complexity of coronary artery disease in patients with three-vessel and/or left main disease. We evaluated its role in predicting clinical outcomes after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in non-selected patients, treated in the daily clinical practice of a reference center. METHODS: Analysis of patients undergoing PCI from March to September 2009 and followed-up for up to 12 months. Patients were divided in tertiles according to the SYNTAX score. The primary endpoint included major adverse cardiac events (MACE) - death, non-fatal acute myocardial infarction and target-vessel revascularization. The ability of the SYNTAX score in predicting MACE was assessed by the ROC (Receiver Operator Characteristic) curve. RESULTS: Two hundred and thirty-four patients with a mean SYNTAX score of 11.6 ± 6.2 points were included. Tertile I had a SYNTAX score < 9 (average 5.9); tertile II, > 9 and < 13 (average 10.8); and tertile III, > 13 (average 18.3). In the clinical follow-up of 7.2 ± 4.9 months, the incidence of MACE was greater in tertile III when compared to tertiles I and II (2.5% vs. 6.4% vs. 14.1%; P = 0.0075). The ROC curve showed an area under the curve of 0.667 (P = 0.012) indicating a moderate ability to anticipate the occurrence of MACE in this population. CONCLUSIONS: The SYNTAX score proved to be seful in predicting the occurrence of MACE after PCI in real world patients.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2012 · Revista Brasileira de Cardiologia Invasiva
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The treatment of coronary bifurcation lesions with single stenting in the main vessel and provisional side branch stenting may be limited by the degree of anatomical/morphological complexity. Side branch predilation, a procedural step usually avoided, may be required to maintain side branch patency. We investigated the impact of side branch predilation on the immediate results of percutaneous coronary intervention in complex coronary bifurcation lesions. METHODS: Between May 2008 and August 2009, 59 patients with single coronary bifurcation lesions with significant involvement of the main and side branches were included in the study. The main exclusion criteria were: involvement of the left
main coronary artery, ST-elevation acute myocardial infarction (< 72 hours) and in-stent restenosis. RESULTS: Mean age was 61.2 ± 11 years, 25.4% were female and 30.1% had diabetes mellitus. Lesions
were most prevalent in the left anterior descending artery/diagonal branch (86.4%). During procedure, 8.5% (5/59) of lesions had unsuccessful side branch predilation, and 4 of these bifurcations were treated with 2 stents. In the multivariate model, side branch stenosis at baseline was the only significant predictor of
unsuccessful side branch predilation (odds ratio 1.15, 95% confidence interval 1.01-1.30; P = 0.04), and side branch stenosis > 87.6% was identified as the most accurate cut-off value to predict failure in the ROC curve. CONCLUSIONS: Side branch predilation was associated with immediate side branch failure in < 10% of cases, and the only significant predictor in the multivariate model was the severity of side branch stenosis (> 85%) at baseline.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2012 · Revista Brasileira de Cardiologia Invasiva
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The transradial approach for percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is still not widely used in our country. We evaluated the results of transradial PCI performed at a tertiary hospital, which has progressively incorporated this technique to its daily clinical practice. METHODS: This is a retrospective study of patients treated from 2007 to 2012 at Instituto Dante Pazzanese de Cardiologia. Clinical, angiographic and procedural profile and in-hospital outcomes of patients with stable and unstable coronary artery disease (CAD) treated with the transradial approach were compared. RESULTS: We included 2,507 patients, of which 72.6% had stable and 27.4% had unstable CAD. Patients with stable CAD had a more complex clinical profile, characterized by being older, more frequently females, with a higher incidence of comorbidities. The angiographic and procedural characteristics were not different for most of the variables analyzed. The success rate was high, but higher in the stable CAD group (94.6% vs. 92.4%; P = 0.05). The incidence of death (0.2% vs. 0.3%; P = 0.61), peri-procedural infarction (4.7% vs. 6.6%; P = 0.07), stroke (0.1% vs. 0.1%; P > 0.99), PCI (0.1% vs. 0.3%; P = 0.30), coronary artery bypass graft (0 vs. 0.4%; P = 0.06), major bleeding (0.2% vs. 0.6%; P = 0.09) or vascular complications (1% vs. 0.6%; P = 0.47) was low and did not differ between groups. CONCLUSIONS: Transradial PCI has proved to be safe and effective in patients with stable and unstable CAD, treated at a tertiary hospital that has progressively incorporated this technique to its daily practice.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Little is known about the correlation between modifications in plaque composition at stent edges and the changes in vessel geometry. This study sought to evaluate, by serial greyscale intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) and Virtual Histology intravascular ultrasound (VH-IVUS), the modifications in plaque composition at the edges of drug-eluting and bare metal stents and the correlation of these findings with changes in the measurements of vessel, lumen and plaque area at those segments.
Single-centre, prospective and randomised (1:1) evaluation of 40 patients with acute coronary syndrome treated with bare metal (Driver; Medtronic, Santa Clara, CA, USA; n=20 patients) or drug-eluting stents (Cypher; Cordis, Miami Lakes, FL, USA; n=20 patients). IVUS and VH-IVUS assessments were done post-procedure and at nine months. Primary endpoint included the modification in vessel, lumen and plaque area and in the composition of the plaque in the mean time between the baseline and follow-up procedure. At the proximal edge of the vessel treated with the Cypher stent, a trend toward positive vessel remodelling (D=+0.6 mm², p=0.06) was observed while at the distal edge, less plaque growth (D=+0.2 mm² vs. D=+1.1 mm², p<0.001), resulted in a larger lumen area at follow-up. By VH, there was a marked reduction in the percentage of fibrotic tissue and necrotic core at the edges of both stents and a positive correlation was seen between increase in percentage of fibro-fatty component and increase in plaque area (r=0.78, p=0.01).
Patients treated with drug-eluting stents (DES) experienced less plaque growth, especially at the distal edge of the stents. Modifications in plaque composition, with increase in fibrofatty tissue component, may partially explain these findings.
No preview · Article · Jun 2012 · EuroIntervention: journal of EuroPCR in collaboration with the Working Group on Interventional Cardiology of the European Society of Cardiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The non-polymeric paclitaxel-eluting sent Amazonia® PAX did not show differences in the occurrence of coronary restenosis or clinical events after 4 months of follow-up when compared with the Taxus® stent. However, the performance of the Amazonia® PAX stent in more complex cases and with longer angiographic follow-up has not been demonstrated. METHODS: The PAX-B study was a prospective, non-randomized, multicenter study assessing the late follow-up of patients treated with the Amazonia® PAX stent. The primary outcome was in-stent late lumen loss. RESULTS: One hundred and three patients with mean age of 61.3 ± 11.4 years were included, 26.2% were diabetics, 24.3% had acute coronary syndromes and 71.6% had type B2/C lesions. Multiple stents were performed in 4.7% of the cases and angiographic success was 100%. During hospitalization, the periprocedural acute myocardial infarction rate was 3.9% and one of these events led to target lesion revascularization (TLR). At 9-month angiographic follow-up, the median in-stent late lumen loss was 0.91 [0.50; 1.21] mm. The cumulative rates of major adverse cardiac events at the 6-month, 9-month and 12-month follow-up were 7.8%, 18.5% and 21.3%, respectively, mostly due to TLR. There was no death or stent thrombosis at 12 months. CONCLUSIONS: The stent Amazonia® PAX demonstrated excellent immediate results and high safety profile. However, angiographic recurrence rates were relatively high, due to low efficacy in inhibition of neointimal hyperplasia.