Tom Jaksic

Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, United States

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Publications (142)357.7 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose: Cloacal exstrophy is associated with multiple comorbidities that affect growth. This report describes long-term growth outcomes in a large cohort of patients with cloacal exstrophy and explores associated comorbidities. Methods: Records of 71 patients with cloacal exstrophy who were treated between 1974 and 2015 were reviewed, and 62 patients with growth data from 2 to 20years of age were included. Genetic sex, gender of rearing, and all heights, weights, and comorbidities were noted for each patient. Height-for-age, weight-for-age, and body mass index z-scores (HAZ, WAZ, and BMIZ) were determined using US Centers for Disease Control 2000 growth data, and average patient z-scores were calculated. Results: There were 904 height and 1301 weight measurements available for 62 patients. 31 were genetically 46,XY, 21 of whom underwent gonadectomy in infancy and were raised female. 46,XX patients, 46,XY male patients, and 46,XY female patients all had median HAZ and WAZ substantially lower than the general population, with median HAZ less than -2, while maintaining normal BMIZ. Short bowel syndrome and enterocystoplasty with intestine were associated with lower z-scores for all parameters. Conclusions: Patients with cloacal exstrophy have significant multifactorial long-term growth failure. These benchmark data can be used to further optimize management. Level of evidence: 2b.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2016 · Journal of Pediatric Surgery
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objectives of this study were to evaluate mortality rates in Very Low Birth Weight (VLBW) infants with surgical necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) by level of available surgical resources and to determine the effect of hospital transfer on mortality.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2016
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose: Patient selection for transplant evaluation in pediatric intestinal failure is predicated on the ability to assess long-term transplant-free survival. In light of trends toward improved survival of intestinal failure patients in recent decades, we sought to determine if the presence of biopsy-proven hepatic cirrhosis or the eventual achievement of enteral autonomy were associated with transplant-free survival. Methods: After IRB approval, records of all pediatric intestinal failure patients (parenteral nutrition (PN) >90days) treated at a single intestinal failure center from February 2002 to September 2014 were reviewed. Chi-squared, Mann-Whitney, and log-rank testing were performed as appropriate. Results: Of 313 patients, 174 eventually weaned off PN. Liver biopsies were available in 126 patients (most common indication was intestinal failure associated liver disease, IFALD), and 23 met histologic criteria for cirrhosis. Transplant-free survival for the whole cohort of 313 patients was 94.7% at 1year and 89.2% at 5years. Among patients with liver biopsies, transplant-free survival in cirrhotics vs. noncirrhotics was 95.5% vs. 94.1% at one year and 95.5% vs. 86.7% at 5years (P=0.29). Transplant-free survival in patients who achieved enteral autonomy compared with patients who remained PN dependent was 98.2% vs. 90.3% at one year and 98.2% vs. 76.9% at 5years (P<0.001). There was no association between cirrhosis and eventual enteral autonomy (P=0.88). Conclusions: Achieving enteral autonomy was associated with improved transplant-free survival in pediatric intestinal failure patients. There was no association between histopathological diagnosis of cirrhosis and transplant-free survival in the cohort. These data suggest that automatic transplant referral may not be required for histopathological diagnosis of cirrhosis alone, and that ongoing efforts aimed at achievement of enteral autonomy remain paramount in pediatric intestinal failure.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Journal of Pediatric Surgery
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose: Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) remains one of the most common underlying diagnoses of short bowel syndrome (SBS) in children. The relationship between the etiology of SBS and ultimate enteral autonomy has not been well studied. This investigation sought to evaluate the rate of achievement of enteral autonomy in SBS patients with and without NEC. Methods: Following IRB approval, 109 patients (2002-2014) at a multidisciplinary intestinal rehabilitation program were reviewed. The primary outcome evaluated was achievement of enteral autonomy (i.e. fully weaning from parenteral nutrition). Patient demographics, primary diagnosis, residual small bowel length, percent expected small bowel length, median serum citrulline level, number of abdominal operations, status of the ileocecal valve (ICV), presence of ileostomy, liver function tests, and treatment for bacterial overgrowth were recorded for each patient. Results: Median age at PN onset was 0weeks [IQR 0-0]. Median residual small bowel length was 33.5cm [IQR 20-70]. NEC was present in 37 of 109 (33.9%) of patients. 