[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The regulation of integrin-mediated adhesion is of vital importance to adaptive and innate immunity. Integrins are versatile
proteins and mediate T cell migration and trafficking by binding to extracellular matrix or other cells as well as initiating
intracellular signaling cascades promoting survival or activation. The MAPK pathway is known to be downstream from integrins
and to regulate survival, differentiation, and motility. However, secondary roles for canonical MAPK pathway members are being
discovered. We show that chemical inhibition of RAF by sorafenib or shRNA-mediated knockdown of B-Raf reduces T cell resistance
to shear stress to α4β1 integrin ligands vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1) and fibronectin, whereas inhibition of
MEK/ERK by U0126 had no effect. Microscopy showed that RAF inhibition leads to significant inhibition of T cell spreading
on VCAM-1. The association of α4β1 integrin with the actin cytoskeleton was shown to be dependent on B-Raf activity or expression,
whereas α4β1 integrin affinity for soluble VCAM-1 was not. These effects were shown to be specific for α4β1 integrin and not
other integrins, such as α5β1 or LFA-1, or a variety of membrane proteins. We demonstrate a novel role for B-Raf in the selective
regulation of α4β1 integrin-mediated adhesion.
Preview · Article · Jun 2014 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: CLL cell trafficking between blood and tissue compartments is an integral part of the disease process. Idelalisib, a phosphoinositide 3-kinase delta (PI3Kδ) inhibitor causes rapid lymph node shrinkage, along with an increase in lymphocytosis, prior to inducing objective responses in CLL patients. This characteristic activity presumably is due to CLL cell redistribution from tissues into the blood, but the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. We therefore analyzed idelalisib effects on CLL cell adhesion to endothelial and bone marrow stromal cells (EC, BMSC). We found that idelalisib inhibited CLL cell adhesion to EC and BMSC under static and shear flow conditions. TNFα-induced VCAM-1 (CD106) expression in supporting layers increased CLL cell adhesion and accentuated the inhibitory effect of idelalisib. Co-culture with EC and BMSC also protected CLL from undergoing apoptosis, and this EC- and BMSC-mediated protection was antagonized by idelalisib. Furthermore, we demonstrate that CLL cell adhesion to EC and VLA-4 (CD49d) resulted in the phosphorylation of Akt, which was sensitive to inhibition by idelalisib. These findings demonstrate that idelalisib interferes with integrin-mediated CLL cell adhesion to EC and BMSC, providing a novel mechanism to explain idelalisib-induced redistribution of CLL cells from tissues into the blood.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Distinct signaling pathways producing diverse cellular outcomes can utilize similar subsets of proteins. For example, proteins from the T cell receptor (TCR) early signaling complex (ESC) are also involved in interferon-α receptor signaling. Defining the mechanism for how these proteins function within a given pathway is important in understanding the integration and communication of signaling networks with one another. We investigated the contributions of the TCR ESC proteins Lck, ZAP-70, Vav1, SLP-76, and LAT to integrin outside-in signaling in human T cells. Lck, ZAP-70, SLP-76, Vav1, and LAT were activated by α4β1 outside-in signaling but in a manner different from TCR signaling. TCR stimulation recruits ESC proteins to activate the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). α4β1 outside-in-mediated ERK activation did not require TCR ESC proteins. However, α4β1 outside-in signaling induced CD25 and costimulated CD69 and this was dependent upon TCR ESC proteins. TCR and α4β1 outside-in signaling are integrated through the common use of TCR ESC proteins; however, these proteins display functionally distinct roles in these pathways. These novel insights into the crosstalk between integrin outside-in and TCR signaling pathways are highly relevant to the development of therapeutic strategies to overcome disease associated with T cell deregulation.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2013 · Biochemical Journal
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Activation of the integrin family of cell adhesion receptors on progenitor cells may be a viable approach to enhance the effects of stem cell-based therapies by improving cell retention and engraftment. Here, we describe the synthesis and characterization of the first small molecule agonist identified for the integrin α4β1 (also known as very late antigen-4 or VLA-4). The agonist, THI0019, was generated via 2 structural modifications to a previously identified α4β1 antagonist. THI0019 greatly enhanced the adhesion of cultured cell lines and primary progenitor cells to α4β1 ligands VCAM-1 and CS1 under both static and flow conditions. Furthermore, THI0019 facilitated the rolling and spreading of cells on VCAM-1 and the migration of cells toward SDF-1α. Molecular modeling predicted that the compound binds at the α/β subunit interface overlapping the ligand binding site thus indicating that the compound must be displaced upon ligand binding. In support of this model, an analog of THI0019 modified to contain a photoreactive group was used to demonstrate that when cross-linked to the integrin, the compound behaves as an antagonist instead of an agonist. In addition, THI0019 showed cross-reactivity with the related integrin α4β7 as well as α5β1 and αLβ2. When cross-linked to αLβ2, the photoreactive analog of THI0019 remained an agonist, consistent with it binding at the α/β subunit interface and not at the ligand binding site in the inserted ("I") domain of the αL subunit. Co-administering progenitor cells with a compound such as THI0019 may provide a mechanism for enhancing stem cell therapy.
