[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Prostate cancer is the most common malignancy and second leading cause of cancer related deaths in American men supporting the study of prostate cancer chemoprevention. Major risk factors for this disease have been associated with low serum levels of vitamin D. Here, we evaluate the biologic activity of a less calcemic vitamin D analog 1α-hydroxyvitamin D2 [1α-OH-D2] (Bone Care International, Inc.) in patients with prostate cancer and high grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (HG PIN).
Patients with clinically organ-confined prostate cancer and HG PIN were randomized to 1α-OH-D2 versus placebo for 28 days prior to radical prostatectomy. Intermediate endpoint biomarkers included serum vitamin D metabolites, TGFß 1/2, free/total PSA, IGF-1, IGFBP-3, bFGF, and VEGF. Tissue endpoints included histology, MIB-1 and TUNEL staining, microvessel density and factor VIII staining, androgen receptor and PSA, vitamin D receptor expression and nuclear morphometry.
The 1α-OH-D2 vitamin D analog was well tolerated and could be safely administered with good compliance and no evidence of hypercalcemia over 28 days. While serum vitamin D metabolite levels only slightly increased, evidence of biologic activity was observed with significant reductions in serum PTH levels. TGF-ß2 was the only biomarker significantly altered by vitamin D supplementation. Whether reduced TGF-ß2 levels in our study is an early indicator of response to vitamin D remains unclear.
While further investigation of vitamin D may be warranted based on preclinical studies, results of the present trial do not appear to justify evaluation of 1α-OH-D2 in larger clinical prostate cancer prevention studies. Prostate 73: 970–978, 2013.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The soy compound genistein has been observed preclinically to inhibit bladder cancer growth with one potential mechanism being the inhibition of epidermal growth factor receptor phosphorylation (p-EGFR). A phase 2 randomized, placebo-controlled trial investigated whether daily, oral genistein (300 or 600 mg/d as the purified soy extract G-2535) for 14 to 21 days before surgery alters molecular pathways in bladder epithelial tissue in 59 subjects diagnosed with urothelial bladder cancer (median age, 71 years). G-2535 treatment was well tolerated; observed toxicities were primarily mild to moderate gastrointestinal or metabolic and usually not attributed to study drug. Genistein was detected in plasma and urine of subjects receiving G-2535 at concentrations greater than placebo subjects' but were not dose-dependent. Reduction in bladder cancer tissue p-EGFR staining between the placebo arm and the combined genistein arms was significant at the protocol-specified significance level of 0.10 (P = 0.07). This difference was most prominent when comparing the 300-mg group with placebo (P = 0.015), but there was no significant reduction in p-EGFR staining between the 600-mg group and placebo. No difference in normal bladder epithelium p-EGFR staining was observed between treatment groups. No significant differences in tumor tissue staining between treatment groups were observed for COX-2, Ki-67, activated caspase-3, Akt, p-Akt, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), or p-MAPK. No significant differences in urinary survivin or BLCA-4 levels between treatment groups were observed. Genistein displayed a possible bimodal effect (more effective at the lower dose) on bladder cancer tissue EGFR phosphorylation that should be evaluated further, possibly in combination with other agents.
Preview · Article · Feb 2012 · Cancer Prevention Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: MKC-1 is an oral cell-cycle inhibitor with broad antitumor activity in preclinical models. Clinical studies demonstrated modest antitumor activity using intermittent dosing schedule, however additional preclinical data suggested continuous dosing could be efficacious with additional effects against the mTor/AKT pathway. The primary objectives were to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and response of continuous MKC-1. Secondary objectives included characterizing the dose limiting toxicities (DLTs) and pharmacokinetics (PK).
Patients with solid malignancies were eligible, if they had measurable disease, ECOG PS ≤1, and adequate organ function. Exclusions included brain metastases and inability to receive oral drug. MKC-1 was dosed twice daily, continuously in 28-day cycles. Other medications were eliminated if there were possible drug interactions. Doses were assigned using a TITE-CRM algorithm following enrollment of the first 3 pts. Disease response was assessed every 8 weeks.
