[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report a case of pulmonary aspergillosis in lung transplant recipient who was successfully treated with inhalation administration of anti-fungal agent. The case was 33-year-old female. Two years ago, she had received lung transplant because of lymphangioleiomyomatosis. One year ago, she had diagnosed of pulmonary aspergillosis and successfully treated with micafungin and itraconazole. Then she had been continuous administered with itraconazole. In June 20xx, she had nausea and vomiting and was diagnosed of viral enteritis. Although abdominal symptoms were relieved, ground glass opacity was discovered in her right lung. Bronchoscopic examination revealed ulceration of bronchus with white necrotic substance. Laboratory culture test demonstrated Aspergillus spp. Finally she was diagnosed of recurrent pulmonary aspergillosis. First, she was treated with intravascular administration of micafungin. Then, inhalation administration of liposomal amphotericin B was changed. Ground glass opacity and bronchial region of pulmonary aspergillosis was improved. Thereafter, inhalation of amphotericin B was continued and no recurrence of pulmonary aspergillosis has been found. Inhalation of anti-fungal agent could be an option for pulmonary aspergillosis.
No preview · Article · Feb 2013 · The Japanese journal of antibiotics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We are occasionally presented with patients with unclassifiable interstitial pneumonia of unknown etiology. Idiopathic pulmonary upper lobe fibrosis (IPUF) does not fit any of the currently defined subsets of idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (IIPs). This study was performed to examine clinical, functional, and pathological characteristics of IPUF.
We present 9 cases of histologically confirmed IPUF. The clinical and histological characteristics of the 9 patients were evaluated. The baseline respiratory function of all patients was measured. There were 7 patients whose forced vital capacity (FVC) had been monitored for at least a year who were selected to quantify the yearly decline in FVC.
All patients were slender, with a body mass index of 16.0-19.8kg/m(2). Seven patients had a history of pneumothorax. Six patients died 1.8 to 5.7 years after the onset of the first symptoms. Fundamental histological features were intraalveolar collagen deposition and densely packed elastic fibers in the subpleural areas. These findings are the same as those seen in pleuroparenchymal fibroelastosis. However, the visceral pleura was thickened with dense collagen in only 2 patients, and pleural thickening was localized, if present, in the remaining 7 patients. Ventilatory impairment was also a characteristic. The time course decline of FVC was rapid and almost linear. The median yearly decline in FVC was -20.3% (range, -7.7% to -26.5%), which was more rapid than that reported for chronic fibrosing interstitial pneumonias such as idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.
IPUF is a unique pulmonary fibrosis that results in rapid deterioration of ventilatory function and poor prognosis.
No preview · Article · Sep 2012 · Respiratory Investigation
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The prognosis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is poor, and it deteriorates when it is complicated with pulmonary hypertension (PH). Forced vital capacity (FVC) is a useful parameter for evaluating the disease status of interstitial pneumonia (IP). However, in patients with IP complicated with emphysema, the disease severity can be overlooked because of relatively well preserved FVC. We investigated the correlation between the maximum pressure gradient (PG) in the tricuspid valve using echocardiographic measurements and pulmonary function tests in patients with IP without emphysema and in those with IP with emphysema. There was an inverse correlation between PG and %FVC in patients with IP without emphysema. However, the above inverse correlation between PG and %FVC mentioned above disappeared when analyzed in the whole cohort of patients (n = 42) consisting of IP without emphysema (n = 35) and IP with emphysema (n = 7). Patients with IP without emphysema did not show a correlation between PG and %FEV1, but when analyzed using the whole cohort of patients an inverse correlation between PG and %FEV1 was observed (p<0.05). In clinical practice, not only FVC, but also %FEV1 is a valuable parameter in investigating the complication of emphysema and PH in patients with chronic idiopathic interstitial pneumonia.