Full-text · Article · May 2013 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Disseminated prostate cancer (PCa) cells must survive in circulation for metastasis to occur. Mechanisms by which these cells survive are not well understood. By immunohistochemistry of human tissues, we found that levels of β1 integrins and integrin-induced autophosphorylation of FAK (pFAK-Y397) are increased in PCa cells in primary PCa and lymph node metastases, suggesting that β1 integrin activation occurs in metastatic progression of PCa. A conformation-sensitive antibody, 9EG7, was used to examine β1 integrin activation. We found that β1 integrins are constitutively activated in highly metastatic PC3 and PC3-mm2 cells, with less activation in low metastatic LNCaP and C4-2B4 cells. Increased β1 integrin activation as well as the anoikis resistance in PCa cells correlated with metastatic potential in vivo. Knockdown of β1 integrin abrogated anoikis resistance in PC3-mm2 cells. In agreement with β1 integrin activation, PC3-mm2 cells strongly adhered to type I collagen and fibronectin, a process inhibited by the β1 integrin neutralizing antibody mAb 33B6. mAb 33B6 also inhibited the phosphorylation of β1 integrin downstream effectors, focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and AKT, leading to a 3-fold increase in PC3-mm2 apoptosis. Systemic delivery of mAb 33B6 suppressed spontaneous metastasis of PC3-mm2 from the prostate to distant lymph nodes following intra-prostatic injection and suppressed metastasis of PC3-mm2 to multiple organs following intra-cardiac injection. Thus, constitutively activated β1 integrins play a role in survival of PC3-mm2 cells in circulation and represent a potential target for metastasis prevention.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2013 · Molecular Cancer Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A key issue regarding the use of stem cells in cardiovascular regenerative medicine is their retention in target tissues. Here, we have generated and assessed a bispecific antibody heterodimer designed to improve the retention of bone-marrow-derived multipotent stromal cells (BMMSC) in cardiac tissue damaged by myocardial infarction. The heterodimer comprises an anti-human CD90 monoclonal antibody (mAb) (clone 5E10) and an anti-myosin light chain 1 (MLC1) mAb (clone MLM508) covalently cross-linked by a bis-arylhydrazone. We modified the anti-CD90 antibody with a pegylated-4-formylbenzamide moiety to a molar substitution ratio (MSR) of 2.6 and the anti-MLC1 antibody with a 6-hydrazinonicotinamide moiety to a MSR of 0.9. The covalent modifications had no significant deleterious effect on mAb epitope binding. Furthermore, the binding of anti-CD90 antibody to BMMSCs did not prevent their differentiation into adipo-, chondro-, or osteogenic lineages. Modified antibodies were combined under mild conditions (room temperature, pH 6, 1 h) in the presence of a catalyst (aniline) to allow for rapid generation of the covalent bis-arylhydrazone, which was monitored at A(354). We evaluated epitope immunoreactivity for each mAb in the construct. Flow cytometry demonstrated binding of the bispecific construct to BMMSCs that was competed by free anti-CD90 mAb, verifying that modification and cross-linking were not detrimental to the anti-CD90 complementarity-determining region. Similarly, ELISA-based assays demonstrated bispecific antibody binding to plastic-immobilized recombinant MLC1. Excess anti-MLC1 mAb competed for bispecific antibody binding. Finally, the anti-CD90 × anti-MLC1 bispecific antibody construct induced BMMSC adhesion to plastic-immobilized MLC1 that was resistant to shear stress, as measured in parallel-plate flow chamber assays. We used mAbs that bind both human antigens and the respective pig homologues. Thus, the anti-CD90 × anti-MLC1 bispecific antibody may be used in large animal studies of acute myocardial infarction and may provide a starting point for clinical studies.