Between 5/08-9/09, 24 patients enrolled (15 M/9 F, median 58 years, range 44-77). Patients 1-3 received 120 mg/d of MKC-1; patients 4-24 were dosed per the TITE-CRM algorithm: 150 mg [n = 1], 180 , 200 , 230 , 260 , 290 , 320 . The median time on drug was 8 weeks (range 4-28). The only DLT occurred at 320 mg (grade 3 fatigue). Stable disease occurred at 150 mg/d (28 weeks; RCC) and 320 mg/d (16 weeks; breast, parotid). Escalation halted at 320 mg/d. Day 28 pharmacokinetics indicated absorption and active metabolites.
Continuous MKC-1 was well-tolerated; there were no RECIST responses, although clinical benefit occurred in 3/24 pts. Dose escalation stopped at 320 mg/d, and this is the MTD as defined by the CRM dose escalation algorithm; this cumulative dose/cycle exceeds that determined from intermittent dosing studies. A TITE-CRM allowed for rapid dose escalation and was able to account for late toxicities with continuous dosing via a modified algorithm.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2011 · Investigational New Drugs
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pulmonary blastomycosis is an uncommon but serious fungal infection endemic in Wisconsin. Clinician awareness of the protean presentations of this disease may reduce diagnostic delay. This study addressed the diagnostic accuracy of physicians responding to case vignettes of pulmonary blastomycosis and the primary care differential diagnosis of this disease.
Eight pulmonary blastomycosis cases were developed from case files. From these, 2 vignettes were randomly selected and mailed to primary care physicians in the Wisconsin Network for Health Research. Respondents were asked to list the 3 most likely diagnoses for each case.
Respondents listed Blastomycosis as the most likely diagnosis for 37/227 (16%) case vignettes, and 1 of the 3 most likely diagnoses for 43/227 (19%). When vignettes included patient activity in counties with an annual incidence rate of blastomycosis greater than 2/100,000, compared to counties with lower incidence rates, diagnosis was more accurate (28/61 [46%] vs 15/166 [9%]; P<0.001). Physicians with practice locations in counties with annual blastomycosis incidence rates >2/100,000 listed blastomycosis more commonly than physicians from other counties (16/36 [44%] vs 27/177 [15%]; P<0.001). This difference in accurate diagnosis remained significant in a multivariate model of practice demographics. Based on responses to the vignettes, pneumonia, cancer, non-infectious pulmonary disease, and tuberculosis emerged as the most-frequently noted diagnosis in the differential diagnosis of blastomycosis.
Blastomycosis was not listed as 1of 3 primary diagnoses in a majority of cases when Wisconsin primary care physicians considered case vignettes of actual pulmonary blastomycosis cases. Diagnosis was more accurate if the patient vignette listed exposure to a higher incidence county, or if the physician practiced in a higher incidence county. In Wisconsin, failure to include blastomycosis in the differential diagnoses of illnesses associated with a wide variety of pulmonary symptoms suspected to represent infectious or non-infectious pulmonary, cardiac, or neoplastic disease, regardless of geographic exposure, could result in excess morbidity or mortality.
Full-text · Article · Apr 2011 · WMJ: official publication of the State Medical Society of Wisconsin
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: 9cUAB30 is a synthetic analog of 9-cis-retinoic acid with chemopreventive activity in cell lines and in animal models. The purpose of this first-in-human evaluation of 9cUAB30 was to evaluate the single-dose pharmacokinetic profile and toxicity of the compound in healthy volunteers at 3 dose levels. This study enrolled 14 patients to receive a single dose of 5, 10, or 20 mg of 9cUAB30. Plasma and urine samples were collected to assess 9cUAB30 concentrations by a validated LC/MS MS method. 9cUAB30 was well tolerated, with 1 patient experiencing grade 2 toxicity and no grade 3 or 4 toxicities reported. T(max) occurred approximately 3 hours after dose administration with the plasma half-life ranging from 2.79 to 7.21 hours. AUC increased linearly across the examined dose range of 5 to 20 mg; C(max) was proportional to the log of the dose. The plasma clearance ranged from 25 to 39 L/h compared to the renal clearance which ranged from 0.018 to 0.103 L/h. 9cUAB30 has a favorable toxicity and pharmacokinetic profile, with oral availability and primarily hepatic metabolism. Further dose ranging studies with once a day dosing are underway.