45 patients (41%) achieved enteral autonomy after a median PN duration of 15.3 [IQR 7.2-38.4]months. Overall, 64.9% of patients with NEC achieved enteral autonomy compared to 29.2% of patients with a different primary diagnosis (p=0.001, Fig. 1). Patients with NEC remained more likely than those without NEC to achieve enteral autonomy after two (45.5% vs. 12.0%) and four (35.7% vs. 6.3%) years on PN (Fig. 1). Logistic regression analysis demonstrated the following parameters as independent predictors of enteral autonomy: diagnosis of NEC (p<0.002), median serum citrulline level (p<0.02), absence of a jejunostomy or ileostomy (p=0.013), and percent expected small bowel length (p=0.005). Conclusions: Children with SBS because of NEC have a significantly higher likelihood of fully weaning from parenteral nutrition compared to children with other causes of SBS. Additionally, patients with NEC may attain enteral autonomy even after long durations of parenteral support.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Journal of Pediatric Surgery
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Critical illness is associated with significant catabolism, and persistent protein loss correlates with increased morbidity and mortality. Insulin is a potent anticatabolic hormone; high-dose insulin decreases skeletal muscle protein breakdown in critically ill pediatric surgical patients. However, insulin's effect on protein catabolism when given at clinically utilized doses has not been studied. The objective was to evaluate the effect of postoperative tight glycemic control and clinically dosed insulin on skeletal muscle degradation in children after cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. Secondary analysis of a two-center, prospective randomized trial comparing tight glycemic control with standard care. Randomization was stratified by study center. Children 0-36 months who were admitted to the ICU after cardiac surgery requiring cardiopulmonary bypass. In the tight glycemic control arm, insulin was titrated to maintain blood glucose between 80 and 110 mg/dL. Patients in the control arm received standard care. Skeletal muscle breakdown was quantified by a ratio of urinary 3-methylhistidine to urinary creatinine. A total of 561 patients were included: 281 in the tight glycemic control arm and 280 receiving standard care. There was no difference in 3-methylhistidine to creatinine between groups (tight glycemic control, 249 ± 127 vs standard care, 253 ± 112, mean ± SD in μmol/g; p = 0.72). In analyses restricted to the patients in tight glycemic control arm, higher 3-methylhistidine to creatinine correlated with younger age, as well as lower weight, weight-for-age z score, length, and body surface area (p < 0.005 for each) and lower postoperative day 3 serum creatinine (r = -0.17; p = 0.02). Sex, prealbumin, and albumin were not associated with 3-methylhistidine to creatinine. During urine collection, 245 patients (87%) received insulin. However, any insulin exposure did not impact 3-methylhistidine to creatinine (t test, p = 0.45), and there was no dose-dependent effect of insulin on 3-methylhistidine to creatinine (r = -0.03; p = 0.60). Although high-dose insulin has an anabolic effect in experimental conditions, at doses necessary to achieve normoglycemia, insulin appears to have no discernible impact on skeletal muscle degradation in critically ill pediatric cardiac surgical patients.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2015 · Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To describe the natural history of growth patterns and nutritional support in a cohort of infants with short bowel syndrome (SBS), and to characterize risk factors for suboptimal growth. A retrospective chart review of 51 infants with SBS followed by our intestinal rehabilitation program. Weight and length data were converted to age, sex, and gestational age-standardized weight-for-age z-scores (WAZ) and length-for-age z-scores (LAZ). Median (IQR) age at enrollment was 8.3 (0.9-14.6) weeks, and follow-up duration was 10 (8-13) months, including both inpatient and outpatient visits. Both WAZ and LAZ followed a U-shaped curve, with median for newborns (WAZ = -0.28; LAZ = -0.41), a nadir at age 6 months (-2.38 and -2.18), and near recovery by age 1 year (-0.72 and -0.76). Using multivariable regression analysis, diagnosis of necrotizing enterocolitis was independently associated with significant decrements of WAZ (-0.76 ± 0.32; P = .02) and LAZ (-1.24 ± 0.32; P = .0001). ≥2 central line-associated bloodstream infections was also independently associated with decreases in WAZ (-0.95 ± 0.33; P = .004) and LAZ (-0.86 ± 0.32; P = .007). In a cohort of infants with SBS, we observed a unique pattern of somatic growth, with concomitant deceleration of both WAZ and LAZ and near recovery by 1 year. Inflammatory conditions (necrotizing enterocolitis and central line-associated bloodstream infections) represent potentially modifiable risk factors for suboptimal somatic growth. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2015 · The Journal of pediatrics
