Alison Logar

University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States

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Publications (64)327.38 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: To determine associations between circulating markers of immune activation, immune cell senescence, and inflammation with HIV-associated abnormalities of pulmonary function. HIV infection is an independent risk factor for abnormal pulmonary function. Immune activation, immune senescence, and chronic inflammation are characteristics of chronic HIV infection that have been associated with other HIV-associated comorbidities and may be related to pulmonary disease in this population. Participants from an HIV-infected cohort (n = 147) completed pulmonary function testing (PFT). Markers of T-cell activation and senescence were determined by flow cytometry, and plasma levels of interleukin-6, interleukin-8, and C-reactive protein (CRP) were measured, as was telomere length of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Regression models adjusting for clinical risk factors were constructed to examine relationships between biomarkers and PFT outcomes. Activated CD25 T cells and activated/senescent CD69/CD57/CD28 CD4 T cells, interleukin-6, and CRP were associated with PFT abnormalities. Shortening of PBMC telomere length correlated with airflow obstruction and diffusing impairment. Paradoxically, circulating senescent CD57/CD28 CD8 T cells were associated with better PFT outcomes. Circulating T cells expressing markers of activation and inflammatory cytokine levels are independently correlated with PFT abnormalities in HIV-infected persons. Overall telomere shortening was also associated with pulmonary dysfunction. The paradoxical association of senescent CD8 T cells and better PFT outcomes could suggest an unrecognized beneficial compensatory function of such cells or a redistribution of these cells from the circulation to local compartments. Further studies are needed to differentiate and characterize functional subsets of local pulmonary and circulating T-cell populations in HIV-associated pulmonary dysfunction.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2014 · AIDS (London, England)
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    ABSTRACT: The renal endothelium has been debated as arising from resident hemangioblast precursors that transdifferentiate from the nephrogenic mesenchyme (vasculogenesis) and/or from invading vessels (angiogenesis). While the Foxd1-positive renal cortical stroma has been shown to differentiate into cells that support the vasculature in the kidney (including vascular smooth muscle and pericytes) it has not been considered as a source of endothelial cell progenitors. In addition, it is unclear if Foxd1-positive mesenchymal cells in other organs such as the lung have the potential to form endothelium. This study examines the potential for Foxd1-positive cells of the kidney and lung to give rise to endothelial progenitors. We utilized immunofluorescence (IF) and fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) to co-label Foxd1-expressing cells (including permanently lineage-tagged cells) with endothelial markers in embryonic and postnatal mice. We also cultured FACsorted Foxd1-positive cells, performed in vitro endothelial cell tubulogenesis assays and examined for endocytosis of acetylated low-density lipoprotein (Ac-LDL), a functional assay for endothelial cells. Immunofluorescence and FACS revealed that a subset of Foxd1-positive cells from kidney and lung co-expressed endothelial cell markers throughout embryogenesis. In vitro, cultured embryonic Foxd1-positive cells were able to differentiate into tubular networks that expressed endothelial cell markers and were able to endocytose Ac-LDL. IF and FACS in both the kidney and lung revealed that lineage-tagged Foxd1-positive cells gave rise to a significant portion of the endothelium in postnatal mice. In the kidney, the stromal-derived cells gave rise to a portion of the peritubular capillary endothelium, but not of the glomerular or large vessel endothelium. These findings reveal the heterogeneity of endothelial cell lineages; moreover, Foxd1-positive mesenchymal cells of the developing kidney and lung are a source of endothelial progenitors that are likely critical to patterning the vasculature.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2013 · PLoS ONE
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    Dataset: AJT2003