Preview · Article · Dec 2010 · Cancer Prevention Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In response to the goals of the Wisconsin Partnership Program and the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Initiatives to Improve Healthcare, the Wisconsin Network for Health Research (WiNHR) was formed. As a collaborative, multi-disciplinary statewide research network, WiNHR encourages and fosters the discovery and application of scientific knowledge for researchers and practitioners throughout Wisconsin. The 4 founding institutions--Aurora Health Care/Center for Urban Population Health (CUPH), Gundersen Lutheran Medical Foundation, Marshfield Clinic Research Foundation, and the University of Wisconsin-Madison--representing geographically diverse areas of the state, are optimistic and committed to WiNHR's success. This optimism is based on the relevance of its goals to public health, the quality of statewide health care research, and, most importantly, the residents of Wisconsin who recognize the value of health research.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2009 · WMJ: official publication of the State Medical Society of Wisconsin
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chemotherapy regimens including gemcitabine in combination with microtubule inhibitors such as docetaxel and paclitaxel have wide clinical application. Patupilone is a novel tubulin-polymerizing agent with activity against paclitaxel-resistant cell lines. We conducted a phase I trial to assess the maximum tolerated dose, dose limiting toxicity (DLT) and antitumor activity of gemcitabine and patupilone.
Patients with refractory solid tumors enrolled in cohorts of three. Cohorts received fixed doses of gemcitabine (1,000 or 750 mg/m(2)) along with escalating doses of patupilone (1.5-3 mg/m(2)) on days 1 and 8 of a 21-day cycle.
Twenty-seven patients received a total of 99 courses of treatment on study. Hematologic toxicity in the first cohort required a modification of the protocol to decrease the gemcitabine dose. Subsequent patients received gemcitabine 750 mg/m(2) and escalating doses of patupilone from 1.5 to 3 mg/m(2). DLTs were grade 3 asthenia and grade 3 dehydration. There was also one treatment-related death due to neutropenic infection. Other clinically significant toxicities were persistent asthenia and persistent nausea. Four patients, one each with pancreatic cancer, esophageal carcinoma, cholangiocarcinoma and gallbladder carcinoma, experienced a partial response.
The dose-limiting toxicities of gemcitabine and patupilone were asthenia and dehydration. Dose reductions also occurred due to persistent fatigue that was not dose-limiting. However, patients with advanced malignancies were able to tolerate gemcitabine and patupilone at doses that resulted in clinical benefit. The recommended phase II dose for this schedule is gemcitabine 750 mg/m(2) and patupilone 1.5 mg/m(2) on days 1 and 8 of a 21-day cycle.
No preview · Article · Oct 2008 · Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We conducted a phase II trial of doxercalciferol, a vitamin D2 analogue, in 15 patients with MDS. Each received doxercalciferol 12.5 microg orally daily for 12 weeks. Nine of 15 patients completed the prescribed course and of these, six had stable disease. No patient had a response (IWG criteria) and overall eight patients experienced progressive disease while on therapy. Two patients with chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML) had a marked rise in monocytes on study. Overall the treatment was well tolerated. One patient was removed from study due to hypercalcemia. We conclude that short-term treatment with doxercalciferol has limited activity in patients with MDS.
Preview · Article · Feb 2008 · Leukemia & lymphoma
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the overall response rate, toxicity and overall survival in patients with locally advanced or metastatic esophageal cancer treated with gemcitabine, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and leucovorin.
Patients with either adenocarcinoma or squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus could enroll; however, patients could not have received prior chemotherapy for metastatic disease. Treatment cycles consisted of infusions of all three agents at days 1, 8 and 15, repeated every 28 days. Patients received gemcitabine 1,000, leucovorin 25 and 5-FU 600 mg/m(2). Tumor assessment was performed every 2 cycles. Responses were assessed using the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group solid tumor response criteria.
Thirty-five patients with metastatic or locally advanced esophageal cancer enrolled. One complete response and ten partial responses were observed for an overall response rate of 31.4%. An additional 11 patients had stable disease as their best response. The median survival was 9.8 months with a 1-year survival rate of 37.1%. Toxicity was predominately hematologic, with 58% of patients experiencing grade 3 or 4 neutropenia.