  • Tom Jaksic
    No preview · Article · Mar 2015 · Journal of the American College of Surgeons
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Intestinal failure-associated liver disease (IFALD) contributes to significant morbidity in pediatric patients with intestinal failure (IF); however, the use of parenteral nutrition (PN) with a fish oil-based intravenous (IV) emulsion (FO) has been associated with biochemical reversal of cholestasis and improved outcomes. Unfortunately, FO increases the complexity of care: because it can be administered only under Food and Drug Administration compassionate use protocols requiring special monitoring, it is not available as a 3-in-1 solution and is more expensive than comparable soy-based IV lipid emulsion (SO). Because of these pragmatic constraints, a series of patient families were switched to low-dose (1 g kg day) SO following biochemical resolution of cholestasis. The present study examines whether reversal of cholestasis and somatic growth are maintained following this transition. The present study is a chart review of all children with IFALD who switched from FO to SO following resolution of cholestasis. Variables are presented as medians (interquartile ranges). Comparisons were performed using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Seven patients ages 25.9 (16.2-43.2) months were transitioned to SO following reversal of cholestasis using FO. At a median follow-up of 13.9 (4.3-50.1) months, there were no significant differences between pretransition and post-transition serum alanine and aspartate aminotransferases, direct bilirubin, and weight-for-age z scores. Because of recurrence of cholestasis, 1 patient was restarted on FO after 4 months on SO. Biochemical reversal of IFALD and growth were preserved after transition from FO to SO in 6 of 7 (86%) patients. Given the challenges associated with the use of FO, SO may be a viable alternative in select patients with home PN.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2015 · Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
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    Full-text · Dataset · Jan 2015
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    Full-text · Dataset · Jan 2015
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The distribution of surgical care of very low birth weight (VLBW) neonates among centers with varying specialized care remains unknown. This study quantifies operations performed on VLBW neonates nationally with respect to center type. VLBW neonates born 2009-2012 were assessed using a prospectively collected multi-center database encompassing 80% of all VLBW neonates in the United States. Surgical centers were categorized based on availability of pediatric surgery (PS) and anesthesia (PA). 48,711 major procedures (29,512 abdominal operations) were performed on 24,318 neonates. Of all patients, 20,892 (85.9%) underwent surgery at centers with PS and PA available on site. 1663 (6.8%) patients were treated at centers with neither specialty on site. Neonates requiring complex operations were more likely to receive surgery at centers with both PS and PA on staff than those requiring non-complex operations (95.6% vs 93.6%). This study confirms that most operations on VLBW neonates in the U.S. are performed at centers with pediatric surgeons and anesthesiologists on staff. Further research is necessary, however, to elucidate why a significant minority of this challenging population continues to be managed at centers without pediatric specialists. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2014 · Journal of Pediatric Surgery
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Infants with serious congenital heart disease (CHD) appear to be at increased risk for necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). This study aimed to quantify the incidence and mortality of NEC among very low birth weight (VLBW) neonates with serious CHD, and identify specific CHD diagnoses at the highest risk for developing NEC. Data were prospectively collected on 257,794 VLBW (401 to 1,500 g) neonates born from 2006 to 2011 and admitted to 674 Vermont Oxford Network US centers. Entries were coded for specific CHD diagnoses and reviewed for completeness and consistency. Survival was defined as alive in-hospital at 1 year or discharge. Of eligible neonates, 1,931 had serious CHD. Of these, 253 (13%) developed NEC (vs 9% in infants without CHD, adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 1.80, p < 0.0001). Mortality for neonates with CHD and no