[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Heightened surveillance of acute febrile illness in China since 2009 has led to the identification of a severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) with an unknown cause. Infection with Anaplasma phagocytophilum has been suggested as a cause, but the pathogen has not been detected in most patients on laboratory testing.
We obtained blood samples from patients with the case definition of SFTS in six provinces in China. The blood samples were used to isolate the causal pathogen by inoculation of cell culture and for detection of viral RNA on polymerase-chain-reaction assay. The pathogen was characterized on electron microscopy and nucleic acid sequencing. We used enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, indirect immunofluorescence assay, and neutralization testing to analyze the level of virus-specific antibody in patients' serum samples.
We isolated a novel virus, designated SFTS bunyavirus, from patients who presented with fever, thrombocytopenia, leukocytopenia, and multiorgan dysfunction. RNA sequence analysis revealed that the virus was a newly identified member of the genus phlebovirus in the Bunyaviridae family. Electron-microscopical examination revealed virions with the morphologic characteristics of a bunyavirus. The presence of the virus was confirmed in 171 patients with SFTS from six provinces by detection of viral RNA, specific antibodies to the virus in blood, or both. Serologic assays showed a virus-specific immune response in all 35 pairs of serum samples collected from patients during the acute and convalescent phases of the illness.
A novel phlebovirus was identified in patients with a life-threatening illness associated with fever and thrombocytopenia in China. (Funded by the China Mega-Project for Infectious Diseases and others.).
Full-text · Article · Mar 2011 · New England Journal of Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To identify epidemic status of murine typhus in Hongta areas of Yuxi city and to provide evidence for control and prevention of the disease.
Serologic survey was conducted among residents and rodents. Isolation of Rickettsia moseri was performed.
The overall infection rate among general population was 28.92% (96/332) with geometric meantiter (GMT) as 10.83 and there was no difference between males and females (26.71%, 43/161 vs. 30.99%, 53/171, P > 0.05). Significant differences were found between age groups (P < 0.05) with positive rates of 29.63% (8/27), 18.06% (13/72), 39.62% (42/106), 27.50% (22/80) and 23.40% (11/47) among age groups 0-6, 7-18, 19-39, 40-59 and over 60, respectively. The overall rate of infection in mouse was 44.95% (89/198) with GMT as 30.30. Five isolates of R. moseri from mouse specimen, three from fleas plus one case of murine typhus were diagnosed. Rattus norvegicus and Rattus flavipectus were the predominant species of rodent animals (99.49%, 197/198) and Xenopsylla cheopis was the major species of vector (74.26%, 303/408). Flea index and mouse density were 2.06 and 11.13% respectively.
High infection rates on R. moseri were demonstrated in rodents and residents as well as high risk of murine typhus outbreak might occur in these areas.
No preview · Article · Feb 2008 · Zhonghua liu xing bing xue za zhi = Zhonghua liuxingbingxue zazhi
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human rickettsioses are worldwide zoonoses and it is not easy to differentiate them from other infectious diseases because of their atypical manifestation. In recent years the number of patients with fever of unknown causes from Hongta District CDC, Yuxi city of Yunnan Province has been increasing significantly in the summer. Diagnosis of scrub typhus was made by local clinicians. In order to ascertain the disease, we undertook a laboratory investigation for such patients from August 18 to 26, 2005.
Active surveillance was conducted by Hongta District CDC Yuxi city of Yunnan Province from 2002 to 2004 and basic data were obtained from cases confirmed according to clinical definitions. Average incidences and town-level incidences were calculated during the study periods. Blood samples were analyzed by PCR and serological test. Based on the groEL gene sequences a paired general outer primers (Gro-1 and Gro-2) targeting typhus, spotted fever as well as scrub typhus and two paired inner primers (SF1, SR2 and TF1, TR2) for typhus together with spotted fever and scrub typhus, respectively, were designed to perform a multiplex-nested PCR. Serological assay was carried out by indirect immunofluorescence assay with 7 different rickettsial antigens, i.e., R.mossori, R.sibirica, R.conorii, O.tsutsugamushi, B.quintana, B.henselae and Coxilella burnetii phase II Ag.