    Full-text · Dataset · Nov 2012

  • No preview · Article · Sep 2012 · Arthroscopy The Journal of Arthroscopic and Related Surgery
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: IL-17 is an important cytokine signature of the T(H) differentiation pathway T(H)17. This T-cell subset is crucial in mediating autoimmune disease or antimicrobial immunity in animal models, but its presence and role in human disease remain to be completely characterized. OBJECTIVE: We set out to determine the frequency of T(H)17 cells in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF), a disease in which there is recurrent infection with known pathogens. METHODS: Explanted lungs from patients undergoing transplantation or organ donors (CF samples = 18; non-CF, nonbronchiectatic samples = 10) were collected. Hilar nodes and parenchymal lung tissue were processed and examined for T(H)17 signature by using immunofluorescence and quantitative real-time PCR. T cells were isolated and stimulated with antigens from Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Aspergillus species. Cytokine profiles and staining with flow cytometry were used to assess the reactivity of these cells to antigen stimulation. RESULTS: We found a strong IL-17 phenotype in patients with CF compared with that seen in control subjects without CF. Within this tissue, we found pathogenic antigen-responsive CD4(+)IL-17(+) cells. There were double-positive IL-17(+)IL-22(+) cells [T(H)17(22)], and the IL-22(+) population had a higher proportion of memory characteristics. Antigen-specific T(H)17 responses were stronger in the draining lymph nodes compared with those seen in matched parenchymal lungs. CONCLUSION: Inducible proliferation of T(H)17(22) with memory cell characteristics is seen in the lungs of patients with CF. The function of these individual subpopulations will require further study regarding their development. T cells are likely not the exclusive producers of IL-17 and IL-22, and this will require further characterization.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2012 · The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology

  • No preview · Conference Paper · May 2012
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    ABSTRACT: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen that is capable of causing acute and chronic pulmonary infection in the immunocompromised host. In the case of cystic fibrosis (CF), chronic P. aeruginosa infection causes increased mortality by promoting overly exuberant airway inflammation and cumulative lung damage. Identifying the key regulators of this inflammation may lead to the development of new therapies that improve P. aeruginosa-related mortality. We report here that interleukin-23 (IL-23), the cytokine most clearly tied to IL-17-mediated inflammation, also promotes IL-17-independent inflammation during P. aeruginosa pulmonary infection. During the early innate immune response, prior to IL-17 induction, IL-23 acts synergistically with IL-1β to promote early neutrophil (polymorphonuclear leukocyte [PMN]) recruitment. However, at later time points, IL-23 also promoted IL-17 production by lung γδ T cells, which was greatly augmented in the presence of IL-1β. These studies show that IL-23 controls two independent phases of neutrophil recruitment in response to P. aeruginosa infection: early PMN emigration that is IL-17 independent and later PMN emigration regulated by IL-17.
    Preview · Article · Jan 2012 · Infection and immunity
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    ABSTRACT: The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) usually fails to heal after rupture mainly due to the inability of the cells within the ACL tissue to establish an adequate healing process, making graft reconstruction surgery a necessity. However, some reports have shown that there is a healing potential of ACL with primary suture repair. Although some reports showed the existence of mesenchymal stem cell-like cells in human ACL tissues, their origin still remains unclear. Recently, blood vessels have been reported to represent a rich supply of stem/progenitor cells with a characteristic expression of CD34 and CD146. In this study, we attempted to validate the hypothesis that CD34- and CD146-expressing vascular cells exist in hACL tissues, have a potential for multi-lineage differentiation, and are recruited to the rupture site to participate in the intrinsic healing of injured ACL. Immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry analysis of hACL tissues demonstrated that it contains significantly more CD34 and CD146-positive cells in the ACL ruptured site compared with the noninjured midsubstance. CD34+CD45- cells isolated from ACL ruptured site showed higher expansionary potentials than CD146+CD45- and CD34-CD146-CD45- cells, and displayed higher differentiation potentials into osteogenic, adipogenic, and angiogenic lineages than the other cell populations. Immunohistochemistry of fetal and adult hACL tissues demonstrated a higher number of CD34 and CD146-positive cells in the ACL septum region compared with the midsubstance. In conclusion, our findings suggest that the ACL septum region contains a population of vascular-derived stem cells that may contribute to ligament regeneration and repair at the site of rupture.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2011 · Stem cells and development
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    ABSTRACT: Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) is caused by a dominant Th2 immune response to antigens derived from the opportunistic mold Aspergillus, most commonly Aspergillus fumigatus. It occurs in 4%-15% of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF); however, not all patients with CF infected with A. fumigatus develop ABPA. Therefore, we compared cohorts of A. fumigatus-colonized CF patients with and without ABPA to identify factors mediating tolerance versus sensitization. We found that the costimulatory molecule OX40 ligand (OX40L) was critical in driving Th2 responses to A. fumigatus in peripheral CD4+ T cells isolated from patients with ABPA. In contrast, CD4+ T cells from the non-ABPA cohort did not mount enhanced Th2 responses in vitro and contained a higher frequency of TGF-beta-expressing regulatory T cells. Heightened Th2 reactivity in the ABPA cohort correlated with lower mean serum vitamin D levels. Further, in vitro addition of 1,25 OH-vitamin D3 substantially reduced DC expression of OX40L and increased DC expression of TGF-beta. This in vitro treatment also resulted in increased Treg TGF-beta expression and reduced Th2 responses by CD4+ T cells from patients with ABPA. These data provide rationale for a therapeutic trial of vitamin D to prevent or treat ABPA in patients with CF.
    Preview · Article · Sep 2010 · The Journal of clinical investigation