The combination of gemcitabine, 5-FU and leucovorin had activity in advanced esophageal cancer. Patients tolerated the regimen well, with myelosuppression occurring most commonly. The combination merits further investigation as a treatment for esophageal cancer.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previous experience with perillyl alcohol (POH) was with a formulation of 500-mg capsules each containing 250 mg POH and soybean oil. This formulation resulted in the ingestion of large amounts of soybean oil (>10 g/day). Dose-limiting toxicities (DLT) were primarily gastrointestinal. Prior studies also showed no further increase in POH metabolite concentrations with doses of >1600 mg/m2. Therefore, a new formulation of POH was developed (700 mg containing 675 mg POH) in an effort to improve dose and metabolite concentrations delivered and toxicity encountered with chronic dosing.
Eligible patients had refractory solid malignancies. Dose escalation occurred in cohorts of three at the dose levels/dose of 1350 mg, 2025 mg, 2700 mg, 3375 mg and 4050 mg, administered orally four times a day in a 28-day cycle.
A group of 19 patients were enrolled. One DLT occurred at dose level 5. This cohort was expanded to six patients, and no further DLT occurred. The maximum tolerated dose was not reached. The predominant toxicity was gastrointestinal. Nausea and vomiting occurred in 63% of patients (12/19, grade 1 in 10). The same proportion of patients (12/19) experienced heartburn and indigestion, primarily grade 1. Although the side effects were mild in nature, three patients withdrew from treatment, citing intolerable gastrointestinal toxicity. The AUCs of POH metabolites did not appear to increase from level 1 to level 2 or change significantly from day 1 to day 29. Inter- and intrapatient variability in metabolite levels was observed.
This reformulation of POH appears to be an improvement upon the prior formulation, by reducing the number of capsules ingested and the degree of gastrointestinal toxicity per dose. It does not appear to offer any metabolite pharmacokinetic advantage. A dose of 2050 mg administered four times daily was easily tolerated. Higher doses can be administered but with increasing gastrointestinal toxicity that limits compliance.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2003 · Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We conducted a phase II multicenter trial of perillyl alcohol in patients with advanced hormone refractory prostate cancer (HRPC). The primary endpoint was to evaluate the 6-month progression-free survival given the potential cytostatic nature of the drug. Secondary objectives included assessing acute and chronic toxicities, as well as measuring objective response rates.
Patients with metastatic androgen-independent prostate cancer that failed at least one prior chemotherapeutic or experimental regimen were eligible. Perillyl alcohol was administered orally at 1200 mg/m2/dose four times daily and continued until disease progression or development of unacceptable toxicity.
Fifteen patients were eligible. Six patients received less than one cycle (4 weeks) of drug, four of which stopped because of drug intolerance. Only six patients received more than two cycles of therapy and were considered evaluable for response. Main toxicity included grade 1-2 gastrointestinal intolerance (nausea/vomiting in 60% of the patients) and fatigue (47%). One patient developed a grade 4 hypokalemia that was felt likely attributable to the drug. No objective responses were seen. All patients either progressed or withdrew from the study secondary to drug intolerance before the 6-month time period.
Perillyl alcohol administered at this dose and formulation did not have any objective clinical activity in this patient population.
No preview · Article · Sep 2003 · Investigational New Drugs
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objectives of this trial were to assess the maximal tolerated dose and toxicity of the combination of oral eniluracil and 5-fluorouracil and intravenous gemcitabine.
Patients with histologically confirmed, incurable malignancy (solid tumor or lymphoma) refractory to standard therapy or for which no standard therapy exists were enrolled. The treatment plan consisted of weekly gemcitabine for three weeks with twice daily dosing of 5-FU and eniluracil for 21 days beginning on day one of gemcitabine. Cycles repeated on an every four week schedule. The initial cohort received gemcitabine 800 mg/m2, oral 5-FU 0.6 mg/m2 and eniluracil 6.0 mg/m2.
Twenty-six patients were enrolled. Eight patients received less than 2 cycles of therapy. Hematologic and gastrointestinal toxicity predominated, with 48% of courses resulted in grade one or two neutropenia. Hematologic toxicity was dose limiting. One treatment related death occurred.