NEC was 34%, vs 55% for those with CHD and NEC (p < 0.0001). Both groups of CHD patients had higher mortality than infants with NEC without CHD (28%, p < 0.0001). Although NEC mortality overall decreases with higher birth weight, mortality for NEC and CHD together does not. The incidence of NEC is significantly higher in VLBW neonates when CHD is present. The mortality of CHD and NEC together is substantially higher than that with each disease alone. Infants with atrioventricular canal appear to have higher risk for developing NEC than other CHD diagnoses. In addition to providing benchmark incidence and mortality data, these findings may have utility in the further study of the pathophysiology of NEC. Copyright © 2015 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2014 · Journal of the American College of Surgeons
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pediatric intestinal failure (IF) patients require many surgical procedures over the course of their illness. The number and variety of surgical procedures, as well as patient characteristics associated with this burden of surgical procedures, remain largely unknown.Methods Data from a large, multicenter retrospective study of pediatric intestinal failure (PIFCON) were reviewed. Infants from 14 multidisciplinary IF programs were enrolled, with study entry defined as PN dependence for > 60 days.ResultsA total of 272 infants were followed for a median (IQR) of 33.5 (16.2, 51.5) months, during which time they underwent 4.0 (3.0, 6.0) abdominal surgical procedures. Intestinal resections were performed in 88/97 (92%) necrotizing enterocolitis patients versus 138/175 (80%) in non-NEC patients (P < 0.05). Patients who underwent ≥ 5 operations had more septic events, compared to those who underwent ≤ 2 operations (3 (1, 6) versus 1 (0, 3), respectively, P < 0.01). Patients treated at centers with transplantation capability had lower odds of undergoing > 2 abdominal operations [OR 0.37 (95% CI: 0.21, 0.65)] after multivariable adjustment.Conclusions Individual and center-specific characteristics may help determine surgical practices experienced by infants with IF. Further study may delineate additional details about the nature of these characteristics, with the goal of optimizing patient care and minimizing individual and overall healthcare burden.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2014 · Journal of Pediatric Surgery
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose: Although a few techniques for lengthening intestine by mechanical stretch have been described, they are relatively complex, and the majority involve placement of an intraluminal device. Ideally, techniques applicable to humans would be easy to perform and extraluminal to avoid the potential for mucosal injury. This study of distraction enterogenesis used an extraluminal, radially self-expanding shape-memory polymer cylinder and a simple operative approach to both elongate intestine and grow new tissue. Methods: Young Sprague Dawley rats (250-350 g) underwent Roux-en-Y isolation of a small intestinal limb and were divided in three groups: no further manipulation (Control 1, C1); placement of a nonexpanding device (Control 2, C2); or placement of a radially expanding device by the limb (Experimental, Exp). For C2 and Exp animals, the blind end of the limb was wrapped around the radially expanding cylindrical device with the limb-end sutured back to the limb-side. Bowel length was measured at operation and at necropsy (14 days) both in-situ and ex-vivo under standard tension (6g weight). Change in length is shown as mean ± standard deviation. A blinded gastrointestinal pathologist reviewed histology and recorded multiple measures of intestinal adaptation. The DNA to protein ratio was quantified as a surrogate for cellular proliferation. Changes in length, histologic measures, and DNA:protein were compared using analysis of variance, with significance set at P<0.05. Results: The length of the Roux limb in situ increased significantly in Exp animals (n=8, 29.0 ± 5.8mm) compared with C1 animals (n=5, -11.2 ± 9.0mm, P<0.01). The length of the Roux limb ex vivo under standard tension increased in the Exp group (25.8 ± 4.2mm) compared with the C2 group (n=6, -4.3 ± 6.0, P<0.01). There were no differences in histologic measures of bowel adaptation between the groups, namely villous height and width, crypt depth, crypt density, and crypt fission rate (all P ≥ 0.08). Muscularis mucosal thickness was also not different (P=0.25). There was no difference in DNA:protein between groups (P=0.47). Conclusion: An extraluminally placed, radially expanding shape-memory polymer cylinder successfully lengthened intestine, without damaging mucosa. Lack of difference in muscularis thickness and a constant DNA:protein ratio suggests that this process may be related to actual growth rather than mere stretch. This study demonstrated a simple approach that warrants further study aiming at potential clinical applicability.