  • No preview · Conference Paper · May 2010
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    ABSTRACT: The importance of T helper type 1 (Th1) cell immunity in host resistance to the intracellular bacterium Francisella tularensis is well established. However, the relative roles of interleukin (IL)-12-Th1 and IL-23-Th17 cell responses in immunity to F. tularensis have not been studied. The IL-23-Th17 cell pathway is critical for protective immunity against extracellular bacterial infections. In contrast, the IL-23-Th17 cell pathway is dispensable for protection against intracellular pathogens such as Mycobacteria. Here we show that the IL-23-Th17 pathway regulates the IL-12-Th1 cell pathway and was required for protective immunity against F.tularensis live vaccine strain. We show that IL-17A, but not IL-17F or IL-22, induced IL-12 production in dendritic cells and mediated Th1 responses. Furthermore, we show that IL-17A also induced IL-12 and interferon-gamma production in macrophages and mediated bacterial killing. Together, these findings illustrate a biological function for IL-17A in regulating IL-12-Th1 cell immunity and host responses to an intracellular pathogen.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2009 · Immunity

  • No preview · Conference Paper · Apr 2009
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate whether human embryonic stem cells (hESC) committed in culture into hematopoietic/endothelial cell progenitors can be further developed into mature blood and vascular cells following transplantation into chicken embryos. The yolk sac of 42- to 44-hour chicken embryos received yolk sac injections of unfractionated human embryoid body (hEB) cells, CD34-positive hEB cells, or CD34+CD45+ granulocyte colony-stimulating factor-mobilized human peripheral blood hematopoietic stem-progenitor cells. Human cells in the host were detected by flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry. All injected cell populations engrafted chicken hematopoietic organs, as assessed by detection of CD45+ cells in the spleen, bursa of Fabricius, and thymus. CD34+ day -10 hEB cells showed the highest efficiency for producing human CD45+ cells in the hosts and yielded human glycophorin A+ erythroid, CD13+ myeloid, and CD19+ lymphoid cells in the spleen and bursa of Fabricius. Spleen cells from chimeric embryos also contained human colony-forming units-granulocyte macrophage, as assessed in methylcellulose colony-forming assays. Human endothelial cells expressing vascular endothelial-cadherin, von Willebrand factor, CD31, and the receptor for the Ulex europaeus lectin were also observed in the yolk sac vasculature following injection of either unfractionated or CD34+ day -10 hEB cells. Primitive angiohematopoietic stem cells (total and CD34+ day -10 hEB cells) as well as adult hematopoietic stem cells could home to intraembryonic blood-forming organs following injection into the yolk sac. These observations demonstrate the utility of the avian embryo as a convenient and reliable host to model the angiohematopoietic development of human embryonic, or other early stem cells.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2008 · Experimental hematology
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    ABSTRACT: Steroid-resistant asthma comprises an important source of morbidity in patient populations. T(H)17 cells represent a distinct population of CD4(+) Th cells that mediate neutrophilic inflammation and are characterized by the production of IL-17, IL-22, and IL-6. To investigate the function of T(H)17 cells in the context of Ag-induced airway inflammation, we polarized naive CD4(+) T cells from DO11.10 OVA-specific TCR-transgenic mice to a T(H)2 or T(H)17 phenotype by culturing in conditioned medium. In addition, we also tested the steroid responsiveness of T(H)2 and T(H)17 cells. In vitro, T(H)17 cytokine responses were not sensitive to dexamethasone (DEX) treatment despite immunocytochemistry confirming glucocorticoid receptor translocation to the nucleus following treatment. Transfer of T(H)2 cells to mice challenged with OVA protein resulted in lymphocyte and eosinophil emigration into the lung that was markedly reduced by DEX treatment, whereas T(H)17 transfer resulted in increased CXC chemokine secretion and neutrophil influx that was not attenuated by DEX. Transfer of T(H)17 or T(H)2 cells was sufficient to induce airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) to methacholine. Interestingly, AHR was not attenuated by DEX in the T(H)17 group. These data demonstrate that polarized Ag-specific T cells result in specific lung pathologies. Both T(H)2 and T(H)17 cells are able to induce AHR, whereas T(H)17 cell-mediated airway inflammation and AHR are steroid resistant, indicating a potential role for T(H)17 cells in steroid-resistant asthma.