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A 18-year-old man complaining of remittent fever and nonproductive cough visited a nearby clinic. He did not recover despite treatment of oral azithromycin. We admitted him because his chest radiograph showed consolidation in the left upper lung field. We diagnosed his pneumonia as co-infection by non-bacterial and bacterial pathogens, and initiated treatment with intravenous ampicillin and oral clarithromycin. On the 3rd day after admission his symptom had not improved, so his treatment was changed to intravenous panipenem/betamipron and erythromycin. Ciprofloxacin was administered intravenously because consolidative shadows with atelectasis increased on the chest radiograph on the 6th day. Clinical symptoms such as fever, CRP and chest radiograph findings were rapidly improved after the start of ciprofloxacin treatment. He was discharged on the 22nd hospital day. Since serum antibody titer against Mycoplasma pneumoniae was elevated to x 20,480 on the 13th hospital day, it is confirmed that causative pathogen was macrolide-ineffective Mycoplasma Pneumoniae.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background. Pleomorphic carcinoma is a histologic subset of lung cancers in the revised classification proposed by WHO in 1999. There maybe many lung cancers that had been previously diagnosed as large cell carcinoma, but are now reclassified as pleomorphic carcinoma. Cases. We reported 52- (patient 1) and 76-year-old men (patient 2), and a 80-year-old woman (patient 3). The former 2 patients were smokers with pleomorphic carcinoma composed of large cell carcinoma with giant cells and spindle cells, presenting as a huge mass invading the pleura. In patient 3, a non-smoker, pleomorphic carcinoma measuring 2.5 cm in diameter consisted of adenocarcinoma and spindle-shaped tumor cells as histologic components. Although patient 2 received anti-cancer chemotherapy, response was poor, he rapidly deteriorated and died 2 months after diagnosis. Patients 1 and 3 underwent surgical resection, and are alive without relapse 11 and 5 months after surgery, respectively. In patient 1, elevated levels of serum G-CSF and CRP in addition to peripheral leukocytosis normalized after surgical resection, suggesting that pleomorphic carcinoma of patient 1 was G-CSF-producing. Conclusion. Pleomorphic carcinoma is a rare lung cancer with many histologic variations. We need to collect more cases of pleomorphic carcinoma in order to clarify the clinical characteristics of each variant of histology.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A 79-year old woman underwent total gastrectomy under the diagnosis of gastric cancer in Feb. 2003. In the beginning of Jan. 2005, she noticed hemosputum and was admitted to our hospital. Chest radiograph and CT disclosed bilateral upper lobe-dominant nodular opacities in the subpleural areas and ground-glass opacities in right S6. Transbronchial lung biopsy was performed, but no useful information for the diagnosis was obtained. Ziehl-Neelsen stain was negative for the smear of the sputum at admission, but weakly stained acid-fast bacilli were grown in the MGIT culture. By the analysis of mycolic acid and menaquinone of the cell membrane, the bacilli were identified as Tsukamurella. Since she was asymptomatic and repeated sputum examination revealed negative bacilli, she has been observed at the outpatient clinic without any treatment.