Preview · Article · Aug 2011 · Bioconjugate Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PR1 (VLQELNVTV) is a human leukocyte antigen-A2 (HLA-A2)-restricted leukemia-associated peptide from proteinase 3 (P3) and neutrophil elastase (NE) that is recognized by PR1-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes that contribute to cytogenetic remission of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). We report a novel T-cell receptor (TCR)-like immunoglobulin G2a (IgG2a) antibody (8F4) with high specific binding affinity (dissociation constant [K(D)] = 9.9nM) for a combined epitope of the PR1/HLA-A2 complex. Flow cytometry and confocal microscopy of 8F4-labeled cells showed significantly higher PR1/HLA-A2 expression on AML blasts compared with normal leukocytes (P = .046). 8F4 mediated complement-dependent cytolysis of AML blasts and Lin(-)CD34(+)CD38(-) leukemia stem cells (LSCs) but not normal leukocytes (P < .005). Although PR1 expression was similar on LSCs and hematopoietic stem cells, 8F4 inhibited AML progenitor cell growth, but not normal colony-forming units from healthy donors (P < .05). This study shows that 8F4, a novel TCR-like antibody, binds to a conformational epitope of the PR1/HLA-A2 complex on the cell surface and mediates specific lysis of AML, including LSCs. Therefore, this antibody warrants further study as a novel approach to targeting leukemia-initiating cells in patients with AML.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The activation of leukocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1) plays a critical role in regulating immune responses. The metal ion-dependent adhesion site on the I-domain of LFA-1 α(L) subunit is the key recognition site for ligand binding. Upon activation, conformation changes in the I-domain can lead LFA-1 from the low affinity state to the high affinity (HA) state. Using the purified HA I-domain locked by disulfide bonds for immunization, we developed an mAb, 2E8, that specifically binds to cells expressing the HA LFA-1. The surface plasmon resonance analysis has shown that 2E8 only binds to the HA I-domain and that the dissociation constant (K(D)) for HA I-domain is 197 nm. The binding of 2E8 to the HA I-domain is metal ion-dependent, and the affinity decreased as Mn(2+) was replaced sequentially by Mg(2+) and Ca(2+). Surface plasmon resonance analysis demonstrates that 2E8 inhibits the interaction of HA I-domain and ICAM-1. Furthermore, we found that 2E8 can detect activated LFA-1 on both JY and Jurkat cells using flow cytometry and parallel plate adhesion assay. In addition, 2E8 inhibits JY cell adhesion to human umbilical vein endothelial cells and homotypic aggregation. 2E8 treatment reduces the proliferation of both human CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells upon OKT3 stimulation without the impairment of their cytolytic function. Taken together, these data demonstrate that 2E8 is specific for the high affinity form of LFA-1 and that 2E8 inhibits LFA-1/ICAM-1 interactions. As a novel activation-specific monoclonal antibody, 2E8 is a potentially useful reagent for blocking high affinity LFA-1 and modulating T cell activation in research and therapeutics.
Preview · Article · Oct 2010 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The development of antagonists to the α4 integrin family of cell adhesion molecules has been an active area of pharmaceutical research to treat inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Presently being tested in human clinical trials are compounds selective for α4β1 (VLA-4) as well as several dual antagonists that inhibit both α4β1 and α4β7. The value of a dual versus a selective small molecule antagonist as well as the consequences of inhibiting different affinity states of the α4 integrins have been debated in the literature. Here, we characterize TBC3486, a N,N-disubstituted amide, which represents a unique structural class of non-peptidic, small molecule VLA-4 antagonists. Using a variety of adhesion assay formats as well as flow cytometry experiments using mAbs specific for certain activation-dependent integrin epitopes we demonstrate that TBC3486 preferentially targets the high affinity conformation of α4β1 and behaves as a ligand mimetic. The antagonist is capable of blocking integrin-dependent T-cell co-activation in vitro as well as proves to be efficacious in vivo at low doses in two animal models of allergic inflammation. These data suggest that a small molecule α4 integrin antagonist selective for α4β1 over α4β7 and, specifically, selective for the high affinity conformation of α4β1 may prove to be an effective therapy for multiple inflammatory diseases in humans.