    Preview · Article · Oct 2008 · The Journal of Immunology
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    ABSTRACT: Brown adipose tissue uncoupling protein-1 (UCP1) plays a major role in the control of energy balance in rodents. It has long been thought, however, that there is no physiologically relevant UCP1 expression in adult humans. In this study we show, using an original approach consisting of sorting cells from various tissues and differentiating them in an adipogenic medium, that a stationary population of skeletal muscle cells expressing the CD34 surface protein can differentiate in vitro into genuine brown adipocytes with a high level of UCP1 expression and uncoupled respiration. These cells can be expanded in culture, and their UCP1 mRNA expression is strongly increased by cell-permeating cAMP derivatives and a peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARgamma) agonist. Furthermore, UCP1 mRNA was detected in the skeletal muscle of adult humans, and its expression was increased in vivo by PPARgamma agonist treatment. All the studies concerning UCP1 expression in adult humans have until now been focused on the white adipose tissue. Here we show for the first time the existence in human skeletal muscle and the prospective isolation of progenitor cells with a high potential for UCP1 expression. The discovery of this reservoir generates a new hope of treating obesity by acting on energy dissipation.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2008 · Stem Cells
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    C R Chu · N J Izzo · C H Coyle · N E Papas · A Logar
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    ABSTRACT: We have studied the effects of bupivacaine on human and bovine articular chondrocytes in vitro. Time-lapse confocal microscopy of human articular chondrocytes showed > 95% cellular death after exposure to 0.5% bupivacaine for 30 minutes. Human and bovine chondrocytes exposed to 0.25% bupivacaine had a time-dependent reduction in viability, with longer exposure times resulting in higher cytotoxicity. Cellular death continued even after removal of 0.25% bupivacaine. After exposure to 0.25% bupivacaine for 15 minutes, flow cytometry showed bovine chondrocyte viability to be 41% of saline control after seven days. After exposure to 0.125% bupivacaine for up to 60 minutes, the viability of both bovine and human chondrocytes was similar to that of control groups. These data show that prolonged exposure 0.5% and 0.25% bupivacaine solutions are potentially chondrotoxic.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2008 · The Bone & Joint Journal
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    ABSTRACT: Fresh osteochondral allografts are an important treatment option for the repair of full-thickness articular cartilage defects. Viable chondrocytes within the transplanted tissue are considered important to maintaining matrix integrity. The purpose of this study is to determine whether an increase in pH decreases chondrocyte viability during cold storage and whether equilibration of Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM) in 5% CO(2) normalizes pH and increases chondrocyte survival during storage at 4 degrees C. Freshly isolated bovine articular chondrocytes cultured in alginate beads were stored for up to 5 days at 4 degrees C or 37 degrees C in DMEM exposed to ambient air or in DMEM equilibrated with 5% CO(2). Chondrocyte viability was determined by flow cytometry. Physiologic pH was maintained when DMEM was equilibrated with 5% CO(2), while pH increased in ambient air. After 5 days of storage at 4 degrees C, chondrocyte necrosis was higher when stored in ambient air than if equilibrated with 5% CO(2). No decrease in chondrocyte viability was observed with storage at 37 degrees C. In addition, chondrocyte viability in bovine cartilage osteochondral cores was examined after storage for 14 days at 4 degrees C in DMEM with and without HEPES, and with and without 5% CO(2). Under these conditions, the superficial layer of chondrocytes was more viable when stored in DMEM with HEPES or DMEM equilibrated with 5% CO(2) than when stored in DMEM in ambient air. This data shows that an increase in pH decreased bovine chondrocyte viability when refrigerated at 4 degrees C in DMEM, and that optimization of CO(2) normalized pH and improved chondrocyte viability during cold storage in DMEM.