Epidemiological surveillance showed that from 2002 to 2004, the average incidences of the scrub typhus or scrub typhus with murine typhus were 222.1/10(5), 204.3/10(5) and 109.6/10(5), respectively. Of 13 blood samples taken during acute stage of illness, 6 showed the amplified products for scrub typhus and the sequenced products showed 100%, 99%, 99%, 99%, 99%, 99% similarity to O.tsutsugamushi Karp but they shared the same deduced amino acid sequences, which indicated 100% identity with the heat shock protein of the O.tsutsugamushi Karp strain. Five yielded PCR products for murine typhus and their corresponding nucleotide sequences exhibited 100%, 100%, 99%, 99% and 99% similarity to R. mossori Wilmington and the analyses of predicted amino acid sequences indicated 100%, 100%, 98%, 98% and 98% identity with the heat shock protein of R. mossori Wilmington strain. Of the 8 PCR positive patients, 3 showed a co-infection of scrub typhus with murine typhus. All the 13 serum samples from febrile patients were positive against O. tsutsugamushi and 8 of them were positive against R. mossori. All of the 8 paired specimens had four-fold elevation of antibody against O. tsutsugamushi, and seroconversion for typhus was demonstrated in 3 paired serum samples. Another finding in the study was that a high seropositive prevalence (76.9%) of Q fever was detected.
It's confirmed that co-prevalence of scrub typhus with murine typhus are occurring in Yuxi city of Yunnan province, China. Other rickettsial diseases also need to be investigated in these areas.
Preview · Article · Sep 2007 · Chinese medical journal
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To understand the epidemic status of Rickettsia in Xinyang areas of Henan province.
Samples including liver, spleen, kidney from mouse and chigger mites from Xinyang areas and serum samples were detected by nested-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA).
In 62 viscus samples from mice organs, the positive rates were 16.13%, 8.06% and 6.45% for Orientia tsutsugamushi, R. typhii and Spotted fever group rickettsiae respectively. In blood clots samples from mice, the positive rates were 8.06%, 6.45% and 1.61 % for O. tsutsugamushi, R. typhii and Spotted fever group rickettsiae respectively. Three out of 26 mouse serum samples were positive for the predicted fluorexcent intensity O. tsutsugamushi.
Using nested-PCR and IFA methods, O. tsutsugamushi, R. typhii and Spotted fever group rickettsiae were detected in the captured mice living in Xinyang areas of Henan province. Results showed that there were intensive natural reserviors of Rickettsia in Henan province, suggesting that the risk of outbreak of Rickettsia in these areas was high.
No preview · Article · Jul 2007 · Zhonghua liu xing bing xue za zhi = Zhonghua liuxingbingxue zazhi
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To study the genotyping of Bacillus anthracis based on multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeats(VNTR) in the B. anthracis genome.
We selected 13 VNTR loci (which cited from published articles) to study 88 strains of B. anthracis isolated from China. The methods used were: (1) Selecting the primers which were at both ends of the tandem repeat locus; (2) Amplifying the sequence of the locus by PCR; (3)cDetecting the PCR products by agarose gel and polyacrylamide electrophoresis; (4)Analyzing the PCR products and computing the molecular weight by analysis software of gel images;(5) Double-checking with sequencing results; (6)Reckoning the repeat numbers and study the VNTRs loci characters.
(1) We used multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) to characterize 88 B. anthracis isolates from diverse geographic locations which were divided into 45 MLVA genotypes and 3 groups through cluster analysis. The genotypes was relative to restricted geographical region. It seemed clear that the multiple isolates from the same anthrax outbreak frequently having identical genotypes. (2)Results from VNTR analysis showed that A16R vaccine strain isolated from China was having the nature of representativeness in the country.
Analysis showed that the VNTR patterns was an appropriate study method for B. anthracis genetic diversity from different geographical areas and different time. Isolates from the same anthrax outbreak had identical
No preview · Article · Sep 2006 · Zhonghua liu xing bing xue za zhi = Zhonghua liuxingbingxue zazhi