The combination of eniluracil, 5-fluorouracil and gemcitabine offers an oral alternative for 5-FU administration. The recommended phase II dose is gemcitabine 1000 mg/m2, 5FU 1.2 mg/m2 and eniluracil 12 mg/m2.
No preview · Article · Dec 2002 · Investigational New Drugs
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This Phase I study of 1alpha-hydroxyvitamin D(2), an p.o. administered vitamin D analogue, in patients with advanced hormone-refractory prostate cancer was designed to assess the toxicity, pharmacokinetic and biological markers of drug activity, and lastly tumor response data to recommend a dose for Phase II studies. 1alpha-Hydroxyvitamin D(2) was administered daily at doses ranging from 5 to 15 microg/day. Patients were monitored for toxicity and tumor response, and blood and urine samples were collected for pharmacokinetics (1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(2) levels) and other parameters of biological activity (bone markers, parathyroid hormone, urine calcium, and serum phosphorus levels). Twenty-five patients were enrolled. Main toxicities were hypercalcemia with associated renal insufficiency. No other significant toxicity was seen. Pharmacokinetics showed an increase in the active metabolite 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(2) that reached a plateau by week 4 despite continuous drug dosing. Elevation in daily urinary calcium excretion and serum phosphorus levels was seen, whereas a decrease in serum parathyroid hormone was evident. Two patients showed evidence of a partial response, whereas 5 others achieved disease stabilization for > or =6 months. 1alpha-Hydroxyvitamin D(2) was well tolerated with main toxicities being hypercalcemia and renal insufficiency. All of the toxicity was reversible with drug discontinuation. Evidence for drug activity was seen in surrogate markers, and pharmacokinetic analysis showed substantial increases in vitamin D metabolite levels among the various cohorts. Whereas the defined maximum tolerated dose was not reached, the recommended Phase II dose was 12.5 microg/day given continuously.
No preview · Article · Sep 2002 · Clinical Cancer Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This is a phase II study of perillyl alcohol in the treatment of patients with metastatic colorectal carcinoma. The primary endpoint is time to progression. Secondary objectives are to evaluate objective response rate and toxicity.
Eligible patients had metastatic adenocarcinoma of the colon or rectum. Patients received perillyl alcohol orally at a dose of 1200 mg/m2. Dose escalation to 1,600 mg/m2 was allowed.
Twenty-seven patients were enrolled. The median time to progression was 1.8 months (range 1 to 3 mo). Four patients received less than one cycle and were not evaluable for response. Of the remaining 23, all had progressive disease. There were no complete or partial responses. Toxicity was relatively mild, with fatigue, nausea and anemia predominating. Three patients withdrew from therapy for toxicity (grade 3 belching, bloating; grade 2 nausea, fatigue, vomiting, anorexia and increase perspiration; grade 1 anorexia).
Despite preclinical evidence of anticancer activity, oral perillyl alcohol administered at this dose and formulation does not appear to have clinical antitumor activity when used for patients with advanced colorectal carcinoma.
No preview · Article · Feb 2002 · International Journal of Gastrointestinal Cancer
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the clinical tolerability of a new schedule of 6-hydroxymethylacylfulvene (irofulven, MGI 114, HMAF, NSC 683863), a semisynthetic sesquiterpene derived from the cytotoxic mushroom metabolite illudin S. Irofulven has been shown to induce DNA damage and apoptosis in vitro and has shown activity in a number of human tumor xenograft models. A number of drug-resistant cell lines including those that express the mdr phenotype, retain sensitivity to irofulven.
We conducted a phase I trial of irofulven given as an intravenous infusion (30 min) on a daily x5 schedule every 28 days. A total of ten patients were enrolled and treated at three dose levels, 6, 8, and 11 mg/m2 per day.