    No preview · Conference Paper · Oct 2014
  • No preview · Conference Paper · Oct 2014
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In a large cohort of children with intestinal failure (IF), we sought to determine the cumulative incidence of achieving enteral autonomy and identify patient and institutional characteristics associated with enteral autonomy. A multicenter, retrospective cohort analysis from the Pediatric Intestinal Failure Consortium was performed. IF was defined as severe congenital or acquired gastrointestinal diseases during infancy with dependence on parenteral nutrition (PN) >60 days. Enteral autonomy was defined as PN discontinuation >3 months. A total of 272 infants were followed for a median (IQR) of 33.5 (16.2-51.5) months. Enteral autonomy was achieved in 118 (43%); 36 (13%) remained PN dependent and 118 (43%) patients died or underwent transplantation. Multivariable analysis identified necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC; OR 2.42, 95% CI 1.33-4.47), care at an IF site without an associated intestinal transplantation program (OR 2.73, 95% CI 1.56-4.78), and an intact ileocecal valve (OR 2.80, 95% CI 1.63-4.83) as independent risk factors for enteral autonomy. A second model (n = 144) that included only patients with intraoperatively measured residual small bowel length found NEC (OR 3.44, 95% CI 1.36-8.71), care at a nonintestinal transplantation center (OR 6.56, 95% CI 2.53-16.98), and residual small bowel length (OR 1.04 cm, 95% CI 1.02-1.06 cm) to be independently associated with enteral autonomy. A substantial proportion of infants with IF can achieve enteral autonomy. Underlying NEC, preserved ileocecal valve, and longer bowel length are associated with achieving enteral autonomy. It is likely that variations in institutional practices and referral patterns also affect outcomes in children with IF. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Full-text · Conference Paper · Oct 2014
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background Malnutrition is prevalent among congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) survivors. We aimed to describe the nutritional status and factors that impact growth over the 12-months following discharge from the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) in this cohort. Methods CDH survivors, who were discharged from the PICU from 2000 to 2010 with follow-up of at least 12 months, were included. Nutritional intake, anthropometric, and clinical variables were recorded. Multivariable linear regression was used to determine factors associated with weight-for-age Z-scores (WAZ) at 12 months. Results Data from 110 infants, 67% male, 50% patch repair, were analyzed. Median (IQR) WAZ for the cohort was − 1.4 (− 2.4 to − 0.3) at PICU discharge and − 0.4 (− 1.3 to 0.2) at 12-months. The percentage of infants with significant malnutrition (WAZ < − 2) decreased from 26% to 8.5% (p < 0.001). Patch repair (p = 0.009), protein intake < 2.3 g/kg/day (p = 0.014), and birth weight (BW) < 2.5 kg (p < 0.001) were associated with lower WAZ at 12-months. Conclusions CDH survivors had a significantly improved nutritional status in the 12-months after PICU discharge. Patch repair, lower BW, and inadequate protein intake were significant predictors of lower WAZ at 12-months. A minimum protein intake in the PICU of 2.3 g/kg/day was essential to ensure optimal growth in this cohort.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2014 · Journal of Pediatric Surgery
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose Patients with intestinal failure (IF) are known to have impaired absorption of nutrients required for maintenance of skeletal mass. Rates and risk factors of low bone mineral density (BMD) are unknown in pediatric IF patients. Methods Following IRB approval, patients with IF having undergone DXA scans were identified and laboratory, clinical, and nutritional intake variables were recorded. Low BMD was defined by a z-score of less than or equal to − 2.0. Univariate followed by multivariable regression analysis was performed. Results Sixty-five patients underwent a total of 99 routine DXA scans. Twenty-seven (41%) had vitamin D deficiency, 22 (34%) had low BMD, and nineteen (29%) had a history of fractures. Variables noted to be associated with low BMD (p < 0.1) on univariate analysis were considered for multivariable regression. Multivariable regression identified WAZ and serum calcium levels (p < 0.05) as independent predictors of low BMD z-score. None of the other evaluated factors were associated with the risk of low BMD. Low BMD was not associated with risk of fractures. Conclusion There is a significant incidence of low BMD in children with IF. WAZ and lower serum calcium levels are associated with risk of low BMD. Additional long term prospective studies are needed to further characterize the risk factors associated with low BMD.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2014 · Journal of Pediatric Surgery