    No preview · Article · May 2008 · Journal of Orthopaedic Research
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    ABSTRACT: Multilineage progenitor cells, diversely designated as MSC, MAPC, or MDSC, have been previously extracted from long-term cultures of fetal and adult organs (e.g., bone marrow, brain, lung, pancreas, muscle, adipose tissue, and several others). The identity and location, within native tissues, of these elusive stem cells are described here. Subsets of endothelial cells and pericytes, which participate in the architecture of human blood vessels, exhibit, following purification to homogeneity, developmental multipotency. The selection from human tissues, by flow cytometry using combinations of positive and negative cell surface markers, of endothelial and perivascular cells is described here. In addition, a rare subset of myoendothelial cells that express markers of both endothelial and myogenic cell lineages and exhibit dramatic myogenic and cardiomyogenic potential has been identified and purified from skeletal muscle. The culture conditions amenable to the long-term proliferation of these blood vessel-associated stem cells in vitro are also described.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2008 · Current protocols in stem cell biology
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    ABSTRACT: We document anatomic, molecular and developmental relationships between endothelial and myogenic cells within human skeletal muscle. Cells coexpressing myogenic and endothelial cell markers (CD56, CD34, CD144) were identified by immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry. These myoendothelial cells regenerate myofibers in the injured skeletal muscle of severe combined immunodeficiency mice more effectively than CD56+ myogenic progenitors. They proliferate long term, retain a normal karyotype, are not tumorigenic and survive better under oxidative stress than CD56+ myogenic cells. Clonally derived myoendothelial cells differentiate into myogenic, osteogenic and chondrogenic cells in culture. Myoendothelial cells are amenable to biotechnological handling, including purification by flow cytometry and long-term expansion in vitro, and may have potential for the treatment of human muscle disease.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2007 · Nature Biotechnology
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    ABSTRACT: We document anatomic, molecular and developmental relationships between endothelial and myogenic cells within human skeletal muscle. Cells coexpressing myogenic and endothelial cell markers (CD56, CD34, CD144) were identified by immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry. These myoendothelial cells regenerate myofibers in the injured skeletal muscle of severe combined immunodeficiency mice more effectively than CD56+ myogenic progenitors. They proliferate long term, retain a normal karyotype, are not tumorigenic and survive better under oxidative stress than CD56+ myogenic cells. Clonally derived myoendothelial cells differentiate into myogenic, osteogenic and chondrogenic cells in culture. Myoendothelial cells are amenable to biotechnological handling, including purification by flow cytometry and long-term expansion in vitro, and may have potential for the treatment of human muscle disease.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2007

Publication Stats

4k Citations
327.38 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1994-2014
    • University of Pittsburgh
      • • Department of Pediatrics
      • • Stem Cell Research Center
      • • Division of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology
      • • Department of Surgery
      • • Department of Dermatology
      • • Thomas E. Starzl Transplantation Institute
      • • Department of Infectious Diseases and Microbiology
      Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States
  • 2008-2012
    • UPMC
      Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States
  • 2007-2012
    • Childrens Hospital of Pittsburgh
      • Department of Pediatrics
      Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States