No preview · Article · Oct 2010 · Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chronic stress is associated with hormonal changes that are known to affect multiple systems, including the immune and endocrine systems, but the effects of stress on cancer growth and progression are not fully understood. Here, we demonstrate that human ovarian cancer cells exposed to either norepinephrine or epinephrine exhibit lower levels of anoikis, the process by which cells enter apoptosis when separated from ECM and neighboring cells. In an orthotopic mouse model of human ovarian cancer, restraint stress and the associated increases in norepinephrine and epinephrine protected the tumor cells from anoikis and promoted their growth by activating focal adhesion kinase (FAK). These effects involved phosphorylation of FAKY397, which was itself associated with actin-dependent Src interaction with membrane-associated FAK. Importantly, in human ovarian cancer patients, behavioral states related to greater adrenergic activity were associated with higher levels of pFAKY397, which was in turn linked to substantially accelerated mortality. These data suggest that FAK modulation by stress hormones, especially norepinephrine and epinephrine, can contribute to tumor progression in patients with ovarian cancer and may point to potential new therapeutic targets for cancer management.
Full-text · Article · Apr 2010 · The Journal of clinical investigation
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The alpha(4)beta(1) integrin VLA-4 (very-late activation antigen-4) and the lineage-specific CD4 and CD8 receptors have been proposed as putative co-stimulatory receptors on T cells. To assess the relative contribution of signaling through the TCR, CD28 and these accessory molecules, we activated human T cells using soluble antibodies recognizing all four of these T-cell receptor classes (CD3, CD28, CD4/CD8, and VLA-4), and we assessed the degree of activation using higher-order flow cytometry detecting intracellular Erk1/2 phosphorylation and production of IL-2 and IFN-gamma. We found that: (1) co-stimulation via CD4/CD8, in addition to CD28, is required for optimal T-cell activation; (2) VLA-4 binding consistently potentiates CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cell activation; (3) augmentation of T-cell activation through VLA-4 binding is most pronounced following engagement of CD4/CD8. These results confirm that multiple signals, including VLA-4 engagement, are necessary for maximal T-cell activation beyond that induced via the TCR and CD28.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Integrin α4β7 mediates lymphocyte adhesion to VCAM-1 on activated endothelium, fibronectin in the extracellular matrix, and the mucosal vascular addressin MAdCAM-1. It is unclear whether α4β7 performs any function beyond directing specific adhesion reactions. We addressed the possibility that triggering of α4β7 with a specific monoclonal antibody was capable of delivering an accessory stimulus that would coactivate T cells and lead to proliferation. At submitogenic levels of anti-CD3 stimulation, triggering of α4β7 by immobilized mAb ACT-1 resulted in T cell blastogenesis, IL-2 production, expression of the IL-2 receptor α chain CD25, and ultimately DNA synthesis. These results indicate that the integrin α4β7 is involved in more than lymphocyte adhesion and homing but also plays a role in cell signaling.
No preview · Article · Jul 2009 · Cell Communication & Adhesion
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To correlate serum cytokine and angiogenic factor (CAF) levels with overall survival (OS) in metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) treated with interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha).
Serum CAF levels were measured in 103 patients treated on a randomized trial with IFN-alpha 0.5 million units (MU) twice daily or 5 MU daily. Concentrations of 17 analytes were determined by multiplex bead immunoassays [vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF(A)) and several cytokines] or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (basic fibroblast growth factor). We used proportional hazards models to evaluate the effect of CAF levels and clinical factors on OS.
Pretreatment serum interleukin (IL) 5, IL-12 p40, VEGF(A), and IL-6 levels and Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center risk grouping independently correlated with OS, with hazard ratios of 2.33, 2.00, 2.07, 1.82, and 0.39, respectively (concordance index = 0.69 for the combined model versus 0.60 for the CAF model versus 0.52 for the clinical model). Based on an index derived from these five risk factors (RFs), patients with 0-2 RF had a median OS time of 32 months versus 9 months for patients with 3-5 RF (P < 0.0001).