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Children with intestinal failure (IF) frequently require gastrostomy tubes (GTs) for long-term nutrition support. Risk factors for persistent gastrocutaneous fistulae (GCFs) in pediatric patients with IF are largely unknown but may include underlying nutrition status and duration of indwelling GT. Materials and methods: Records of patients with IF having undergone GT removal and allowed a trial at spontaneous closure were reviewed. Nonparametric continuous variables were analyzed using the Wilcoxon rank sum test. Post hoc analysis was performed to identify the optimal threshold of GT duration predicting probability of spontaneous closure identified using receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Results: Fifty-nine children with IF undergoing GT removal were identified. Spontaneous closure occurred in 36 (61%) sites, while 23 (39%) underwent operative closure at a median 67 days after GT removal. The duration of indwelling GT was significantly shorter in the spontaneous closure group (11.5 vs 21 months, P = .002). Of 33 GT indwelling for ≤18 months, 28 (85%) closed spontaneously, compared with only 9 of 26 (35%) with duration >18 months (P < .001). With GCF persisting beyond 7 days, only 21% (6/28) of sites closed spontaneously, but this dropped to 6% (1/18) of cases with concurrent GT duration >18 months. Conclusions: Of the risk factors evaluated, only prolonged GT duration was associated with an increased likelihood of failure to close spontaneously. It is significantly less likely in pediatric patients with IF in whom GCF persists >7 days, particularly if the duration of GT is >18 months. Relatively earlier operative closure should be considered in this group.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2014 · Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose Citrulline, a non-protein amino acid synthesized by enterocytes, is a biomarker of bowel length and the capacity to wean from parenteral nutrition. However, the potentially variant effect of jejunal versus ileal excision on plasma citrulline concentration [CIT] has not been studied. This investigation compared serial serum [CIT] and mucosal adaptive potential after proximal versus distal small bowel resection. Methods Enterally-fed Sprague-Dawley rats underwent sham operation or 50% small bowel resection. Either proximal (PR) or distal (DR). [CIT] was measured at operation and weekly for 8 weeks. At necropsy, histologic features reflecting bowel adaptation were evaluated. Results By week 6-7, [CIT] in both resection groups significantly decreased from baseline (P < 0.05) and was significantly lower than the concentration in sham animals (P < 0.05). There was no difference in [CIT] between PR and DR at any point. Villus height and crypt density were higher in the PR than in the DR group (P ≤ 0.02). Conclusion CIT] effectively differentiates animals undergoing major bowel resection from those with preserved intestinal length. The region of intestinal resection was not a determinant of [CIT]. The remaining bowel in the PR group demonstrated greater adaptive potential histologically. [CIT] is a robust biomarker for intestinal length, irrespective of location of small intestine lost.
    Full-text · Article · May 2014 · Journal of Pediatric Surgery

Publication Stats

4k Citations
357.70 Total Impact Points


  • 1988-2012
    • Harvard Medical School
      • Department of Surgery
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2008-2011
    • Harvard University
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2010
    • Mount Sinai School of Medicine
      • Department of Medicine
      Manhattan, New York, United States
  • 2004-2010
    • Boston Children's Hospital
      • • Center for Advanced Intestinal Rehabilitation
      • • Department of Radiology
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2009
    • Yale University
      New Haven, Connecticut, United States
  • 2000-2003
    • University of Massachusetts Boston
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2002
    • Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 1995-2000
    • Baylor College of Medicine
      • Department of Pediatrics
      Houston, Texas, United States
  • 1998
    • University of Texas Medical School
      • Department of Pediatrics
      Houston, Texas, United States
  • 1996
    • Texas Children's Hospital
      Houston, Texas, United States
  • 1993
    • SickKids
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada
  • 1987
    • Massachusetts Institute of Technology
      • School of Science
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States