Irofulven reached steady-state concentrations during the 30-min infusions with biexponential kinetics. Irofulven disappeared rapidly from plasma and was detectable for only 15-30 min after the end of the infusion. The mean half-life was 4.91 min and the mean clearance was 4.57 l/mm per m2. Peak plasma concentrations of irofulven of approximately 300 ng/ml were achieved. Pharmacokinetic parameters did not differ significantly from day 1 to day 5. Irofulven was highly emetogenic. Other prominent toxicities included anorexia and fatigue. One case of delayed-onset metabolic acidosis possibly secondary to irofulven was observed. No other renal or metabolic toxicity was encountered. One patient experienced a late-onset grade 3 extravasation skin injury thought to be secondary to extravasation of irofulven. Minimal marrow suppression was observed. No objective tumor responses were observed.
The recommended phase II dose on this schedule is 6 mg/m2.
No preview · Article · Jan 2002 · Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: One of a novel series of compounds (AMAPS or arylmethylaminopropanediols), 773U82-HCl has shown significant antitumor activity in in vitro and in in vivo tumor systems, but has less animal CNS toxicity than the lead compound in the same series (crisnatol). This study was designed to evaluate the pharmacokinetics, qualitative and quantitative toxicities of 773U82-HCl and to determine the recommended phase II dose (MTD) of 773U82-HCl given as a short infusion daily for 3 days every 3 weeks. Twenty-nine patients with refractory malignancies received 79 courses over 9 dose levels during this study. Doses ranged from 50 to 1060 mg/m2/d x 3 days. Due to the possibility of local hemolysis with concentrations > 1.5 mg/ml, drug was administered in solutions containing < or = 1.5 mg/ml. Because large volumes were needed at the higher dose levels, the infusion duration was increased from 2 hours to 4 hours. Mild to moderate nausea, vomiting, fatigue, dizziness and headaches were observed. Myelosuppression was the dose limiting toxicity. The recommended phase II dose and schedule was determined to be 800 mg/m2/d x 3d every 3 weeks. 773U82-HCl plasma concentration-time data were analyzed using a two-compartment pharmacokinetic model. The t1/2 beta averaged 6 hours and the total body clearance was 75.9 L/hr/m2. The volume of distribution (Vdss) was large, averaging 470 L/m2.
No preview · Article · Nov 1992 · Investigational New Drugs
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A phase I trial of 5-fluorouracil (FUra) and leucovorin (LV) given with and without dipyridamole (DP) by concurrent 120-h continuous infusion was performed in 27 patients with advanced solid malignancies, 8 of whom had previously received FUra. The LV and DP doses were fixed at 500 mg/m2 daily and 7.7 mg/kg daily, respectively, whereas the FUra dose was escalated. Level 3 (450 mg/m2 FUra daily) represented the maximum tolerated dose for both FUra/LV+DP and FUra/LV. Dose-limiting stomatitis (greater than or equal to grade 3 or grade 2 occurring during the infusion) was encountered in 75% of the first courses given at level 4 (600 mg/m2 daily). Stomatitis was observed in 44/78 (56%) courses. Diarrhea was infrequent and mild. DP infusions were complicated by mild to moderate headache, which was controlled with narcotic analgesics, and mild to moderate nausea/vomiting. FUra-related toxicity was not enhanced by DP administration. Limited pharmacokinetic sampling at levels 3 and 4 revealed mean steady-state FUra concentrations of around 1.0 microM with infusions of FUra/LV+DP. Among three paired courses given with and without DP, no statistically significant difference was found in the total body clearance of FUra (P = 0.44). One partial response was seen in a patient with metastatic gastric carcinoma. For phase II trials, we recommend that concurrent 120-h continuous infusions of FUra (450 mg/m2 daily) and LV (500 mg/m2 daily) be given with and without DP (7.7 mg/kg daily) every 21 days.
Full-text · Article · Feb 1992 · Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A prevention trial based on solid preclinical or clinical data may fail without a well-thought-out strategy for recruitment,
retention of subjects, and sufficient expenditure of resources. Ruffin and Baron (1) point out that less than 10% of subjects identified as eligible for the trials are ultimately recruited. Since prevention
trial subjects are well, they may feel that they have little to gain by participating. Concerns over waiting, travel time,
costs, and fear of randomization are some of the barriers to recruitment. In addition, failure to recognize the importance
of health care providers in recruitment and overly complex trial designs may also delay or inhibit accrual goals. In studies
involving hereditary high-risk subjects, participants may not wish to enroll because of fear of loss of employment or loss