Serum CAF profiling contributes to prognostic evaluation in mRCC and helps to identify a subset of patients with 20% 5-year OS.
No preview · Article · Jun 2009 · Annals of Oncology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The activation of LFA-1 (lymphocyte function-associated antigen) is a critical event for T cell co-stimulation. The mechanism of LFA-1 activation involves both affinity and avidity regulation, but the role of each in T cell activation remains unclear. We have identified antibodies that recognize and block different affinity states of the mouse LFA-1 I-domain. Monoclonal antibody 2D7 preferentially binds to the low affinity conformation, and this specific binding is abolished when LFA-1 is locked in the high affinity conformation. In contrast, M17/4 can bind both the locked high and low affinity forms of LFA-1. Although both 2D7 and M17/4 are blocking antibodies, 2D7 is significantly less potent than M17/4 in blocking LFA-1-mediated adhesion; thus, blocking high affinity LFA-1 is critical for preventing LFA-1-mediated adhesion. Using these reagents, we investigated whether LFA-1 affinity regulation affects T cell activation. We found that blocking high affinity LFA-1 prevents interleukin-2 production and T cell proliferation, demonstrated by TCR cross-linking and antigen-specific stimulation. Furthermore, there is a differential requirement of high affinity LFA-1 in the activation of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells. Although CD4(+) T cell activation depends on both high and low affinity LFA-1, only high affinity LFA-1 provides co-stimulation for CD8(+) T cell activation. Together, our data demonstrated that the I-domain of LFA-1 changes to the high affinity state in primary T cells, and high affinity LFA-1 is critical for facilitating T cell activation. This implicates LFA-1 activation as a novel regulatory mechanism for the modulation of T cell activation and proliferation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lipid rafts are small laterally mobile microdomains that are highly enriched in lymphocyte signaling molecules. GM1 gangliosides are a common lipid raft component and have been shown to be important in many T-cell functions. The aggregation of specific GM1 lipid rafts can control many T-cell activation events, including their novel association with T-cell integrins. We found that clustering GM1 lipid rafts can regulate beta1 integrin function. This was apparent through increased resistance to shear flow-dependent detachment of T cells adherent to the alpha4beta1 and alpha5beta1 integrin ligand fibronectin (FN). Adhesion strengthening as a result of clustering GM1 enriched lipid rafts correlated with increased cellular rigidity and morphology through the localization of cortical F-actin, the resistance to shear-induced cell stretching, and an increase in the surface area and symmetry of the contact area between the cell surface and adhesive substrate. Furthermore, clustering GM1 lipid rafts could initiate integrin 'inside-out' signaling mechanisms. This was seen through increased integrin-cytoskeleton associations and enhanced soluble binding of FN and VCAM-1, suggesting the induction of high-affinity integrin conformations. The activation of these adhesion-strengthening characteristics appears to be specific for the aggregation of GM1 lipid rafts as the aggregation of the heterogeneous raft-associated molecule CD59 failed to activate these functions. These findings indicate a novel mechanism to signal to beta1 integrins and to activate adhesion-strengthening processes.
Preview · Article · Feb 2009 · Immunology and Cell Biology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The SIBLING protein family is a group of non-collagenous proteins (NCPs) that includes dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP), dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP1), bone sialoprotein (BSP), and osteopontin (OPN). In the present study, we compared these four proteins in different phases of rat dentin and bone. First, we extracted NCPs in the unmineralized matrices and cellular compartments using guanidium-HCl (G1). Second, we extracted NCPs closely associated with hydroxyapatite using an EDTA solution (E). Last, we extracted the remaining NCPs again with guanidium-HCl (G2). Each fraction of Q-Sepharose ion-exchange chromatography was analyzed using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), Stains-All stain, and with western immunoblotting. In dentin, the NH(2)-terminal fragment of DSPP and its proteoglycan form were primarily present in the G1 extract, whereas the COOH-terminal fragment of DSPP was present exclusively in the E extract. The processed NH(2)-terminal fragment of DMP1 was present in G1 and E extracts, whereas the COOH-terminal fragment of DMP1 existed mainly in the E extract. Bone sialoprotein was present in all three extracts of dentin and bone, whereas OPN was present only in the G1 and E extracts of bone. The difference in the distribution of the SIBLING proteins between organic and inorganic phases supports the belief that these molecular species play different roles in dentinogenesis and osteogenesis.
Full-text · Article · May 2008 · European Journal Of Oral Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: CD45RA T cells are fully co-activated by natural beta1 integrin ligands fibronectin (FN) and VCAM-1, as well as monoclonal antibody (mAb) 19H8, which binds a combinatorial epitope of the alpha4beta1 heterodimer. These integrin ligands stimulate CD3-dependent proliferation and the upregulation of early activation markers CD25 and CD69. However, beta1-specific antibody 33B6, which binds to a similar range of the predominant T-cell integrins as natural ligands FN (alpha4beta1 and alpha5beta1) and VCAM-1 (alpha4beta1), failed to costimulate proliferation in the CD45RA subset, while retaining the ability to costimulate early activation markers CD25 and CD69. After addition of exogenous human interleukin-2 to the culture media, 33B6 costimulation of proliferation is restored. These data provide evidence that a branch of the alpha4beta1 integrin-signaling pathway in CD45RA T cells can be independently regulated and exploited through the use of partial agonist ligands, including mAbs to the integrin heterodimer.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2008 · Immunology and Cell Biology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Considerable advances in understanding the mechanisms associated with anoikis resistance of normal and malignant epithelial cells have been made. However, little is still known about the pathways involved in anoikis resistance of non-epithelial cells such as fibroblasts and sarcomas. Our results show that Src activity contributes to anoikis resistance of human osteosarcoma SAOS-2 cells. Src was found to be upregulated in anoikis resistant SAOS cells, and pharmacological inhibition of its activity resulted in the restoration of anoikis sensitivity. A normal pattern of dephosphorylation of FAK was observed upon cell detachment of both anoikis sensitive and resistant SAOS-2 cells, suggesting that FAK activity during anoikis resistance is not essential. The activity of Akt was found to be upregulated in anoikis resistant SAOSar cells and the pharmacological inhibition of PI3-K activity restored sensitivity to anoikis resistant cells, reconfirming the critical role of PI3-K/Akt pathway in cell survival. Furthermore, pharmacological inhibition of Src resulted in a decrease of Akt phosphorylation at Ser473. Altogether, these studies indicated a survival pathway mediated by the Src-dependent activation of the PI3-K/Akt pathway in a manner independent of FAK activity.
No preview · Article · Aug 2006 · European Journal of Cancer
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cell adhesion mediated by the interaction between integrin alpha4beta1 and VCAM-1 is important in normal physiologic processes and in inflammatory and autoimmune disease. Numerous studies have mapped the alpha4beta1 binding sites in VCAM-1 that mediate cell adhesion; however, little is known about the regions in VCAM-1 important for regulating soluble binding. In the present study, we demonstrate that 6D VCAM-1 (an alternatively spliced isoform of VCAM-1 lacking Ig-like domain 4) binds alpha4beta1 with a higher relative affinity than does the full-length form of VCAM-1 containing 7 Ig-like extracellular domains (7D VCAM-1). In indirect binding assays, the EC50 of soluble 6D VCAM-1 binding to alpha4beta1 on Jurkat cells (in 1 mM MnCl2) was 2 x 10(-9) M, compared with 7D VCAM-1 at 11 x 10(-9) M. When used in solution to inhibit alpha4beta1 mediated cell adhesion, the IC50 of 6D VCAM-1 was 13 x 10(-9) M, compared with 7D VCAM-1 measured at 150 x 10(-9) M. Removal of Ig-like domains 4, 5, or 6, or simply substituting Asp328 in domain 4 of 7D VCAM-1 with alanine, caused increased binding of soluble 7D VCAM-1 to alpha4beta1. In contrast, cells adhered more avidly to 7D VCAM-1 under shear force, as it induced cell spreading at lower concentrations than did 6D VCAM-1. Finally, soluble 6D VCAM-1 acts as an agonist through alpha4beta1 by augmenting cell migration and inducing cell aggregation. These results indicate that the domain 4 of VCAM-1 plays a contrasting role when VCAM-1 is presented in solution or as a cell surface-expressed adhesive substrate.
Full-text · Article · May 2006 · The Journal of Immunology