No preview · Article · Aug 2006 · Kekkaku: [Tuberculosis]
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background. Gefitinib is administered to patients with adenocarcinoma of the lung with poor response to previous anticancer chemotherapies. However, adverse effects such as diarrhea, are serious problems for those patients. Case. A 71-year-old woman with adenocarcinoma of the lung was admitted to our hospital (clinical stage IIIB) in February 2002. She underwent anticancer chemotherapy, including platinum, repeatedly. Since the response was poor, she was treated with 250 mg gefitinib daily. As severe diarrhea developed, gefitinib was stopped for 7 days, and gefitinib with a reduced dose (250 mg/every second day) was given. Three months later, partial response was obtained with a 44% reduction rate in tumor size by RECIST (Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors). Conclusion. There are no reports on patients with adenocarcinoma of the lung in whom successful clinical effect without adverse effects were observed by alternate day administration of gefitinib. After considering for sensitivity to gefitinib, it is necessary to study the relationship between pharmacokinetics of gefitinib with alternate day administration and clinical effects as well as the standard administration. Such studies would contribute to advances in increased clinical efficacy of gefitinib with reduced economical problems.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An autopsy case of fibrotic non-specific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP) is herein reported. A 54-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital because of dry cough and fever that had continued for a month. Her chest radiograph showed diffuse reticular shadows in both lower lung fields. Analyses of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) showed an increase in the percentage of lymphocytes and a decrease in CD4/CD8 ratio. Video-assisted thoracoscopic (VATS) lung biopsy revealed that she had fibrotic NSIP. She was treated with corticosteroid with a transient increase in vital capacity, but her condition gradually deteriorated, associated with a decrease in lymphocytes and an increase in CD4/CD8 ratio shown by repeated measurement of BALF. She died 6 years after the diagnosis. The autopsied lungs showed diffuse consolidated lesions predominantly in both lower lung fields, without honeycombing. Histologically, the lung parenchyma was diffusely involved with homogeneous fibrosis, compatible with fibrotic NSIP. However, mononuclear cell infiltration was less severe, and collagen deposition was more extensive than shown by the VATS specimen. There is a possibility that the CD4/CD8 ratio in BALF may reflect the severity of fibrosis in the lung parenchyma. Histological differences between autopsy and biopsy specimens in this case could help to elucidate the natural course of fibrotic NSIP.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A 17 year-old youth presented with swelling of both sides of neck after a fight with a friend. He had been sick with an upper respiratory tract infection for a few days with frequent coughing. Chest radiography showed subcutaneous and mediastinal emphysema. Neck CT at the level of C7 showed air around the trachea, extending to the subcutaneous tissue and the epidural space through the intervertebral foramen. His height was 180 cm and his weight 55 kg, and he had a 181 cm arm span. He had scoliosis and arachnodactyly, and ultrasonic cardiography demonstrated mitral and tricuspid regurgitation. These findings agreed partially with the clinical criteria of Marfan syndrome. Thus, forme fruste of Marfan syndrome was suspected. A rapid rise of airway pressure induced by a coughing attack and loud shouting during the fight probably caused the laceration of the connective tissue in the airway, resulting in mediastinal and epidural emphysema. In this case report, CT at the C7 level satisfactorily identified air in the mediastinum extending to the epidural space through intervertebral foramen.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We investigated the effects of a novel oral neutrophil elastase inhibitor (ONO-6818) on acute lung injury and pulmonary emphysema induced by human neutrophil elastase (HNE). Young male Wistar rats were divided into four treatment groups: (1) control group (saline); (2) HNE group (HNE 200 U + 0.5% carboxymethyl-cellulose [solution for ONO-6818]); (3) low-dose ONO-6818 group (HNE 200 U + ONO-6818 10 mg/kg); and (4) high-dose ONO-6818 group (HNE 200 U + ONO-6818 100 mg/kg). Saline and HNE were applied via the trachea using a microsprayer. ONO-6818 was administered orally 1 hour before HNE application. Six hours after HNE application, neutrophil counts and hemoglobin concentration in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and lung tissue myeloperoxidase activity were determined. Eight weeks after the application, FRC, TLC, lung compliance, and mean linear intercept were estimated. ONO-6818 attenuated dose-dependently HNE-induced increases in lung myeloperoxidase activity, hemoglobin, and neutrophil count in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Furthermore, it significantly attenuated HNE-induced increases in FRC, TLC, lung compliance, and mean linear intercept. ONO-6818 inhibited acute lung injury induced by HNE by minimizing lung hemorrhage and accumulation of neutrophils in the lung. ONO-6818 also inhibited the development of HNE-induced emphysematous changes including lung hyperinflation, degradation of elastic recoil, and airspace enlargement.
Preview · Article · Sep 2002 · American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine